Sonic Hedgehog contributes to gastric mucosal restitution after injury.
ABSTRACT: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori correlates with regeneration of the gastric epithelium, ulcer healing and re-expression of the gastric morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). We sought to identify the role of Shh as a regulator of gastric epithelial regeneration during wound healing. A mouse model expressing a parietal cell-specific, tamoxifen-inducible deletion of Shh (HKCre(ERT2);Shh(flox/flox) or PC-iShhKO) was developed. Stomachs were collected and compared 7-150 days after the final vehicle or tamoxifen injection. Ulcers were induced in both controls and PC-iShhKO mice using acetic acid and ulcer size compared 1 and 7 days post induction. (1) Re-expression of Shh correlates with decreased hyperproliferation: Compared to controls, PC-iShhKO mice developed foveolar hyperplasia. Restoration of normal gastric epithelial architecture and differentiation correlated with the re-expression of Shh in PC-iShhKO mice 150 days after the final tamoxifen injection. At the tamoxifen dose used to induce Cre recombination there was no genotoxicity reported in either HKCre(ERT2) or Shh(flox/flox) control mouse stomachs. (2) Delayed wound healing in PC-iShhKO mouse stomachs: To identify the role of Shh in gastric regeneration, an acetic acid ulcer was induced in control and PC-iShhKO mice. Ulcers began to heal in control mice by 7 days after induction. Ulcer healing was documented by decreased ulcer size, angiogenesis, macrophage infiltration and formation of granulation tissue that correlated with the re-expression of Shh within the ulcerated tissue. PC-iShhKO mice did not show evidence of ulcer healing. Re-expression of Shh contributes to gastric regeneration. Our current study may have clinical implications given that eradication of H. pylori correlates with re-expression of Shh, regeneration of the gastric epithelium and ulcer healing.
Project description:Loss of expression of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) from parietal cells results in hypergastrinemia in mice, accompanied by increased expression of Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) and hyperproliferation of surface mucous cells. We investigated whether hypergastrinemia induces gastric epithelial proliferation by activating Ihh signaling in mice.We studied mice with parietal cell-specific deletion of Shh (PC-Shh(KO)) and hypergastrinemia, crossed with gastrin-deficient (GKO) mice (PC-Shh(KO)/GKO). When mice were 3-4 months old, gastric tissues were collected and analyzed by histology, for incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine, and for expression of the surface mucous cell marker Ulex europaeus. PC-Shh(KO)/GKO mice were given gastrin infusions for 7 days; gastric surface epithelium was collected and expression of Ihh was quantified by laser capture microdissection followed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Mouse stomach-derived organoids were incubated with or without inhibitors of WNT (DKK1) or Smoothened (vismodegib) and then cocultured with immortalized stomach mesenchymal cells, to assess proliferative responses to gastrin.Gastric tissues from PC-Shh(KO)/GKO mice with hypergastrinemia had an expanded surface pit epithelium, indicated by a significant increase in numbers of bromodeoxyuridine- and Ulex europaeus-positive cells, but there was no evidence for hyperproliferation. Gastrin infusion of PC PC-Shh(KO)/GKO mice increased expression of Ihh and proliferation within the surface epithelium compared with mice given infusions of saline. In gastric organoids cocultured with immortalized stomach mesenchymal cells, antagonists of WNT and Smoothened inhibited gastrin-induced proliferation and WNT activity. Activity of WNT in media collected from immortalized stomach mesenchymal cells correlated with increased expression of glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1, and was inhibited by DKK1 or vismodegib.Ihh signaling mediates gastrin-induced proliferation of epithelial cells in stomachs of adult mice.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to acute induction of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) in the stomach that is associated with the initiation of gastritis. The mechanism by which H. pylori induces Shh is unknown. Shh is a target gene of transcription factor Nuclear Factor-?B (NF?B). We hypothesize that NF?B mediates H. pylori-induced Shh.To visualize Shh ligand expression in response to H. pylori infection in vivo, we used a mouse model that expresses Shh fused to green fluorescent protein (Shh::GFP mice) in place of wild-type Shh. In vitro, changes in Shh expression were measured in response to H. pylori infection using 3-dimensional epithelial cell cultures grown from whole dissociated gastric glands (organoids). Organoids were generated from stomachs collected from the fundic region of control and mice expressing a parietal cell-specific deletion of Shh (PC-Shh(KO) mice).Within 2 days of infection, H. pylori induced Shh expression within parietal cells of Shh::GFP mice. Organoids expressed all major gastric cell markers, including parietal cell marker H(+) ,K(+) -ATPase and Shh. H. pylori infection of gastric organoids induced Shh expression; a response that was blocked by inhibiting NF?B signaling and correlated with I?B degradation. H. pylori infection of PC-Shh(KO) mouse-derived organoids did not result in the induction of Shh expression.Gastric organoids allow for the study of the interaction between H. pylori and the differentiated gastric epithelium independent of the host immune response. H. pylori induces Shh expression from the parietal cells, a response mediated via activation of NF?B signaling.
Project description:Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the adult stomach, but its role as a gastric morphogen is unclear. We sought to identify mechanisms by which Shh might regulate gastric epithelial cell function and differentiation.Mice with a parietal cell-specific deletion of Shh (HKCre/Shh(KO)) were created. Gastric morphology and function were studied in control and HKCre/Shh(KO) mice between 1 and 8 months of age.In contrast to control mice, HKCre/Shh(KO) mice developed gastric hypochlorhydria, hypergastrinemia, and a phenotype that resembled foveolar hyperplasia. The fundic mucosa of HKCre/Shh(KO) mice had an expanded surface pit cell lineage that was documented by increased incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine and was attributed to the hypergastrinemia. Compared with controls, numbers of total mucous neck and zymogen cells were significantly decreased in stomachs of HKCre/Shh(KO) mice. In addition, zymogen and neck cell markers were coexpressed in the same cell populations, indicating disrupted differentiation of the zymogen cell lineage from the mucous neck cells in the stomachs of HKCre/Shh(KO) mice. Laser capture microdissection of the surface epithelium, followed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, revealed a significant increase in expression of Indian Hedgehog, glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1, Wnt, and cyclin D1. Laser capture microdissection analysis also showed a significant increase in Snail with a concomitant decrease in E-cadherin.In the stomachs of adult mice, loss of Shh from parietal cells results in hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinemia. Hypergastrinemia might subsequently induce increased Hedgehog and Wnt signaling in the surface pit epithelium, resulting in hyperproliferation.
Project description:The peptic ulcer heals through a complex process, although the ulcer relapse often occurs several years later after healing. Our hypothesis is that even after visual evidence of healing of gastric ulceration, the regenerated epithelium is aberrant for an extended interval, increasing susceptibility of the regenerated epithelium to damage and further diseases.Gastric ulcers were induced in mice by serosal topical application of acetic acid.Gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid visually healed within 30 days. However, regenerated epithelial architecture was poor. The gene profile of regenerated tissue was abnormal, indicating increased stem/progenitor cells, deficient differentiated gastric cell types, and deranged cell homeostasis. Despite up-regulation of PDX1 in the regenerated epithelium, no mature antral cell type was observed. Four months after healing, the regenerated epithelium lacks parietal cells, trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) and (sex-determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9) remain up-regulated deep in the gastric gland, and the Na/H exchanger 2 (a TFF2 effector in gastric healing) remains down-regulated. Gastric ulcer healing was strongly delayed in TFF2 knockout mice, and re-epithelialization was accompanied with mucous metaplasia. After Helicobacter pylori inoculum 30 days after ulceration, we observed that the gastric ulcer selectively relapses at the same site where it originally was induced. Follow-up evaluation at 8 months showed that the relapsed ulcer was not healed in H pylori-infected tissues.These findings show that this macroscopically regenerated epithelium has prolonged abnormal cell distribution and is differentially susceptible to subsequent damage by H pylori.
Project description:Gastric ulcers are mucosal discontinuities that may extend into the mucosa, submucosa or even deeper. They result from an imbalance between mucosal aggressors and protective mechanisms that include the mucus bicarbonate layer. Thyroid hormones have been shown to accelerate gastric ulcer healing in part by increasing the adherent mucus levels. However, the effects of thyroid hormones on goblet cell numbers and expression of neutral and acidic mucins during ulcer healing have not been investigated.Thirty six adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups each with six animals. Group 1 (normal control) and group 2 (negative control) were given normal saline for eight weeks. Groups 3 and 4 were given 100 ?g/kg per day per os of thyroxine so as to induce hyperthyroidism. Groups 5 and 6 received 0.01% (w/v) Propylthiouracil (PTU) for 8 weeks so as to induce hypothyroidism. After thyroid hormonal levels were confirmed using radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assays, ulcer induction was done using 40 mg/kg intragastric single dose of Indomethacin in groups 2, 3 and 5. Stomachs were extracted after day 3 and 7 of ulcer induction for histological examination. Histochemistry was carried out using Periodic Acid Shiff and Alcian Blue. The number of acidic and neutral goblet cells were determined by counting numbers per field. Mucin expression (%) was determined using Quick Photo Industrial software version 3.1.The numbers of neutral goblet cells (cells/field) increased significantly (P?<?0.05) in the ulcer+thyroxine (14.67?±?0.33), thyroxine (17.04?±?1.71) and ulcer+PTU (12.89?±?1.06) groups compared to the normal control (10.78?±?1.07) at day 3. For the acidic goblet cells, differences between treatment groups were more pronounced at day 7 between the ulcer+thyroxine (22.56?±?1.26) and thyroxine (22.89?±?0.80). We further showed that percentage expression of both neutral and acidic mucins was significantly higher in the ulcer+thyroxine (9.23?±?0.17 and 6.57?±?0.35 respectively) and thyroxine groups (9.66?±?0.21 and 6.33?±?0.38 respectively) as compared to the normal control group (4.08?±?0.20 and 4.38?±?0.11 respectively) at day 3 after ulcer induction.This study confirms the role played by thyroid hormones in healing of indomethacin induced gastric ulcers. The study further demonstrates increased numbers of both neutral and acidic goblet cells and the increase in expression of both neutral and acidic mucins during healing of indomethacin induced ulcers.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for impaired healing of peptic ulcers, and there are currently no supplementary therapeutics other than the standard antipeptic medicine to improve the ulcer healing in diabetes. This study examined the potential pleiotropic effect of a glucagon-like peptide (Glp)-1 analogue exendin (Ex)-4 on the regeneration of gastric ulcer in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Chronic ulcer was created in rat stomach by submucosal injection of acetic acid and peri-ulcer tissues were analyzed 7 days after operation. Ulcer wound healing was impaired in diabetic rats with suppressed tissue expression of eNOS and enhanced levels of pro-inflammatory reactions. Treatment with intraperitoneal injection of Ex4 (0.5 ?g/kg/d) significantly reduced the area of gastric ulcer without changing blood glucose level. Ex-4 restored the expression of pro-angiogenic factors, and attenuated the generation of regional inflammation and superoxide anions. The improvement of ulcer healing was associated with increased expression of MMP-2 and formation of granulation tissue in the peri-ulcer area.Administration of Ex4 may induce pro-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative reactions in the peri-ulcer tissue of diabetic rats that eventually enhances tissue granulation and closure of ulcerative wounds. Our results support the potential clinical application of Glp-1 analogues as supplementary hypoglycemic agents in the antipeptic ulcer medication in diabetes.
Project description:Clinical studies demonstrate that aspirin consumption reverses the gastrointestinal (GI) benefits of coxibs, by an undefined mechanism.Rodent models were employed to investigate the effects of combinations of celecoxib and aspirin on gastric ulcerogenesis, bleeding, surface hydrophobicity (by contact angle analysis) and ulcer healing. We also evaluated the effects of phosphatidylcholine (PC)-associated aspirin in these rodent models and confirmed its cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibitory activity by measuring mucosal prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) concentration. We present evidence that aspirin's ability to induce gastric injury and bleeding in rats, was exacerbated in the presence of a coxib and was dependent on its ability to reduce gastric surface hydrophobicity. In contrast, co-administration of phosphatidylcholine (PC)-associated aspirin and celecoxib induced little or no gastric injury/bleeding and maintained the stomach's hydrophobic properties. Interestingly, aspirin and aspirin/PC equally inhibited gastric mucosal PGE(2) concentration. Aspirin in combination with a coxib retarded the healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers, whereas healing rates of rats treated with celecoxib in combination with aspirin/PC were comparable to controls.Aspirin's gastric toxicity in combination with a coxib can be dissociated from its ability to inhibit COX-1 and appears to be dependent, in part, on its ability to attenuate the stomach's surface hydrophobic barrier. This adverse drug interaction between aspirin and coxibs, which impacts the treatment of osteoarthritic and cardiac patients requiring cardiovascular prophylaxis, can be circumvented by the administration of phosphatidylcholine (PC)-associated aspirin, to maintain the stomach's hydrophobic properties.
Project description:Background & Aims: Spasmolytic polypeptide/TFF2-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) is known to emerge following parietal cell loss and during Helicobacter pylori infection, however its role in gastric ulcer repair is unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate if SPEM plays a role in epithelial regeneration. Methods: Acetic acid ulcers were induced in young (2-3 months) C57BL/6 mice to determine the quality of ulcer repair. Gastric tissue was collected and analyzed to determine the expression of SPEM within the regenerating epithelium. As a comparison to native tissue the expression of SPEM was also identified within cultured gastric mouse-derived organoids. Results: Wound healing in the mice coincided with the emergence of SPEM expressing CD44v within the ulcerated region. The emergence of SPEM was also observed in cultured gastric organoids. Conclusions: These data demonstrate the SPEM may play a role in epithelial regeneration. Conclusions: These data demonstrate the SPEM may play a role in epithelial regeneration. 4 samples were used for ulcerated and uninjured tissue. 1 sample was used for intact tissue and organoid-derived RNA. The 'Ulcerated' samples represent C57BL/6 mice with ulcers and the 'Uninjured' samples represent the healthy controls (for "ulcerated" samples). The "Intact stomach tissue" and "Gastric organoids" samples are other types of samples that compared separately. "Gastric organoids" in this comparison are derived from "Intact stomach tissue".
Project description:Acute gastric mucosal injury is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and the search for new therapeutics is ongoing. The aim of this study is to update and expand the information related to the most widely used rat models of acute gastric ulcer, the ethanol-induced ulcer and the indomethacin-induced ulcer. These two models are compared in terms of macroscopic and microscopic features. Experimentally, ethanol was given orally in a single dose and indomethacin was subcutaneously injected into male Wistar rats. After ulcerative challenges, the stomachs were removed and visually inspected. Anti-ulcerative drugs were used to validate the models. Histological analysis of the stomachs determined the microscopic score. The methodology used for model evaluation applied to macroscopic and microscopic gastric lesions. With these methods it was possible to induce lesions in the gastric mucosa. Microscopic evaluation permitted assessment of the inflammatory and apoptotic impact in the mucosa not observable by macroscopic evaluation. Groups of animals were treated with two standard drugs: sulcralfate suspension or lansoprazole solution. Both drugs reduced macroscopic and microscopic lesions, particularly the hemorrhagic ones. Both models induced acute gastric mucosal injury and no single evaluation method can address all the aspects of the pathology of gastric lesions. As a complement to macroscopic evaluation, microscopy appears to be a relevant tool to selectively identify specific aspects of the development of mucosal injury, quantify the extent of lesions, and contribute to an appropriate interpretation of results. The score systems established here offer a reliable method for testing antiulcer drugs.