A capture-sequencing strategy identifies IRF8, EBF1, and APRIL as novel IGH fusion partners in B-cell lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: The characterization of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) translocations provides information on the diagnosis and guides therapeutic decisions in mature B-cell malignancies while enhancing our understanding of normal and malignant B-cell biology. However, existing methodologies for the detection of IGH translocations are labor intensive, often require viable cells, and are biased toward known IGH fusions. To overcome these limitations, we developed a capture sequencing strategy for the identification of IGH rearrangements at nucleotide level resolution and tested its capabilities as a diagnostic and discovery tool in 78 primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). We readily identified IGH-BCL2, IGH-BCL6, IGH-MYC, and IGH-CCND1 fusions and discovered IRF8, EBF1, and TNFSF13 (APRIL) as novel IGH partners in these tumors. IRF8 and TNFSF13 expression was significantly higher in lymphomas with IGH rearrangements targeting these loci. Modeling the deregulation of IRF8 and EBF1 in vitro defined a lymphomagenic profile characterized by up-regulation of AID and/or BCL6, down-regulation of PRMD1, and resistance to apoptosis. Using a capture sequencing strategy, we discovered the B-cell relevant genes IRF8, EBF1, and TNFSF13 as novel targets for IGH deregulation. This methodology is poised to change how IGH translocations are identified in clinical settings while remaining a powerful tool to uncover the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies.
Project description:BCL6 translocations are common in B-cell lymphomas and frequently have chromosomal breaks in immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) switch regions, suggesting that they occur during class-switch recombination. We analyze 120 BCL6 translocation breakpoints clustered in a 2156-bp segment of BCL6 intron 1, including 62 breakpoints (52%) joined to IgH, 12 (10%) joined to Ig light chains, and 46 (38%) joined to non-Ig partners. The BCL6 breaks in Ig-BCL6 translocations prefer known activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) hotspots such as WGCW and WRC (W = A/T, R = A/G), whereas BCL6 breaks in non-Ig rearrangements occur at CpG/CGC sites in addition to WGCW. Unlike previously identified CpG breaks in pro-B/pre-B-cell translocations, the BCL6 breaks do not show evidence of recombination activating gene or terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity. Both WGCW/WRC and CpG/CGC breaks at BCL6 are most likely initiated by AID in germinal center B-cells, and their differential use suggests subtle mechanistic differences between Ig-BCL6 and non-Ig-BCL6 rearrangements.
Project description:Human Burkitt lymphomas are divided into two main clinical variants: the endemic form, affecting African children infected with malaria and the Epstein-Barr virus, and the sporadic form, distributed across the rest of the world. However, whereas sporadic translocations decapitate Myc from 5' proximal regulatory elements, most endemic events occur hundreds of kilobases away from Myc. The origin of these rearrangements and how they deregulate oncogenes at such distances remain unclear. We here recapitulate endemic Burkitt lymphoma-like translocations in plasmacytomas from uracil N-glycosylase and activation-induced cytidine deaminase-deficient mice. Mapping of translocation breakpoints using an acetylated histone H3 lysine 9 chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing approach reveals Igh fusions up to ?350 kb upstream of Myc or the related oncogene Mycn. A comprehensive analysis of epigenetic marks, PolII recruitment, and transcription in tumor cells demonstrates that the 3' Igh enhancer (E?) vastly remodels ?450 kb of chromatin into translocated sequences, leading to significant polymerase occupancy and constitutive oncogene expression. We show that this long-range epigenetic reprogramming is directly proportional to the physical interaction of E? with translocated sites. Our studies thus uncover the extent of epigenetic remodeling by Ig 3' enhancers and provide a rationale for the long-range deregulation of translocated oncogenes in endemic Burkitt lymphomas. The data also shed light on the origin of endemic-like chromosomal rearrangements.
Project description:Genomic rearrangements in the MYC locus occur in ?12% of lymphomas with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) morphology and are associated with inferior outcome. Previous studies exploring MYC rearrangements have primarily used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays to characterize break-apart status but have rarely examined breakpoint location, and in some cases have not examined partner identity. We performed targeted sequencing of MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and the immunoglobulin (IG) loci in 112 tumors with DLBCL morphology harboring MYC rearrangement. We characterized the location of the MYC rearrangement at base pair resolution and identified the partner in 88 cases. We observed a cluster of breakpoints upstream of the MYC coding region and in intron 1 (the "genic cluster"). Genic cluster rearrangements were enriched for translocations involving IGH (80%), whereas nongenic rearrangements occurred mostly downstream of the MYC gene with a variety of partners, including IGL and IGK Other recurrent partners included BCL6, ZCCHC7, and RFTN1, which has not previously been described as a MYC partner. We compared 2 commercially available FISH break-apart assays for the MYC locus and observed discordant results in 32% of cases examined, including some with MYC-IGL and MYC-IGK rearrangements. In cases of high-grade B-cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangement (HGBL-DH), so-called "double-hit" lymphomas, the majority of MYC rearrangements had non-IG partners (65%), with breakpoints outside the genic cluster (72%). In patients with de novo HGBL-DH of DLBCL morphology, MYC-IG rearrangements showed a trend toward inferior time to progression and overall survival compared with MYC-non-IG rearrangements. Our data reveal clinically relevant architecture of MYC rearrangements in lymphomas with DLBCL morphology.
Project description:Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive lymphoma characterized by a terminally differentiated B-cell phenotype that usually occurs in the immunocompromised or elderly patients. Although the clinical and pathologic characteristics of these tumors have been defined, the genetic alterations involved in their pathogenesis are not well known. In this study, we have investigated the chromosomal alterations of MYC, BCL2, BCL6, MALT1, PAX5, and IGH loci using fluorescence in situ hybridization in 42 PBL and 3 extracavitary primary effusion lymphomas. MYC rearrangements were identified in 20 of 41 (49%) PBL and the immunoglobulin (IG) genes were the partners in most tumors. MYC rearrangements were more common in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive (14 of 19, 74%) than EBV-negative (9 of 21, 43%) tumors (P<0.05). No rearrangements of BCL2, BCL6, MALT1, or PAX5 were detected in any PBL but gains of these loci were observed in 31% to 41% of the cases examined. Twelve of the 40 PBL in which 3 or more loci could be investigated had multiple simultaneous gains in 3 or more loci. No differences in the survival of the patients according to MYC were observed but the 4 patients with the longest survival (>50?mo) had no or low number of gains (<3). No rearrangements of any of these loci were seen in the primary effusion lymphomas. In conclusion, PBL are genetically characterized by frequent IG/MYC translocations and gains in multiple chromosomal loci. The oncogenic activation of MYC in these lymphomas may be an important pathogenetic element associated with EBV infection.
Project description:Current polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the molecular diagnosis of B- and T-cell lymphomas by determination of clonality of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and T-cell receptor-gamma rearrangements and by detection of the chromosomal translocations t(14;18) and t(11;14), require several laborious and costly PCR assays for each of these diagnostic tests. We have developed a multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous determination of B- and T-cell clonality and the detection of the chromosomal translocations t(14;18) and t(11;14) in a single reaction, using four-color fluorescence and automated high-resolution fragment analysis. The 26 primers combined in the multiplex PCR correspond to the sequences of >90% of the 69 variables and 6 join IgH genes and 100% of the T-cell receptor-gamma variables and join genes that could participate in the respective rearrangements. In addition, they detect the major and the minor breakpoint regions of the t(14;18) and the major breakpoint region of the t(11;14), and amplify the beta-globin gene as an internal control. The specificity of the multiplex PCR was confirmed by analysis of 39 T-cell lymphomas and 58 B-cell lymphomas, including 11 mantle cell lymphomas bearing the t(11;14) and 25 follicular lymphomas bearing the t(14;18), with known rearrangements and/or translocations. Fifteen samples of reactive lymphadenitis remained negative.
Project description:High-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements (double-/triple-hit lymphoma) have an aggressive clinical course. We investigated the prognostic value of transformation from low-grade lymphoma, cytological features (high grade versus large cell), MYC rearrangement partners (immunoglobulin versus nonimmunoglobulin gene), and treatment. We evaluated 100 adults with double-/triple-hit lymphoma, reviewing cytological features; cell of origin; and rearrangements of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 using MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 break-apart and IGH/MYC, IGL/MYC, IGK/MYC, and IGH/BCL2 dual-fusion interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization probes. Outcome analysis was restricted to patients with lymphoma, de novo or at transformation, who received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Among them, 60% had high-grade cytological features; 91% had a germinal center B-cell phenotype, and 60% had a MYC/IG rearrangement. Germinal center B-cell phenotype was associated with BCL2 rearrangements (P<0.001). Mean (95% confidence interval) 5-year overall survival was 49% (37%-64%). Transformation from previously treated and untreated low-grade lymphoma was associated with inferior overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.99; P=0.008). Patients with high-grade cytological features showed a non-significant tendency to inferior outcome (hazard ratio, 2.32; P=0.09). No association was observed between MYC rearrangement partner and overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.00; P=0.99). Compared with patients receiving rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine (R-CHOP) and dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and rituximab (EPOCH-R), patients receiving rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, and cytarabine (R-CODOX-M/IVAC) had a non-significant tendency to better overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.37; P=0.10). In conclusion, high-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements had heterogeneous outcomes and MYC/IG rearrangements were not associated with inferior overall survival.
Project description:Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) and primary testicular lymphomas (PTLs) are extranodal large B-cell lymphomas (LBCLs) with inferior responses to current empiric treatment regimens. To identify targetable genetic features of PCNSL and PTL, we characterized their recurrent somatic mutations, chromosomal rearrangements, copy number alterations (CNAs), and associated driver genes, and compared these comprehensive genetic signatures to those of diffuse LBCL and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL). These studies identify unique combinations of genetic alterations in discrete LBCL subtypes and subtype-selective bases for targeted therapy. PCNSLs and PTLs frequently exhibit genomic instability, and near-uniform, often biallelic, CDKN2A loss with rare TP53 mutations. PCNSLs and PTLs also use multiple genetic mechanisms to target key genes and pathways and exhibit near-uniform oncogenic Toll-like receptor signaling as a result of MYD88 mutation and/or NFKBIZ amplification, frequent concurrent B-cell receptor pathway activation, and deregulation of BCL6. Of great interest, PCNSLs and PTLs also have frequent 9p24.1/PD-L1/PD-L2 CNAs and additional translocations of these loci, structural bases of immune evasion that are shared with PMBL.
Project description:The transcription factor FOXP1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphomas through chromosomal translocations involving either immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus or non-IG sequences. The former translocation, t(3;14)(p13;q32), results in dysregulated expression of FOXP1 juxtaposed with strong regulatory elements of IGH. Thus far, molecular consequences of rare non-IG aberrations of FOXP1 remain undetermined. Here, using molecular cytogenetics and molecular biology studies, we comprehensively analyzed four lymphoma cases with non-IG rearrangements of FOXP1 and compared these with cases harboring t(3;14)(p13;q32)/IGH-FOXP1 and FOXP1-expressing lymphomas with no apparent structural aberrations of the gene. Our study revealed that non-IG rearrangements of FOXP1 are usually acquired during clinical course of various lymphoma subtypes, including diffuse large B cell lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and correlate with a poor prognosis. Importantly, these aberrations constantly target the coding region of FOXP1, promiscuously fusing with coding and non-coding gene sequences at various reciprocal breakpoints (2q36, 10q24 and 3q11). The non-IG rearrangements of FOXP1, however, do not generate functional chimeric genes but commonly disrupt the full-length FOXP1 transcript leading to an aberrant expression of N-truncated FOXP1 isoforms (FOXP1(NT)), as shown by QRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In contrast, t(3;14)(p13;q32)/IGH-FOXP1 affects the 5' untranslated region of FOXP1 and results in overexpress the full-length FOXP1 protein (FOXP1(FL)). RNA-sequencing of a few lymphoma cases expressing FOXP1(NT) and FOXP1(FL) detected neither FOXP1-related fusions nor FOXP1 mutations. Further bioinformatic analysis of RNA-sequencing data retrieved a set of genes, which may comprise direct or non-direct targets of FOXP1(NT), potentially implicated in disease progression. In summary, our findings point to a dual mechanism through which FOXP1 is implicated in B-cell lymphomagenesis. We hypothesize that the primary t(3;14)(p13;q32)/IGH-FOXP1 activates expression of the FOXP1(FL) protein with potent oncogenic activity, whereas the secondary non-IG rearrangements of FOXP1 promote expression of the FOXP1(NT) proteins, likely driving progression of disease.
Project description:There is a need for genetic biomarkers to guide prognosis and management of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. We assessed the incidence and clinical significance of the MALT lymphoma-associated genetic abnormalities t(11;18)/API2-MALT1, t(1;14)/BCL10-IGH, t(14;18)/IGH-MALT1, t(3;14)/FOXP1-IGH, and extra copies of MALT1 and FOXP1 in gastric MALT lymphomas from Japan.The presence of translocations and copy number changes involving MALT1, IGH and FOXP1 were assessed in 90 cases of gastric MALT lymphoma using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). In cases carrying a MALT1 translocation, FISH for API2-MALT1 was performed, whereas in those carrying an IGH translocation, FISH was performed for BCL10, BCL6, BCL2, c-MYC and/or CCND1.t(11;18)/API2-MALT1 was detected in 18 of 87 (21%) cases and was significantly associated with Helicobacter pylori-negativity, resistance to H pylori eradication and Bcl10 nuclear expression. Four of 68 (6%) cases carried a translocation involving IGH and FOXP1 (n = 1), BCL2 (n = 1) or an unknown partner (n = 2). Neither t(1;14)/BCL10-IGH nor t(14;18)/IGH-MALT1 was detected. Extra copies of MALT1 and FOXP1 were detected in 18 of 71 (25%) cases and 10 of 59 (17%) cases, respectively. The presence of extra copies of MALT1 was significantly associated with progression or relapse of lymphoma, and was an independent adverse prognostic factor for event-free survival as determined by multivariate analysis.t(11;18)/API2-MALT1 is frequent, whereas IGH-involved translocations are rare in gastric MALT lymphoma in Japan. The presence of extra copies of MALT1, often suggestive of partial or complete trisomy 18, is a frequent genetic aberration in gastric MALT lymphoma, which appears to predict adverse clinical behaviour.
Project description:Background: Germinal center B-cell (GCB) lymphomas are common in children and adults. The prognosis strongly depends on age. Subgroups of GCB-lymphomas are characterized by chromosomal translocations affecting immunoglobulin (IG) loci leading to oncogene deregulation. Methods: Novel IG translocation partners were cloned within the network “Molecular Mechanisms in Malignant Lymphomas” (MMML) by long-distance inverse polymerase chain reaction. Mature aggressive B-cell lymphomas from the MMML as well as pediatric and adult lymphoma trials were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunhistochemistry. Data from 438 MMML cases characterized by gene expression profiling were mined. Results: Cloning of unknown IG partners identified a t(6;14)(p25;q32) juxtaposing the IRF4 oncogene with the IGH-locus as novel recurrent aberration in GCB lymphoma. FISH analyses of 427 mature B-cell lymphomas for IRF4 translocations revealed 20 IG/IRF4 positive lymphomas (17 IGH/IRF4, 2 IGL/IRF4, 1 IGΚ/IRF4). IG/IRF4-positive lymphomas were predominantly GCB-type diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) or follicular lymphoma grade 3, shared overexpression of IRF4/MUM1 and BCL6 and lacked PRDM1/BLIMP1 expression and t(14;18)/BCL2 breaks. BCL6 aberrations were common. The gene expression profile of IG/IRF4-positive lymphomas was different from other subtypes of DLBCL and a classifier for IG/IRF4 positivity containing 27 genes allowed prediction of 3 additional MMML IG/IRF4-positive cases subsequently proven by FISH. IG/IRF4-positivity was associated with a favorable outcome likely due to significant enrichment of IG/IRF4-positive lymphomas in childhood and young adulthood. Conclusions: Our results suggest IRF4 translocations to be primary genetic alterations in a novel molecularly defined subset of GC-derived lymphomas predominantly affecting children. Overall design: 271 diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma samples were hybridized to HGU133A Affymetrix GeneChips.