Effects of dietary weight loss and exercise on insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: High levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I may increase the risk of common cancers in humans. We hypothesized that weight loss induced by diet and/or exercise would reduce IGF-I in postmenopausal women. Four hundred and thirty nine overweight or obese [body mass index (BMI) ? 25 kg/m(2)] women (50-75 years) were randomly assigned to: (i) exercise (N = 117), (ii) dietary weight loss (N = 118), (iii) diet + exercise (N = 117), or (iv) control (N = 87). The diet intervention was a group-based program with a 10% weight loss goal. The exercise intervention was 45 minutes/day, 5 days/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity. Fasting serum IGF-I and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 were measured at baseline and 12 months by radioimmunoassay. Higher baseline BMI was associated with lower IGF-I and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio. Although no significant changes in either IGF-I or IGFBP-3 were detected in any intervention arm compared with control, the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio increased significantly in the diet (+5.0%, P < 0.01) and diet + exercise (+5.4%, P < 0.01) groups compared with control. Greater weight loss was positively associated with change in both IGF-I (P(trend) = 0.017) and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio (P(trend) < 0.001) in the diet group, but inversely with change in IGFBP-3 in the diet + exercise group (P(trend) = 0.01). No consistent interaction effects with baseline BMI were detected. Modified IGF-I bioavailability is unlikely to be a mechanism through which caloric restriction reduces cancer risk in postmenopausal women.
Project description:Excess body weight and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with the development of several diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer in women. One proposed mechanism linking obesity to chronic diseases is an alteration in adipose-derived adiponectin and leptin levels. We investigated the effects of 12-month reduced calorie, weight loss and exercise interventions on adiponectin and leptin concentrations.Overweight/obese postmenopausal women (n = 439) were randomized as follows: (i) a reduced calorie, weight-loss diet (diet; N = 118), (ii) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise (exercise; N = 117), (iii) a combination of a reduced calorie, weight-loss diet and moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise (diet + exercise; N = 117), and (iv) control (N = 87). The reduced calorie diet had a 10% weight-loss goal. The exercise intervention consisted of 45 min of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity 5 days per week. Adiponectin and leptin levels were measured at baseline and after 12 months of intervention using a radioimmunoassay.Adiponectin increased by 9.5% in the diet group and 6.6% in the diet + exercise group (both P ? 0.0001 vs. control). Compared with controls, leptin decreased with all interventions (diet + exercise, -40.1%, P < 0.0001; diet, -27.1%, P < 0.0001; exercise, -12.7%, P = 0.005). The results were not influenced by the baseline body mass index (BMI). The degree of weight loss was inversely associated with concentrations of adiponectin (diet, P-trend = 0.0002; diet + exercise, P-trend = 0.0005) and directly associated with leptin (diet, P-trend < 0.0001; diet + exercise, P-trend < 0.0001).Weight loss through diet or diet + exercise increased adiponectin concentrations. Leptin concentrations decreased in all of the intervention groups, but the greatest reduction occurred with diet + exercise. Weight loss and exercise exerted some beneficial effects on chronic diseases via effects on adiponectin and leptin.
Project description:Obesity is an established risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). It is unclear what biologic mechanisms underlie this association, although recent evidence suggests that the effects of circulating hormones such as insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and adipokines may play a role.To address this question, we conducted a nested case-control study of RCC (252 cases, 252 controls) within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial investigating associations with pre-diagnostic serum levels of total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, IGF-1, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and C-peptide. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression.After adjustment for potential confounders, non-significant associations with RCC were observed for total adiponectin (OR for highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.65, 95% CI 0.37-1.14; p trend = 0.35), HMW adiponectin (0.67, 0.38-1.17; p trend = 0.36), IGF-1 (1.35, 0.77-2.39; p trend = 0.17), IGFBP-3 (1.47, 0.83-2.62; p trend = 0.53), and C-peptide (1.52, 0.86-2.70; p trend = 0.15). In a joint analysis with body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), obese individuals (BMI ?30) with above-median levels of IGFBP-3 had a significantly higher risk versus those with BMI <25 and below-median IGFBP-3 (OR 2.42, 1.11-5.26), whereas obese individuals with low IGFBP-3 did not (1.18, 0.53-2.64) (p interaction = 0.35).The results of this study, while not clearly supporting associations with these obesity-related hormones, suggest that the association between obesity and RCC may be partially modified through mechanisms related to elevated IGFBP-3.
Project description:Obese and sedentary persons have increased risk for cancer; inflammation is a hypothesized mechanism. We examined the effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in 439 women. Overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 1-year: caloric restriction diet (goal of 10% weight loss, N = 118), aerobic exercise (225 min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous activity, N = 117), combined diet + exercise (N = 117), or control (N = 87). Baseline and 1-year high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukocyte, and neutrophil levels were measured by investigators blind to group. Inflammatory biomarker changes were compared using generalized estimating equations. Models were adjusted for baseline body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, and age. Four hundred and thirty-eight (N = 1 in diet + exercise group was excluded) were analyzed. Relative to controls, hs-CRP decreased by geometric mean (95% confidence interval, P value): 0.92 mg/L (0.53-1.31, P < 0.001) in the diet and 0.87 mg/L (0.51-1.23, P < 0.0001) in the diet + exercise groups. IL-6 decreased by 0.34 pg/mL (0.13-0.55, P = 0.001) in the diet and 0.32 pg/mL (0.15-0.49, P < 0.001) in the diet + exercise groups. Neutrophil counts decreased by 0.31 × 10(9)/L (0.09-0.54, P = 0.006) in the diet and 0.30 × 10(9)/L (0.09-0.50, P = 0.005) in the diet + exercise groups. Diet and diet + exercise participants with 5% or more weight loss reduced inflammatory biomarkers (hs-CRP, SAA, and IL-6) compared with controls. The diet and diet + exercise groups reduced hs-CRP in all subgroups of baseline BMI, waist circumference, CRP level, and fasting glucose. Our findings indicate that a caloric restriction weight loss diet with or without exercise reduces biomarkers of inflammation in postmenopausal women, with potential clinical significance for cancer risk reduction.
Project description:The effect of a low glycemic load (GL) diet on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration is still unknown but may contribute to lower chronic disease risk. We aimed to assess the impact of GL on concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3).We conducted a randomized, controlled crossover feeding trial in 84 overweight obese and normal weight healthy individuals using two 28-day weight-maintaining high- and low-GL diets. Measures were fasting and post-prandial concentrations of insulin, glucose, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. In all 80 participants completed the study and 20 participants completed post-prandial testing by consuming a test breakfast at the end of each feeding period. We used paired t-tests for diet component and linear mixed models for biomarker analyses.The 28-day low-GL diet led to 4% lower fasting concentrations of IGF-1 (10.6?ng/ml, P=0.04) and a 4% lower ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 (0.24, P=0.01) compared with the high-GL diet. The low-GL test breakfast led to 43% and 27% lower mean post-prandial glucose and insulin responses, respectively; mean incremental areas under the curve for glucose and insulin, respectively, were 64.3±21.8 (mmol/l/240?min; P<0.01) and 2253±539 (?U/ml/240?min; P<0.01) lower following the low- compared with the high-GL test meal. There was no effect of GL on mean homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance or on mean integrated post-prandial concentrations of glucose-adjusted insulin, IGF-1 or IGFBP-3. We did not observe modification of the dietary effect by adiposity.Low-GL diets resulted in 43% and 27% lower post-prandial responses of glucose and insulin, respectively, and modestly lower fasting IGF-1 concentrations. Further intervention studies are needed to weigh the impact of dietary GL on risk for chronic disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Certain eating behaviors are common among women with obesity. Whether these behaviors influence outcomes in weight loss programs, and whether such programs affect eating behaviors, is unclear. METHODS:Our aim was to examine the effect of baseline eating behaviors on intervention adherence and weight among postmenopausal women with overweight or obesity, and to assess intervention effects on eating behaviors. Four hundred and 39 women (BMI ?25?kg/m2) were randomized to 12?months of: i) dietary weight loss with a 10% weight loss goal ('diet'; n?=?118); ii) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise for 225 mins/week ('exercise'; n?=?117); iii) combined dietary weight loss and exercise ('diet + exercise'; n?=?117); or iv) no-lifestyle change control (n?=?87). At baseline and 12?months, restrained eating, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and binge eating were measured by questionnaire; weight and body composition were assessed. The mean change in eating behavior scores and weight between baseline and 12?months in the diet, exercise, and diet + exercise arms were each compared to controls using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) modification of linear regression adjusted for age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity. RESULTS:Baseline restrained eating was positively associated with change in total calories and calories from fat during the dietary intervention but not with other measures of adherence. Higher baseline restrained eating was associated with greater 12-month reductions in weight, waist circumference, body fat and lean mass. Women randomized to dietary intervention had significant reductions in binge eating (-?23.7%, p?=?0.005 vs. control), uncontrolled eating (-?24.3%, p?<?0.001 vs. control), and emotional eating (-?31.7%, p?<?0.001 vs. control) scores, and a significant increase in restrained eating (+?60.6%, p?<?0.001 vs. control); women randomized to diet + exercise reported less uncontrolled eating (-?26.0%, p?<?0.001 vs. control) and emotional eating (-?22.0%, p?=?0.004 vs. control), and increased restrained eating (+?41.4%, p?<?0.001 vs. control). Women randomized to exercise alone had no significant change in eating behavior scores compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS:A dietary weight loss intervention helped women modify eating behaviors. Future research should investigate optimal behavioral weight loss interventions for women with both disordered eating and obesity. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT00470119 (https://clinicaltrials.gov). Retrospectively registered May 7, 2007.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We tested the effects of weight loss on serum estradiol, estrone, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in overweight/obese women 18 months after completing a year-long, 4-arm, randomized-controlled dietary weight loss and/or exercise trial. METHODS:From 2005 to 2008, 439 overweight/obese, postmenopausal women (BMI >25?kg/m), 50 to 75 years, were randomized to a year-long intervention: diet (reduced calorie, 10% weight loss, N = 118), exercise (225?min/wk moderate-to-vigorous activity, N?=?117), combined diet + exercise (N?=?117), or control (N?=?87). At 12 months, 399 women provided blood; of these, 156 returned at 30 months and gave a blood sample. Hormones and SHBG were measured by immunoassay. Changes were compared using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS:At 30 months, participants randomized to the diet + exercise intervention had statistically significant increases in SHBG levels versus controls (P?=?0.001). There was no statistically significant change in SHBG in the exercise or diet intervention arms. Hormone levels did not vary by intervention arm from baseline to 30 months. Participants who maintained weight loss at 30 months had statistically significantly greater decreases in free estradiol and free testosterone (Ptrend?=?0.02 and Ptrend?=?0.04, respectively) and increases in SHBG (Ptrend?<?0.0001) versus those who did not have sustained weight loss. Levels of other analytes did not vary by weight loss at 30 months. CONCLUSIONS:Sustained weight loss results in reductions in free estradiol and testosterone and increases in SHBG 18-month post-intervention.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 coupled with growth hormone helps control timing of sexual maturation. Mutations and variants in multiple genes are associated with development or reduced risk of central precocious puberty (CPP). METHODS:We assessed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-3, IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R), IGF-2 receptor (IGF2R), and IGF -binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) genes, and their association with demographics and metabolic proteins in girls with CPP. Z-scores of height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were calculated with the WHO reference growth standards for children. RESULTS:IGF-1 serum levels of CPP group exhibited a higher correlation with bone age, z-scores of height and weight, and luteinizing hormone (LH) than those of control group, regardless of BMI adjustment. In the CPP group, height was associated with IGF-2(3580), an adenine to guanine (A/G) SNP at position +?3580. BMI in the CPP group was associated with IGF-2(3580), IGF1R, and the combinations of [IGF-2(3580)?+?IGF2R], and [IGF-2(3580)?+?IGFBP-3]. Body weight in the CPP group was associated with the combination of [IGF-2(3580)?+?IGFBP-3] (p?=?0.024). Weight and BMI were significantly associated with the combination of [IGF-2(3580)?+?IGF2R?+?IGFBP-3] in the CPP group. These associations were not significantly associated with z-scores of weight, height, or BMI. The distribution of these genotypes, haplotypes, and allele frequencies were similar between control and CPP groups. CONCLUSIONS:These known SNPs of these IGF-1 axis genes appear to play minor roles in the risk for development of CPP.