Factors affecting pediatric isotonic fluid resuscitation efficiency: a randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of syringe size.
ABSTRACT: Goal-directed therapy guidelines for pediatric septic shock resuscitation recommend fluid delivery at speeds in excess of that possible through use of regular fluid infusion pumps. In our experience, syringes are commonly used by health care providers (HCPs) to achieve rapid fluid resuscitation in a pediatric fluid resuscitation scenario. At present, it is unclear which syringe size health care providers should use when performing fluid resuscitation to achieve maximal fluid resuscitation efficiency. The objective of this study was therefore to determine if an optimal syringe size exists for conducting manual pediatric fluid resuscitation.This 48-participant parallel group randomized controlled trial included 4 study arms (10, 20, 30, 60 mL syringe size groups). Eligible participants were HCPs from McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton, Canada blinded to the purpose of the trial. Consenting participants were randomized using a third party technique. Following a standardization procedure, participants administered 900 mL (60 mL/kg) of isotonic saline to a simulated 15 kg child using prefilled provided syringes of the allocated size in rapid sequence. Primary outcome was total time to administer the 900 mL and this data was collected through video review by two blinded outcome assessors. Sample size was predetermined based upon a primary outcome analysis using one-way ANOVA.12 participants were randomized to each group (n=48) and all completed trial protocol to analysis. Analysis was conducted according to intention to treat principles. A significant difference in fluid resuscitation time (in seconds) was found between syringe size group means: 10 mL, 563s [95% CI 521; 606]; 20 mL, 506s [95% CI 64; 548]; 30 mL, 454s [95% CI 412; 596]; 60 mL, 455s [95% CI 413; 497] (p<0.001).The syringe size used when performing manual pediatric fluid resuscitation has a significant impact on fluid resuscitation speed, in a setting where fluid filled syringes are continuously available. Greatest efficiency was achieved with 30 or 60 mL syringes.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01494116.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Health Care Providers (HCPs) report that manual techniques of intravascular fluid resuscitation are commonly used during pediatric shock management. The optimal pediatric fluid resuscitation technique is currently unknown. We sought to determine HCP test-retest reliability (repeatability) and inter-subject variability of fluid resuscitation performance outcomes to inform the design of future studies. METHODS: Fifteen consenting HCPs from McMaster Children's Hospital, in Hamilton, Canada participated in this single-arm interventional trial. Participants were oriented to a non-clinical model representing a 15 kg toddler, which incorporated a 22-gauge IV catheter. Following a standardization procedure, participants administered 600 mL (40 mL/kg) of saline to the simulated child under emergency conditions using prefilled 60-mL syringes. Each participant completed 5 testing trials. All testing was video recorded, with fluid administration time outcome data (in seconds) extracted from trial videos by two blinded outcome assessors. Data describing catheter dislodgement events, volume of saline effectively delivered, and participant demographics were also collected. The primary outcome of fluid administration time test-retest reliability was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and intra-class correlation (ICC), with good reliability defined as ICC > 0.70. RESULTS: Differences in HCP fluid administration times are attributable to inter-subject variability rather than intra-subject variability based on one-way ANOVA analysis, F (14,60)?= 43.125; p < 0.001. Test-retest reliability of subjects was excellent with ICC = 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.99); p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Findings demonstrate excellent test-retest reliability of HCP fluid resuscitation performance in a setting involving a non-clinical model. Investigators can justify a single evaluation of HCP performance in future studies.
Project description:Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures.Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device, were studied. Twenty operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: (1) vacuum (torr), (2) time to vacuum (s), (3) hand force to generate vacuum (torr-cm2), (4) operator difficulty during aspiration, (5) biopsy yield (mg), and (6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm).Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (P<0.002). Twenty-milliliter syringes achieved a vacuum of -517 torr but required far more strength to aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (P<0.002). The 10-ml syringe generated only 15% less vacuum (-435 torr) than the 20-ml device and required much less hand strength. The mechanical syringe generated identical vacuum at all syringe sizes with less hand force (P<0.002) and provided significantly enhanced needle control (P<0.002).To optimize patient safety and control of the needle, and to maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered.
Project description:Medication dosing errors remain commonplace and may result in potentially life-threatening outcomes, particularly for pediatric patients where dosing often requires weight-based calculations. Novel medication delivery systems that may reduce dosing errors resonate with national healthcare priorities. Our goal was to evaluate novel, prefilled medication syringes labeled with color-coded volumes corresponding to the weight-based dosing of the Broselow Tape, compared to conventional medication administration, in simulated prehospital pediatric resuscitation scenarios.We performed a prospective, block-randomized, cross-over study, where 10 full-time paramedics each managed two simulated pediatric arrests in situ using either prefilled, color-coded syringes (intervention) or their own medication kits stocked with conventional ampoules (control). Each paramedic was paired with two emergency medical technicians to provide ventilations and compressions as directed. The ambulance patient compartment and the intravenous medication port were video recorded. Data were extracted from video review by blinded, independent reviewers.Median time to delivery of all doses for the intervention and control groups was 34 (95% CI: 28-39) seconds and 42 (95% CI: 36-51) seconds, respectively (difference=9 [95% CI: 4-14] seconds). Using the conventional method, 62 doses were administered with 24 (39%) critical dosing errors; using the prefilled, color-coded syringe method, 59 doses were administered with 0 (0%) critical dosing errors (difference=39%, 95% CI: 13-61%).A novel color-coded, prefilled syringe decreased time to medication administration and significantly reduced critical dosing errors by paramedics during simulated prehospital pediatric resuscitations.
Project description:The Institute of Medicine has called on the US health care system to identify and reduce medical errors. Unfortunately, medication dosing errors remain commonplace and may result in potentially life-threatening outcomes, particularly for pediatric patients when dosing requires weight-based calculations. Novel medication delivery systems that may reduce dosing errors resonate with national health care priorities. Our goal was to evaluate novel, prefilled medication syringes labeled with color-coded volumes corresponding to the weight-based dosing of the Broselow Tape, compared with conventional medication administration, in simulated pediatric emergency department (ED) resuscitation scenarios.We performed a prospective, block-randomized, crossover study in which 10 emergency physician and nurse teams managed 2 simulated pediatric arrest scenarios in situ, using either prefilled, color-coded syringes (intervention) or conventional drug administration methods (control). The ED resuscitation room and the intravenous medication port were video recorded during the simulations. Data were extracted from video review by blinded, independent reviewers.Median time to delivery of all doses for the conventional and color-coded delivery groups was 47 seconds (95% confidence interval [CI] 40 to 53 seconds) and 19 seconds (95% CI 18 to 20 seconds), respectively (difference=27 seconds; 95% CI 21 to 33 seconds). With the conventional method, 118 doses were administered, with 20 critical dosing errors (17%); with the color-coded method, 123 doses were administered, with 0 critical dosing errors (difference=17%; 95% CI 4% to 30%).A novel color-coded, prefilled syringe decreased time to medication administration and significantly reduced critical dosing errors by emergency physician and nurse teams during simulated pediatric ED resuscitations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:At the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, more than 6000 inpatients per year undergo IV saline flushes by prefilled syringe to assess and maintain patency of IV tubing. In studies involving adults, it has been reported that volatile substances may leach from syringe materials into the saline, leading to taste and/or odour disturbances. OBJECTIVE:To determine the incidence of taste and/or odour disturbances in pediatric patients after flushing of IV tubing with 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) from prefilled syringes. METHODS:Inpatients aged 5-18 years who had undergone routine flushing of central or peripheral IV tubing with commercially available prefilled NS syringes were interviewed. Children aged 5-10 years used a visual hedonic scale to rate taste and odour sensations, and those aged 11-18 years used a numeric rating scale. RESULTS:During the study period (April to July 2011), a total of 104 pediatric inpatients (21 aged 5-10 years and 83 aged 11-18 years) underwent NS flushing of central (10 patients [10%]) or peripheral (94 patients [90%]) tubing. For 100 of these patients, BD Posiflush NaCl 0.9% 10-mL sterile prefilled syringes were used, and for 4 patients BD Saline XS NaCl 0.9% 10-mL sterile prefilled syringes were used. Taste and/or odour disturbances were reported by 76 (73%) of the patients. Twelve patients described more than one taste or odour sensation. Taste and odour disturbances were detected by children in both age groups. CONCLUSIONS:Flushing of IV tubing with prefilled NS syringes resulted in taste and/or odour disturbances in a pediatric population.
Project description:Subcutaneous fat biopsy is useful for the evaluation of amyloidosis, environmental contaminants, lipid metabolism, genetic studies and diabetes research. The present study examined new technologies for fat biopsy.Subcutaneous fat biopsy in 10 high-risk individuals was randomized to (i) a 10 ml reciprocating procedure device (RPD) mechanical syringe or (ii) a 60 ml vacuum syringe. Outcome measures included pain by the 10 cm Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS), adequacy of biopsied tissue, complications and diagnosis. The operator's ability to control syringes was quantitatively measured by the linear displacement method.Both syringes permitted facile aspiration of subcutaneous fat with adequate sample without complications. The mechanical and the vacuum syringes enhanced control of the needle compared to conventional syringes, reducing unintended forward penetration by 75% (3.6 ± 0.5 mm) and 87% (12.0 ± 1.4 mm), respectively (p < 0.0001). Free adipose cells were obtained in abundance as well as columnar biopsies containing intact blood vessels and connective tissue septa permitting precise microhistological examination. One case of primary AL amyloidosis (? light chain disease) was diagnosed in each group.Subcutaneous fat biopsy by needle aspiration can be facilely achieved with new aspiration syringe technologies with improved needle control and enhanced patient safety.
Project description:Manual techniques of intravascular fluid administration are commonly used during paediatric resuscitation, although it is unclear which technique is most efficient in the hands of typical healthcare providers. We compared the rate of fluid administration achieved with the disconnect-reconnect and push-pull manual syringe techniques for paediatric fluid resuscitation in a simulated setting.This study utilised a randomised crossover trial design and enrolled 16 consenting healthcare provider participants from a Canadian paediatric tertiary care centre. The study was conducted in a non-clinical setting using a model simulating a 15 kg child in decompensated shock. Participants administered 900 mL (60 mL/kg) of normal saline to the simulated patient using each of the two techniques under study. The primary outcome was the rate of fluid administration, as determined by two blinded independent video reviewers. We also collected participant demographic data and evaluated other secondary outcomes including total volume administered, number of catheter dislodgements, number of technical errors, and subjective and objective measures of provider fatigue.All 16 participants completed the trial. The mean (SD) rate of fluid administration (mL/s) was greater for the disconnect-reconnect technique at 1.77 (0.145) than it was for the push-pull technique at 1.62 (0.226), with a mean difference of 0.15 (95% CI 0.055 to 0.251; p=0.005). There was no difference in mean volume administered (p=0.778) or participant self-reported fatigue (p=0.736) between techniques. No catheter dislodgement events occurred.The disconnect-reconnect technique allowed for the fastest rate of fluid administration, suggesting that use of this technique may be preferable in situations requiring rapid resuscitation. These findings may help to inform future iterations of paediatric resuscitation guidelines.This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT01774214] prior to enrolling the first participant.
Project description:The major route of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in the United States is injection drug use. We hypothesized that if an HCV vaccine were available, vaccination could affect HCV transmission among people who inject drugs by reducing HCV titers after viral exposure without necessarily achieving sterilizing immunity. To investigate this possibility, we developed a mathematical model to determine transmission probabilities relative to the HCV RNA titers of needle/syringe-sharing donors. We simulated sharing of two types of syringes fitted with needles that retain either large or small amounts of fluid after expulsion. Using previously published viral kinetics data from both naïve subjects infected with HCV and reinfected individuals who had previously cleared an HCV infection, we estimated transmission risk between pairs of serodiscordant injecting drug users, accounting for syringe type, rinsing, and sharing frequency. We calculated that the risk of HCV transmission through syringe sharing increased ~10-fold as viral titers (log10 IU/ml) increased ~25-fold. Cumulative analyses showed that, assuming sharing episodes every 7 days, the mean transmission risk over the first 6 months was >90% between two people sharing syringes when one had an HCV RNA titer >5 log10 IU/ml. For those with preexisting immunity that rapidly controlled HCV, the cumulative risk decreased to 1 to 25% depending on HCV titer and syringe type. Our modeling approach demonstrates that, even with transient viral replication after exposure during injection drug use, HCV transmission among people sharing syringes could be reduced through vaccination if an HCV vaccine were available.
Project description:Many people who inject drugs (PWID) use syringes with detachable needles, which have high dead space (HDS). Contaminated HDS blood may substantially contribute to the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C (HCV), and other blood-borne viruses within this population. Newly designed low dead space (LDS) syringe-needle combinations seek to reduce blood-borne virus transmission among PWID. We evaluated the infectivity of HCV-contaminated residual volumes recovered from two LDS syringe-needle combinations.We tested two different design approaches to reducing the dead space. One added a piston to the plunger; the other reduced the dead space within the needle. The two approaches cannot be combined. Recovery of genotype-2a reporter HCV from LDS syringe-needle combinations was compared to recovery from insulin syringes with fixed needles and standard HDS syringe-needle combinations. Recovery of HCV from syringes was determined immediately following their contamination with HCV-spiked plasma, after storage at 22°C for up to 1 week, or after rinsing with water.Insulin syringes with fixed needles had the lowest proportion of HCV-positive syringes before and after storage. HCV recovery after immediate use ranged from 47%±4% HCV-positive 1 mL insulin syringes with 27-gauge ½ inch needles to 98%±1% HCV-positive HDS 2 mL syringes with 23-gauge 1¼ inch detachable needles. LDS combinations yielded recoveries ranging from 65%±5% to 93%±3%. Recovery was lower in combinations containing LDS needles than LDS syringes. After 3 days of storage, as much as 6-fold differences in virus recovery was observed, with HCV recovery being lower in combinations containing LDS needles. Most combinations with detachable needles required multiple rinses to reduce HCV infectivity to undetectable levels whereas a single rinse of insulin syringes was sufficient.Our study, the first to assess the infectivity of HCV in residual volumes of LDS syringes and needles available to PWID, demonstrates that LDS syringe-needle combination still has the greater potential for HCV transmission than insulin syringes with fixed needles. Improved LDS designs may be able to further reduce HCV recovery, but based on the designed tested, LDS needles and syringes remain intermediate between fixed-needle syringes and HDS combinations in reducing exposure to HCV.
Project description:Poorly designed labels and dosing tools contribute to dosing errors. We examined the degree to which errors could be reduced with pictographic diagrams, milliliter-only units, and provision of tools more closely matched to prescribed volumes.This study involved a randomized controlled experiment in 3 pediatric clinics. English- and Spanish-speaking parents (n = 491) of children ?8 years old were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups and given labels and dosing tools that varied in label instruction format (text and pictogram, or text only) and units (milliliter-only ["mL"] or milliliter/teaspoon ["mL/tsp"]). Each parent measured 9 doses of liquid medication (3 amounts [2, 7.5, and 10 mL] and 3 tools [1 cup, 2 syringes (5- and 10-mL capacities)]) in random order. The primary outcome was dosing error (>20% deviation), and large error (>2× dose).We found that 83.5% of parents made ?1 dosing error (overdosing was present in 12.1% of errors) and 29.3% of parents made ?1 large error (>2× dose). The greatest impact on errors resulted from the provision of tools more closely matched to prescribed dose volumes. For the 2-mL dose, the fewest errors were seen with the 5-mL syringe (5- vs 10-mL syringe: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.3 [95% confidence interval: 0.2-0.4]; cup versus 10-mL syringe: aOR = 7.5 [5.7-10.0]). For the 7.5-mL dose, the fewest errors were with the 10-mL syringe, which did not necessitate measurement of multiple instrument-fulls (5- vs 10-mL syringe: aOR = 4.0 [3.0-5.4]; cup versus 10-mL syringe: aOR = 2.1 [1.5-2.9]). Milliliter/teaspoon was associated with more errors than milliliter-only (aOR = 1.3 [1.05-1.6]). Parents who received text only (versus text and pictogram) instructions or milliliter/teaspoon (versus milliliter-only) labels and tools made more large errors (aOR = 1.9 [1.1-3.3], aOR = 2.5 [1.4-4.6], respectively).Provision of dosing tools more closely matched to prescribed dose volumes is an especially promising strategy for reducing pediatric dosing errors.