Effect of paricalcitol on renin and albuminuria in non-diabetic stage III-IV chronic kidney disease: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: Vitamin D receptor activators reduce albuminuria, and may improve survival in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Animal studies suggest that these pleiotropic effects of vitamin D may be mediated by suppression of renin. However, randomized trials in humans have yet to establish this relationship.In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover study, the effect of oral paricalcitol (2 μg/day) was investigated in 26 patients with non-diabetic, albuminuric stage III-IV CKD. After treatment, plasma concentrations of renin (PRC), angiotensin II (AngII) and aldosterone (Aldo) were measured. GFR was determined by 51Cr-EDTA clearance. Assessment of renal NO dependency was performed by infusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Albumin excretion rate (AER) was analyzed in 24-h urine and during 51Cr-EDTA clearance.Paricalcitol did not alter plasma levels of renin, AngII, Aldo, or urinary excretion of sodium and potassium. A modest reduction of borderline significance was observed in AER, and paricalcitol abrogated the albuminuric response to L-NMMA.In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial paricalcitol only marginally decreased AER and did not alter circulating levels of renin, AngII or Aldo. The abrogation of the rise in albumin excretion by paricalcitol during NOS blockade may indicate that favourable modulation of renal NO dependency could be involved in mediating reno-protection and survival benefits in CKD.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01136564.
Project description:Renal handling of sodium and water is abnormal in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that abnormal activity of the aquaporin-2 water channels (AQP2), the sodium-potassium-2chloride transporter (NKCC2) and/or the epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) contribute to this phenomenon.23 patients with CKD and 24 healthy controls at baseline and after 3% saline infusion were compared. The following measurements were performed: urinary concentrations of AQP2 (u-AQP2), NKCC2 (u-NKCC2), ENaC (u-ENaC?), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by 51Cr-EDTA clearance, free water clearance (CH2O), urinary output (UO), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), plasma concentrations of AVP, renin (PRC), Angiotensin II (ANG II), Aldosterone (Aldo) and body fluid volumes.At baseline, GFR was 34 ml/min in CKD patients and 89 ml/ml in controls. There were no significant differences in u-AQP2, u-NKCC2 or u-ENaC?, but FENa, p-Aldo and p-AVP were higher in CKD patients than controls. In response to hypertonic saline, patients with CKD had an attenuated decrease in CH2O and UO. A greater increase in U-AQP2 was observed in CKD patients compared to controls. Furthermore, u-NKCC2 increased in CKD patients, whereas u-NKCC2 decreased in controls. Body fluid volumes did not significantly differ.In response to hypertonic saline, u-NKCC2 increased, suggesting an increased sodium reabsorption via NKCC2 in patients with CKD. U-AQP2 increased more in CKD patients, despite an attenuated decrease in CH2O. Thus, though high levels of p-AVP and p-Aldo, the kidneys can only partly compensate and counteract acute volume expansion due to a defective tubular response.Clinical trial no: NCT01623661. Date of trial registration: 18.06.2012.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Smokers have a reduced risk and ex-smokers an increased risk of ulcerative colitis (UC). Stopping smoking often precedes onset and relapses. Smoking reduces the 24 hour urine excretion of oral chromium-51 labelled EDTA in healthy individuals. AIMS: To estimate the effects of smoking on the urine excretion of oral 51Cr EDTA in well characterised patients with UC. SUBJECTS: Sixteen smoking and 16 non-smoking patients with UC in remission were studied. The non-smokers had never smoked. Most were taking 5-aminosalicylic acid. No patient took steroids or immunosuppressants. The control group comprised 25 smoking healthy volunteers and 25 who had never smoked. The median cigarette consumption was equal in the patients and volunteers. METHODS: The 24 hour urine excretion of oral 51Cr EDTA was measured and the results were correlated with smoking habits, number of cigarettes, and disease extent. RESULTS: Patients with UC had significantly higher 24 hour urine recoveries than healthy controls (p = 0.04). This difference was more pronounced when patients who smoked were compared with healthy smokers (p = 0.005) No significant differences were found when comparing non-smoking patients with non-smoking controls or when comparing smoking and non-smoking patients. Urine recoveries did not correlate with number of cigarettes or disease extent. Smoking was more prevalent in patients with a more limited disease extent (p = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Effects of smoking on the urine excretion of 51Cr EDTA in health were abolished by the presence of UC. The protective effects of smoking in established UC are not due to a moderating effect of smoking on intestinal permeability.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intestinal permeability can be assessed by monitoring renal excretion of orally administered radioactively 51Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA). Although considered safe, patient participation in using radio-labeled tracers is low. Here, we used orally administered 52Cr-EDTA as non-radioactive alternative to assess intestinal permeability in CD and analyzed the association with disease activity, disease location and gut microbial dysbiosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:60 CD patients with low (n = 25) and increased (n = 35) fecal calprotectin levels (cut-off: 100 ?g/g feces) ingested 20 mL 52Cr-EDTA (20 mmol/L) solution whereafter 24-h urine was collected. Urinary 52Cr-EDTA concentrations were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Fecal Enterobacteriaceae and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were quantified using FISH. Correlations between urinary 52Cr-EDTA excretion and other parameters were established using nonparametric Spearman's correlation coefficients (?). RESULTS:CD patients with increased fecal calprotectin levels (> 100 ?g/g) demonstrated an elevated urinary 52Cr-EDTA/creatinine ratio (772 vs. 636 ?mol/mol, P = 0.132). Patients with primarily colonic disease showed the highest 52Cr-EDTA excretion. Importantly, a positive correlation was observed for the urinary 52Cr-EDTA/creatinine ratio and fecal calprotectin levels (? = 0.325, P < 0.05). Finally, urinary 52Cr-EDTA/creatinine ratio negatively correlated with the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (? = -0.221, P = 0.092), while positively correlating with Enterobacteriaceae (? = 0.202, P = 0.126). CONCLUSIONS:Orally administered and renal excreted 52Cr-EDTA may be used to assess intestinal permeability in CD and correlates with fecal calprotectin levels and bacterial species relevant to CD. This test may improve non-invasive detection of disease exacerbations and help monitor disease activity.
Project description:Tolvaptan slows progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by antagonizing the vasopressin-cAMP axis. Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates natriuresis and diuresis, but its role is unknown during tolvaptan treatment in ADPKD.Eighteen patients with ADPKD received tolvaptan 60 mg or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. L-NMMA (L-NG-monomethyl-arginine) was given as a bolus followed by continuous infusion during 60 min. We measured: GFR, urine output (UO), free water clearance (CH2O), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 channels (u-AQP2) and epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaC?), plasma concentrations of vasopressin (p-AVP), renin (PRC), angiotensinII (p-AngII), aldosterone (p-Aldo), and central blood pressure (cBP).During tolvaptan with NO-inhibition, a more pronounced decrease was measured in UO, CH2O (61% vs 43%) and FENa (46% vs 41%) after placebo than after tolvaptan; GFR and u-AQP2 decreased to the same extent; p-AVP increased three fold, whereas u-ENaC?, PRC, p-AngII, and p-Aldo remained unchanged. After NO-inhibition, GFR increased after placebo and remained unchanged after tolvaptan (5% vs -6%). Central diastolic BP (CDBP) increased to a higher level after placebo than tolvaptan. Body weight fell during tolvaptan treatment.During NO inhibition, tolvaptan antagonized both the antidiuretic and the antinatriuretic effect of L-NMMA, partly via an AVP-dependent mechanism. U-AQP2 was not changed by tolvaptan, presumeably due to a counteracting effect of elevated p-AVP. The reduced GFR during tolvaptan most likely is caused by the reduction in extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure.Clinical Trial no: NCT02527863 . Registered 18 February 2015.
Project description:AIM:To quantify changes in urinary excretion of aquaporin2 water channels (u-AQP2), the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (u-NKCC2) and the epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaC) during treatment with bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ), amiloride and placebo. METHODS:In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study we examined 23 healthy subjects on a standardized diet and fluid intake. The subjects were treated with amiloride 5 mg, BFTZ 1.25 mg or placebo twice a day for 4.5 d before each examination day. On the examination day, glomerular filtration rate was measured by the constant infusion clearance technique with (51)Cr-EDTA as reference substance. To estimate the changes in water transport via AQP2 and sodium transport via NKCC2 and ENaC, u-NKCC2, the gamma fraction of ENaC (u-ENaC?), and u-AQP2 were measured at baseline and after infusion with 3% hypertonic saline. U-NKCC2, u-ENaC?, u-AQP2 and plasma concentrations of vasopressin (p-AVP), renin (PRC), angiotensin II (p-ANG II) and aldosterone (p-Aldo) were measured, by radioimmunoassay. Central blood pressure was estimated by applanation tonometry and body fluid volumes were estimated by bio-impedance spectroscopy. General linear model with repeated measures or related samples Friedman's two-way analysis was used to compare differences. Post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons of post infusion periods to baseline within each treatment group. RESULTS:At baseline there were no differences in u-NKCC2, u-ENaC? and u-AQP2. PRC, p-Ang II and p-Aldo were increased during active treatments (P < 0.001). After hypertonic saline, u-NKCC2 increased during amiloride (6% ± 34%; P = 0.081) and increased significantly during placebo (17% ± 24%; P = 0.010). U-AQP2 increased significantly during amiloride (31% ± 22%; P < 0.001) and placebo (34% ± 27%; P < 0.001), while u-NKCC2 and u-AQP2 did not change significantly during BFTZ (-7% ± 28%; P = 0.257 and 5% ± 16%; P = 0.261). U- ENaC? increased in all three groups (P < 0.050). PRC, AngII and p-Aldo decreased to the same extent, while AVP increased, but to a smaller degree during BFTZ (P = 0.048). cDBP decreased significantly during BFTZ (P < 0.001), but not during amiloride or placebo. There were no significant differences in body fluid volumes. CONCLUSION:After hypertonic saline, u-NKCC2 and u-AQP2 increased during amiloride, but not during BFTZ. Lower p-AVP during BFTZ potentially caused less stimulation of NKCC2 and AQP2 and subsequent lower reabsorption of water and sodium.
Project description:The aim of this study was to assess any potential additive effects of a treatment combining aliskiren with paricalcitol on reducing renal fibrosis. C57BL/6J mice were treated individually with aliskiren and/or paricalcitol until 7 days after initiation of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO).In obstructed kidneys of UUO mice, monotherapy with aliskiren or paricalcitol significantly attenuated interstitial fibrosis, collagen IV accumulation, and ?-smooth muscle actin- and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin nick end-labeling-positive cells. The combination treatment showed additive efficacy in inhibition of these parameters. Renal NADPH oxidase (Nox)1 and Nox2 were significantly decreased by aliskiren or paricalcitol alone or in combination, while renal Nox4 expression was significantly reduced by paricalcitol mono- or combination treatment. Increased levels of p-Erk and p-p38 MAPK, and NF-?B in UUO kidneys were also significantly reduced by either aliskiren or paricalcitol treatment alone or in combination. Aliskiren or paricalcitol monotherapy significantly reduced the expression of (pro)renin receptor in UUO kidneys. In addition, aliskiren tended to augment renin expression in UUO kidneys, but paricalcitol reduced its expression level. The combination treatment effectively blocked both (pro)renin receptor and renin expression induced by aliskiren, and resulted in a further reduction of the renal expression of angiotensin II AT1 receptor. Aliskiren failed to increase the expression of vitamin D receptor in UUO kidneys, but the combination treatment restored its expression level. Taken together, a treatment combining aliskiren with paricalcitol better inhibits UUO-induced renal injury. The mechanism of this synergy may involve more profound inhibition of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.
Project description:Caveolae are the major cellular membrane structure through which extracellular mediators transmit information to intracellular signaling pathways. In vascular tissue (but not ventricular myocardium), caveolin-1 (cav-1) is the main component of caveolae; cav-1 modulates enzymes and receptors, such as the endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor. Evidence suggests that AngII and aldosterone (ALDO) are important mediators of ventricular injury. We have described a model of biventricular damage in rodents that relies on treatment with N-omega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor)) and AngII. This damage initiated at the vascular level and was observed only in the presence of ALDO and an activated mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). We hypothesize that cav-1 modulates the adverse cardiac effects mediated by ALDO in this animal model. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the ventricular damage and measures of inflammation, in wild-type (WT) and cav-1 knockout (KO) mice randomized to either placebo or L-NAME/AngII treatment. Despite displaying cardiac hypertrophy at baseline and higher blood pressure responses to L-NAME/AngII, cav-1 KO mice displayed, as compared with WT, decreased treatment-induced biventricular damage as well as decreased transcript levels of the proinflammatory marker plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Additionally, L-NAME/AngII induced an increase in cardiac MR levels in WT but not cav-1-ablated mice. Moreover and despite similar circulating ALDO levels in both genotypes, the myocardial damage (as determined histologically and by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA levels) was less sensitive to ALDO levels in cav-1 KO vs. WT mice, consistent with decreased MR signaling in the cav-1 KO. Thus, we conclude that the L-NAME/AngII-induced biventricular damage is mediated by a mechanism partially dependent on cav-1 and signaling via MR/ALDO.
Project description:Objective The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is activated in clinical settings, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as in CKD animal models, and kidney transplant donors have a greater risk of end-stage renal disease than healthy controls. However, whether or not the intrarenal RAS is activated immediately after kidney donation in kidney transplant donors is unclear, and the mechanism underlying intrarenal RAS activation is unknown. Methods We investigated 10 kidney transplant donors (4 men and 6 women, 58.6±9.0 years of age). Their blood pressure (BP), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), plasma angiotensinogen (AGT) and plasma angiotensin II (AngII) levels (which reflect circulating RAS activation), urinary albumin excretion, and urinary AGT excretion (which reflects intrarenal RAS activation) were evaluated before kidney donation (-1.2±0.40 days) and after kidney donation (7.5±1.7 days). Results The renal function after kidney donation was significantly lower than before donation. There were no significant differences in the BP during 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, plasma AngII levels, or urinary albumin excretion after kidney donation. In contrast, the levels of plasma AGT and urinary AGT excretion were significantly increased after kidney donation. The urinary AGT excretion after kidney donation did not show a significant relationship with the systolic BP, plasma AGT, plasma AngII, or urinary albumin excretion. In addition, the percentage change in urinary AGT excretion after kidney donation was not associated with the percentage change in other clinical parameters. Conclusion The intrarenal RAS is activated in kidney transplant donors immediately after kidney donation, independent of the systemic BP and filtration of increased plasma AGT, due to augmented inflammation.
Project description:The renal distal nephron plays an important role in the maintenance of sodium balance, extra cellular volume and blood pressure. The degree of water transport, via aquaporin2 water channels (AQP2), and sodium transport, via epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in renal collecting duct principal cells are reflected by the level of urinary excretion of AQP2 (u-AQP2) and the γ-fraction of ENaC (u-ENaCγ). The effects of an acute intravenous volume load with isotonic saline, hypertonic saline and glucose on u-AQP2, u-ENaCγ and underlying mechanisms have never been studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in healthy humans.We studied the effects of 0.9% saline (23 ml/kg), 3% saline (7 ml/kg) and 5% glucose (23 ml/kg) on u-AQP2 and u-ENaCγ, fractional sodium excretion (FENa), free water clearance (CH2O), and plasma concentrations of vasopressin (AVP), renin (PRC), angiotensin II (ANG II) and aldosterone (Aldo) in a randomized, crossover study of 23 healthy subjects, who consumed a standardized diet, regarding calories, sodium and fluid for 4 days before each examination day.After isotonic saline infusion, u-AQP2 increased (27%). CH2O and u-ENaCγ were unchanged, whereas FENa increased (123%). After hypertonic saline infusion, there was an increase in u-AQP2 (25%), u-ENaCγ (19%) and FENa (96%), whereas CH2O decreased (-153%). After isotonic glucose infusion, there was a decrease in u-AQP2 (-16%), ENaCγ (-10%) and FENa (-44%) whereas CH2O increased (164%). AVP remained unchanged after isotonic saline and glucose, but increased after hypertonic saline (139%). PRC, AngII and p-Aldo decreased after isotonic and hypertonic saline infusion, but not after glucose infusion.Volume expansion with 3% and 0.9% saline increased u-AQP2, while isotonic glucose decreased u-AQP2. Infusion of hypertonic saline increased u-ENaCγ, whereas u-ENaCγ was not significantly changed after isotonic saline and tended to decrease after glucose. Thus, the transport of water and sodium is changed both via the aquaporin 2 water channels and the epithelial sodium channels during all three types of volume expansion to regulate and maintain water- and sodium homeostasis in the body.Clinical Trial no: NCT01414088.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Most studies on obesity surgery have measured renal function using the estimated GFR. However, due to the reduction of muscle mass, and therefore creatinine that accompanies weight loss, such measures can falsely suggest an improvement in renal function. To balance the risks of surgery versus any potential benefits on renal function, we need to be able to determine renal function using valid and reliable methodologies. In this pilot study we aimed to measure renal function in patients with CKD undergoing obesity surgery using the gold standard 51Cr-EDTA GFR clearance methodology which is independent of measures of muscle mass. METHODS:Nine consecutive obese patients with CKD underwent obesity surgery. Their renal function was assessed using 51Cr-EDTA GFR, cystatin C and serum creatinine as well as using eGFR equations including MDRD CKD Epi, Cockcroft Gault and CKD Epi cystatin before and 12?months after surgery. RESULTS:Renal function using the 51Cr-EDTA measured GFR did not change significantly after surgery. Similar results were obtained when Cystatin C, CKD Epi cystatin, CKD Epi cystatin creatinine and adjusted Cockcroft Gault Creatinine clearance methods were used. In contrast there were either trends or significant improvements in renal function measured using the MDRD and CKD Epi equations. CONCLUSIONS:In this pilot study using the gold standard 51Cr-EDTA method we found stabilisation in renal function after obesity surgery. Until further definitive data emerge it is critical to balance the risk and benefits of surgery, especially if renal function may not improve as often as previously suggested. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01507350 . Registered June 2011.