Prophylactic antibiotics for endoscopy-associated peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis may develop after endoscopic procedures, and the benefit of prophylactic antibiotics is unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether prophylactic antibiotics reduce the incidence of peritonitis in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all endoscopic procedures, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, cystoscopy, hysteroscopy, and hysteroscopy-assisted intrauterine device (IUD) implantation/removal, performed in CAPD patients at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, between February 2001 and February 2012. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirty-three patients were enrolled, and 125 endoscopies were performed in 45 patients. Eight (6.4%) peritonitis episodes developed after the examination. Antibiotics were used in 26 procedures, and none of the patients had peritonitis (0% vs. 8.1% without antibiotic use; p=0.20). The peritonitis rate was significantly higher in the non-EGD group than in the EGD group (15.9% [7/44] vs. 1.2% [1/81]; p<0.005). Antibiotic use prior to non-EGD examinations significantly reduced the endoscopy-associated peritonitis rate compared to that without antibiotic use (0% [0/16] vs. 25% [7/28]; p<0.05). Peritonitis only occurred if invasive procedures were performed, such as biopsy, polypectomy, or IUD implantation, (noninvasive procedures, 0% [0/20] vs. invasive procedures, 30.4% [7/23]; p<0.05). No peritonitis was noted if antibiotics were used prior to examination with invasive procedures (0% [0/10] vs. 53.8% [7/13] without antibiotic use; p<0.05). Although not statistically significant, antibiotics may play a role in preventing gynecologic procedure-related peritonitis (antibiotics, 0% [0/4] vs. no antibiotics, 55.6% [5/9]; p=0.10). CONCLUSION: Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced endoscopy-associated PD peritonitis in the non-EGD group. Endoscopically assisted invasive procedures, such as biopsy, polypectomy, IUD implantation/removal, and dilatation and curettage (D&C), pose a high risk for peritonitis. Prophylactic antibiotics for peritonitis prevention may be required in colonoscopic procedures and gynecologic procedures.
Project description:Chronic kidney disease, including end-stage renal disease, has been identified as a possible risk factor for primary septicemia and wound infection by Vibrio vulnificus. However, cases of severe septicemia, necrotizing fasciitis, and peritonitis caused by V. vulnificus in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) have not been described. We report a case of severe septicemia, necrotizing fasciitis, and peritonitis due to V. vulnificus in a patient undergoing CAPD after ingesting raw seafood.A 37-year-old woman undergoing CAPD was admitted to the emergency room due to general weakness, fever, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Although empirical intraperitoneal antibiotics were administered for the diagnosis of CAPD-related peritonitis, her fever did not subside. On hospital day 3, she had hemorrhagic bullae on both lower legs. We evaluated her recent food history, and found that she ate raw seafood before admission. She underwent emergency fasciotomy on the suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis by V. vulnificus infection. Finally, V. vulnificus was confirmed by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing using blood and peritoneal effluent fluid cultures. The administration of intraperitoneal ceftazidime and intravenous ciprofloxacin/ceftriaxone was continued for 4 weeks, and the patient completely recovered.Suspicion of V. vulnificus infection in vulnerable patients who ingest raw seafood is essential for prompt diagnosis, which could significantly improve patient outcomes.
Project description:Peritonitis remains a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). A high peritonitis rate (HPR) affects continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients' technique survival and mortality. Predictors and outcomes of HPR, rather than the first peritonitis episode, were rarely studied in the Chinese population. In this study, we examined the risk factors associated with HPR and its effects on clinical outcomes in CAPD patients.This is a single center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 294 patients who developing at least 1 episode of peritonitis were followed up from March 1st, 2002, to July 31, 2014, in our PD center. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with HPR, and the Cox proportional hazard model was conducted to assess the effects of HPR on clinical outcomes.During the study period of 2917.5 patient-years, 489 episodes of peritonitis were recorded, and the total peritonitis rate was 0.168 episodes per patient-year. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with HPR include a quick occurrence of peritonitis after CAPD initiation (shorter than 12 months), and a low serum albumin level at the start of CAPD. In the Cox proportional hazard model, HPR was a significant predictor of technique failure. There were no differences between HPR and low peritonitis rate (LPR) group for all-cause mortality. However, when the peritonitis rate was considered as a continuous variable, a positive correlation was observed between the peritonitis rate and mortality.We found the quick peritonitis occurrence after CAPD and the low serum albumin level before CAPD were strongly associated with an HPR. Also, our results verified that HPR was positively correlated with technique failure. More importantly, the increase in the peritonitis rate suggested a higher risk of all-cause mortality.These results may help to identify and target patients who are at higher risk of HPR at the start of CAPD and to take interventions to reduce peritonitis incidence and improve clinical outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is conflicting evidence comparing peritonitis rates among patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). This study aims to clarify the relationship between peritoneal dialysis (PD) modality (APD versus CAPD) and the risk of developing PD-associated peritonitis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This study examined the association between PD modality (APD versus CAPD) and the risks, microbiology, and clinical outcomes of PD-associated peritonitis in 6959 incident Australian PD patients between October 1, 2003, and December 31, 2011, using data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry. Median follow-up time was 1.9 years. RESULTS: Patients receiving APD were younger (60 versus 64 years) and had fewer comorbidities. There was no association between PD modality and time to first peritonitis episode (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for APD versus CAPD, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.91 to 1.07; P=0.71). However, there was a lower hazard of developing Gram-positive peritonitis with APD than CAPD, which reached borderline significance (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.00; P=0.05). No statistically significant difference was found in the risk of hospitalizations (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.35; P=0.22), but there was a nonsignificant higher likelihood of 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.88; P=0.11) at the time of the first episode of peritonitis for patients receiving APD. For all peritonitis episodes (including subsequent episodes of peritonitis), APD was associated with lower rates of culture-negative peritonitis (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.94; P=0.002) and higher rates of gram-negative peritonitis (IRR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.46; P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: PD modality was not associated with a higher likelihood of developing peritonitis. However, APD was associated with a borderline reduction in the likelihood of a first episode of Gram-positive peritonitis compared with CAPD, and with lower rates of culture-negative peritonitis and higher rates of Gram-negative peritonitis. Peritonitis outcomes were comparable between both modalities.
Project description:Halomonas hamiltonii is a Gram-negative, halophilic, motile, and nonspore-forming rod bacterium. Although most Halomonas sp. are commonly found in saline environments, it has rarely been implicated as a cause of human infection. Herein, the authors present a case report of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)-related peritonitis attributed to H hamiltonii.An 82-year-old male patient who had been receiving CAPD therapy presented to an emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain and cloudy dialysate that had persisted for 2 days. The peritoneal dialysate was compatible with CAPD peritonitis, with white blood cell count of peritoneal effluent of 810/mm and neutrophils predominated (60%). Two days after culture on blood agar medium, nonhemolytic pink mucoid colonies showed, with cells showing Gram-negative, nonspore-forming rods with a few longer and larger bacilli than usual were found. We also performed biochemical tests and found negative responses in K/K on the triple sugar iron test and H2S and equivocal (very weak) response in the motility test, but positive responses to catalase, oxidase, and urease tests. The partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of a bacterium detected by peritoneal fluid culture was utilized for a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool search, which revealed that the organism was H hamiltonii. Intraperitoneal antibiotics were administered for 21 days, and the patient was discharged without clinical problems.We present here the first case report of CAPD-related peritonitis caused by H hamiltonii, which was identified using molecular biological techniques. Although guidelines do not exist for the treatment of infections caused by this organism, conventional treatment for Gram-negative organisms could be effective.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Staphylococcal infections can cause significant morbidity in patients undergoing dialysis. This study evaluated the effects of HIV infection on nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcal peritonitis, and catheter infection rates in patients with end-stage renal failure managed with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). METHODS:Sixty HIV-positive and 59 HIV-negative CAPD patients were enrolled and followed up for up to 18 months. S. aureus nasal carriage (detected by nasal swab culture), Staphylococcal peritonitis (diagnosed by clinical presentation, and CAPD effluent Staphylococcal culture and white blood cell count ≥100 cells/µL), and catheter infections (including exit site and tunnel infections) were assessed monthly. RESULTS:At 18 months, S. aureus nasal carriage rates were 43.3% and 30.5% (p = 0.147) and the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage rates were 31.7% and 13.6% (p = 0.018) for the HIV-positive and HIV-negative cohorts, respectively. The HIV-positive cohort was associated with increased hazards for staphylococcal peritonitis, (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 2.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-6.84, p = 0.019) due to increased coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CNS) peritonitis rate in the HIV-positive cohort compared with the HIV-negative cohort (0.435 vs. 0.089 episodes/person-years; AHR 7.64, CI 2.18-26.82, p = 0.001). On multivariable analysis, CD4+ cell count <200 cells/µL, diabetes, and S. aureus nasal carriage were found to be independent predictors of S. aureus peritonitis. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that HIV infection may be a risk factor for MRSA nasal colonization and may increase the risks of CNS peritonitis, while a CD4+ cell count <200 cells/µL and S. aureus nasal carriage may be important predictors of S. aureus peritonitis.
Project description:Peritonitis is a critical complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Investigators have reported the risk of peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) versus automated peritoneal dialysis (APD), but the available evidence is predominantly based on observational studies which failed to report on the connection type. Our understanding of the relationship between peritonitis risk and PD modality thus remained insufficient. We studied 285 participants who began PD treatment between 1997 and 2014 at three hospitals in Nara Prefecture in Japan. We matched 106 APD patients with 106 CAPD patients based on their propensity scores. The primary outcome was time to first episode of peritonitis within 3 years after PD commencement. In total, PD peritonitis occurred in 64 patients during the study period. Patients initiated on APD had a lower risk of peritonitis than did those initiated on CAPD in both the unadjusted and adjusted models. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the primary endpoint were 0.30 (0.17-0.53) in the fully adjusted model including connection type. In the matched cohort, APD patients had a significantly lower risk of peritonitis than did CAPD patients (log-rank: p?<?0.001, HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.59). The weighting-adjusted analysis of the inverse probability of treatment yielded a similar result (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18-0.67). In conclusion, patients initiated on APD at PD commencement had a reduced risk of peritonitis compared with those initiated on CAPD, suggesting APD may be preferable for prevention of peritonitis among PD patients.
Project description:In some patients with peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), a causative organism is never identified. We report a case of Ureaplasma urealyticum CAPD-associated peritonitis diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene PCR. Ureaplasma may be an underrecognized cause of peritonitis because it cannot be recovered using routine culture methods.
Project description:?The standard treatment of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis (PD-peritonitis) is intraperitoneal (IP) administration of antibiotics. Only limited data on the pharmacokinetics and appropriateness of contemporary dose recommendations of IP cefalothin and cefazolin exist. The aim of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of IP cefalothin and cefazolin in patients treated for PD-peritonitis. ?As per international guidelines, IP cefalothin or cefazolin 15 mg/kg once daily was dosed with gentamicin in a 6-hour dwell to patients with PD-peritonitis during routine care. Serial plasma and PD effluent samples were collected over the first 24 hours of therapy. Antibiotic concentrations were quantified using a validated chromatographic method with pharmacokinetic analysis performed using a non-compartmental approach. ?Nineteen patients were included (cefalothin n = 8, cefazolin n = 11). The median bioavailability for both antibiotics exceeded 92%, but other pharmacokinetic parameters varied markedly between antibiotics. Both antibiotics achieved high PD effluent concentrations throughout the antibiotic dwell. Cefazolin had a smaller volume of distribution compared with cefalothin (14 vs 40 L, p = 0.003). The median trough total plasma antibiotic concentration for cefazolin and cefalothin during the dwell differed (plasma 56 vs 13 mg/L, p < 0.0001) despite a similar concentration in PD effluent (37 vs 38 mg/L, p = 0.58). Lower antibiotic concentrations were noted during PD dwells not containing antibiotic, particularly cefalothin, which was frequently undetectable in plasma and PD effluent. The median duration that the unbound antibiotic concentration was above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was approximately 13% (plasma) and 25% (IP) for cefalothin, and 100% (plasma and IP) for cefazolin, of the dosing interval. ?When IP cefalothin or cefazolin is allowed to dwell for 6 hours, sufficient PD effluent concentrations are present for common pathogens during this time. However, with once-daily IP dosing, in contrast to cefazolin, there is a risk of subtherapeutic plasma and PD effluent cefalothin concentrations, so more frequent dosing may be required.
Project description:Rhizobium radiobacter is an opportunistic human pathogen in debilitated patients with foreign plastic intravascular devices and peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters. We performed a Medline search of the English-language literature on R. radiobacter continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and reviewed 13 cases.A 54-year-old male with ESRD secondary to chronic long-standing type II diabetes mellitus presented to the nephrology outpatient department with fever, abdominal pain and cloudy PD effluent. The patient was admitted to the hospital. PD fluid was sent for cell count, Gram stain and culture. The white blood cell (WBC) count in the PD fluid was 6400 mm-3 with 82 % neutrophils. Gram staining of the fluid showed plenty of Gram-negative bacilli. A presumptive diagnosis of CAPD peritonitis was made and empiric intraperitoneal cefazolin and tobramycin were started. The PD fluid culture grew non-fermenting, Gram-negative bacilli identified as R. radiobacter. Empiric antibiotic therapy was continued and the patient's abdominal pain subsided. The peritoneal fluid counts decreased to 50 WBCs mm-3 on day 4. However, his abdominal pain recurred on day 8 and his PD fluid count increased to 300 cells mm-3. The catheter was therefore surgically removed.Although R. radiobacter is considered a contaminant, it can cause relapsing symptomatic peritonitis peritoneal catheter removal.
Project description:Uric acid (UA) is the product of purine or nucleotide metabolism via the pathway of xanthine oxidase or xanthine dehydrogenase. Although epidemiological studies assessing the role of UA in cardiovascular disease or mortality have produced inconsistent results, the correlation between UA and technique failure in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) remains to be assessed.A retrospective cohort study.Patients starting CAPD between 2001 and 2009 in a single centre in Taiwan.A total of 371 patients on CAPD.All-cause and peritonitis-related technique failure.A cohort of 371 participants (43.9% male) was enrolled in the study with a mean age of 55.7±15.9?years at the start of CAPD. During the study period, technique failure occurred in 41 (34.4%) patients in the hyperuricaemia group compared with 49 (19.4%) in the normouricaemia group (p=0.003). In the multivariate Cox regression models, hyperuricaemia at baseline was significantly associated with both a higher risk of technique failure (HR 1.24; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.42, p=0.001) and peritonitis-related technique failure (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.57, p=0.008).UA was shown to be associated with all-cause and peritonitis-related technique failure in our study. Patients on CAPD with hyperuricaemia should be closely monitored and strategies of increasing survival on CAPD should be taken.