Bowman birk inhibitor concentrate and oral leukoplakia: a randomized phase IIb trial.
ABSTRACT: Oral premalignancy serves as an ideal model for study of chemopreventive agents. Although 13-cis-retinoic acid showed reversal of oral premalignancy, toxicity, and reversal of clinical response after cessation of therapy obviated its widespread use. A search for nontoxic agents with cancer preventive activity led us to evaluate Bowman Birk Inhibitor (BBI) formulated as BBI Concentrate (BBIC). We previously reported encouraging results in a phase IIa trial of BBIC in patients with oral leukoplakia with measurable clinical responses and favorable biomarker changes. On the basis of these results, we undertook a randomized, placebo controlled phase IIb trial with patients receiving BBIC or placebo for 6 months, with assessment of clinical response and change in lesion area as primary end point and an intent-to-treat analysis. One hundred and thirty two subjects were randomized; and 89 subjects completed six months on study drug or placebo. Both placebo and BBIC showed a statistically significant decrease in mean lesion area of 17.1% and 20.6%, respectively, and partial or greater clinical responses of 30% and 28% respectively. No significant difference between placebo and study drug arms was observed. Histologic review, review of photographs of lesions, and comparison of serum neu protein and oral mucosal cell protease activity also did not show significant differences between study arms. Probable reasons for these negative results were considered, are discussed, and include a placebo with non-BBIC clinical activity and reduced pharmacokinetic availability of the second batch of BBIC. This experience should be a strong cautionary note to those considering "Green" chemoprevention.
Project description:In previously performed animal studies and Phase I-II human trials, Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate (BBIC) appeared to be a promising cancer chemopreventive agent. The present study describes the results of two phase I randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials performed in male subjects to assess the safety and toxicity of the original and new formulations of BBIC administered in a single dose as a suspension in orange juice. The dose of BBIC varied from 800-2,000 chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI) units. The BBI concentration in the serum samples collected from the subjects was analyzed by a dot-blot analysis procedure using the 5G2 monoclonal antibody, which is specific for reduced BBI. A total of 41 subjects were enrolled, 20 in the initial BBIC study and 21 in the second BBIC study. In these human trials, no clinically relevant changes in hematological or biochemical parameters were observed. Overall, BBIC was found to be well-tolerated. For these BBIC single-dose phase I trials, there was no dose-limiting toxicity for BBIC, even at the highest dose evaluated, and there were no apparent differences between the clinical trial results for the two formulations of BBIC. The bioavailability of BBI in the second clinical trial, which used the new BBIC formulation, was approximately 40 to 43% of the BBI bioavailability reached in the first clinical trial, which used the original BBIC formulation. The observed bioavailability difference was attributed to the different BBIC formulations used in these two clinical trials. These trials demonstrated that BBIC is safe when administered in a single dose of up to 2,000 CI units. Therefore, the results from the two trials indicate that a multi-dose trial of BBIC may be safely performed with doses of up to 2,000 CI units per day.
Project description:Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is a soybean-derived protease inhibitor that has anti-inflammation and anti-HIV effect. Here, we further investigated the anti-HIV action of BBI in macrophages, focusing on its effect on viral entry. We found that BBI could significantly block HIV entry into macrophages. Investigation of the mechanism(s) of the BBI action on HIV inhibition showed that BBI down-regulated the expression of CD4 receptor (as much as 80%) and induced the production of the CC chemokines (up to 60 folds at protein level) in macrophages. This inhibitory effect of BBI on HIV entry could be blocked by the neutralization antibodies to CC chemokines. These findings indicate that BBI may have therapeutic potential as a viral entry inhibitor for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection.
Project description:Aberrant functioning of serine proteases in inflammatory and carcinogenic processes within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has prompted scientists to investigate the potential of serine protease inhibitors, both natural and synthetic, as modulators of their proteolytic activities. Protease inhibitors of the Bowman-Birk type, a major protease inhibitor family in legume seeds, which inhibit potently and specifically trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteases, are currently being investigated as colorectal chemopreventive agents. Physiologically relevant amounts of Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) can reach the large intestine in active form due to their extraordinary resistance to extreme conditions within the GIT. Studies in animal models have proven that dietary BBI from several legume sources, including soybean, pea, lentil and chickpea, can prevent or suppress carcinogenic and inflammatory processes within the GIT. Although the therapeutic targets and the action mechanism of BBI have not yet been elucidated, the emerging evidence suggests that BBI exert their preventive properties via protease inhibition; in this sense, serine proteases should be considered as primary targets in early stages of carcinogenesis. The validation of candidate serine proteases as therapeutic targets together with the identification, within the wide array of natural BBI variants, of the most potent and specific protease inhibitors, are necessary to better understand the potential of this protein family as colorectal chemopreventive agents.
Project description:The Bowman?Birk inhibitor (BBI), a protease inhibitor derived from soybeans, has been extensively studied in anti-tumor and anti-inflammation research. We recently reported that BBI has an anti-HIV-1 property in primary human macrophages. Because HSV-2 infection plays a role in facilitating HIV-1 sexual transmission, we thus examined whether BBI has the ability to inhibit HSV-2 infection. We demonstrated that BBI could potently inhibit HSV-2 replication in human cervical epithelial cells (End1/E6E7). This BBI-mediated HSV-2 inhibition was partially through blocking HSV-2-mediated activation of NF-?B and p38 MAPK pathways. In addition, BBI could activate the JAK/STAT pathway and enhance the expression of several antiviral interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Furthermore, BBI treatment of End1/E6E7 cells upregulated the expression of tight junction proteins and reduced HSV-2-mediated cellular ubiquitinated proteins' degradation through suppressing the ubiquitin?proteasome system. These observations indicate that BBI may have therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of HSV-2 infections.
Project description:Bowman-Birk Inhibitor (BBI), a serine protease inhibitor derived from soybeans, has anti-inflammatory properties and is able to suppress the development of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity in animal models. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely used animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), is characterized by breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the CNS, resulting in pathology. In this study, we observed that BBI-treated mice showed delayed onset of EAE and reduced disease severity compared to control mice. BBI-treated mice had fewer inflammatory cells in the CNS including significantly reduced numbers of Th1 and Th17 cells. In the periphery, BBI treatment suppressed the development of encephalitogenic Th1 and Th17 responses early on [day 7 post-immunization (p.i.)], while after disease onset (day 14 p.i.) BBI-treated mice had stronger Th responses, as determined by antigen-specific proliferation and cytokine production. These results demonstrate that BBI treatment temporarily suppressed the development of encephalitogenic responses, but these responses eventually attained normal magnitude. Given that BBI-treated mice exhibited stronger encephalitogenic responses in the periphery during clinically manifesting EAE, delayed disease onset, and reduced numbers of CNS-infiltrating cells, it appears likely that BBI impedes the exit of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells from lymphoid organs, thereby delaying their migration into the CNS.
Project description:Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBIs) are cysteine-rich proteins with inhibitory activity against proteases that are widely distributed in monocot and dicot species. The expression of rice BBI from Oryza sativa is up-regulated and induced by pathogens or insects during germination of rice seeds. The rice BBI (RBTI) of molecular weight 15 kDa has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. According to the diffraction of rice BBI crystals at a resolution of 2.07 A, the unit cell belongs to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 74.37, b = 96.69, c = 100.36 A. Preliminary analysis indicates four BBI molecules in an asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 58.29%.
Project description:Bowman-Birk Inhibitor (BBI) has both insecticidal and anti-cancerous properties. It has been hypothesized that dietary BBI slows insect growth by inhibiting the catalytic activity of digestive enzymes trypsins and chyomotrypsins, resulting in the midgut having reduced access to amino acids needed for growth. In mammals, BBI was hypothesized to influence cellular energy metabolism. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that dietary BBI also impacts energy-associated pathways in the midgut of Drosophila melanogaster. We investigated the impact of dietary BBI on the following parameters in the midguts of third-instar Drosophila larvae: (i) cellular metabolites, (ii) global transcriptome response, (iii) putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) associated with the differentially expressed transcripts, and (iv) epithelial cellular structure. Dietary BBI caused: (i) a reduction of cellular DHAP, glucose, and succinate; and, (ii) increased Fructuse-6-phosphate; (ii) differential expression of genes associated with the glucose and fatty acid utilization; and, (iii) a shortening of midgut epithelial microvilli, a phenomenon previously associated with glucose starvation. Additionally, fifty seven percent of the putative TFBSs associated with the differentially expressed transcripts have previously been associated with glucose and insulin activities in mammalian studies. Collectively these results support the hypothesis that dietary BBI influences energy utilization in the Drosophila midgut. Experiment Overall Design: Two treatments (control vs BBI-fed), and three replicates were conducted. There were total six samples. There was no dye-swap.
Project description:Anuran amphibian skin secretions are a rich source of peptides, many of which represent novel protease inhibitors and can potentially act as a source for protease inhibitor drug discovery. In this study, a novel bioactive Bowman-Birk type inhibitory hexadecapeptide of the Ranacyclin family from the defensive skin secretion of the Fukien gold-striped pond frog, Pelophlax plancyi fukienesis, was successfully isolated and identified, named PPF-BBI. The primary structure of the biosynthetic precursor was deduced from a cDNA sequence cloned from a skin-derived cDNA library, which contains a consensus motif representative of the Bowman-Birk type inhibitor. The peptide was chemically synthesized and displayed a potent inhibitory activity against trypsin (Ki of 0.17 µM), as well as an inhibitory activity against tryptase (Ki of 30.73 µM). A number of analogues of this peptide were produced by rational design. An analogue, which substituted the lysine (K) at the predicted P1 position with phenylalanine (F), exhibited a potent chymotrypsin inhibitory activity (Ki of 0.851 µM). Alternatively, a more potent protease inhibitory activity, as well as antimicrobial activity, was observed when P16 was replaced by lysine, forming K16-PPF-BBI. The addition of the cell-penetrating peptide Tat with a trypsin inhibitory loop resulted in a peptide with a selective inhibitory activity toward trypsin, as well as a strong antifungal activity. This peptide also inhibited the growth of two lung cancer cells, H460 and H157, demonstrating that the targeted modifications of this peptide could effectively and efficiently alter its bioactivity.
Project description:Amphibian venom-derived peptides have high potential in the field of anticancer drug discovery. We have isolated a novel Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor (BBI)-type peptide from the skin secretion of Pelophylax esculentus (PE) named PE-BBI, and evaluated its bio-functions and anti-cancer activity in vitro. PE-BBI is a heptadecapeptide with C-terminal amidation. The mRNA sequence and primary structure of PE-BBI were identified using RT-PCR and LC/MS, respectively. A trypsin inhibitory assay was used to characterize the serine proteinase inhibitory activity of synthetic PE-BBI. PE-BBI's myotropic activity was analyzed using isolated rat bladder and rat-tail artery smooth muscle tissues, and the anti-cancer ability of PE-BBI using human colorectal cancer cells. PE-BBI's mechanism of action was investigated using Discovery studio software. PE-BBI showed trypsin inhibitory activity (Ki?=?310?±?72?nM), strong myotropic activity, and cytotoxicity that were specific to cancer cells, and no side effect to normal epithelial cells. The docking stimulation showed that PE-BBI had high affinity to several members of human kallikrein related peptidase (KLK) family. This finding helps to enrich our understanding of BBI peptides' mode of action. Moreover, the data presented here validates frog secretions as sources of potential novel proteinase inhibitors for cancer treatment.
Project description:Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitors (BBIs) play important roles in animal and plant immunity, but how these protease inhibitors are involved in the immune system remains unclear. Here, we show that the rice (Oryza sativa) BBI protein APIP4 is a common target of a fungal effector and an NLR receptor for innate immunity. APIP4 exhibited trypsin inhibitor activity in vitro and in vivo. Knockout of APIP4 in rice enhanced susceptibility, and overexpression of APIP4 increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The M. oryzae effector AvrPiz-t interacted with APIP4 and suppressed APIP4 trypsin inhibitor activity. By contrast, the rice NLR protein Piz-t interacted with APIP4, enhancing APIP4 transcript and protein levels, and protease inhibitor activity. Our findings reveal a novel host defence mechanism in which a host protease inhibitor targeted by a fungal pathogen is protected by an NLR receptor.