Mitotic phosphorylation of Golgi reassembly stacking protein 55 by mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK2.
ABSTRACT: The role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK)/extracellular-activated protein kinase (ERK) pathway in mitotic Golgi disassembly is controversial, in part because Golgi-localized targets have not been identified. We observed that Golgi reassembly stacking protein 55 (GRASP55) was phosphorylated in mitotic cells and extracts, generating a mitosis-specific phospho-epitope recognized by the MPM2 mAb. This phosphorylation was prevented by mutation of ERK consensus sites in GRASP55. GRASP55 mitotic phosphorylation was significantly reduced, both in vitro and in vivo, by treatment with U0126, a potent and specific inhibitor of MKK and thus ERK activation. Furthermore, ERK2 directly phosphorylated GRASP55 on the same residues that generated the MPM2 phospho-epitope. These results are the first demonstration of GRASP55 mitotic phosphorylation and indicate that the MKK/ERK pathway directly phosphorylates the Golgi during mitosis.
Project description:Recent work indicates that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)1 signaling at the G2/M cell cycle transition unlinks the contiguous mammalian Golgi apparatus and that this regulates cell cycle progression. Here, we sought to determine the role in this pathway of Golgi reassembly protein (GRASP)55, a Golgi-localized target of MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation at mitosis. In support of the hypothesis that GRASP55 is inhibited in late G2 phase, causing unlinking of the Golgi ribbon, we found that HeLa cells depleted of GRASP55 show a fragmented Golgi similar to control cells arrested in G2 phase. In the absence of GRASP55, Golgi stack length is shortened but Golgi stacking, compartmentalization, and transport seem normal. Absence of GRASP55 was also sufficient to suppress the requirement for MEK1 in the G2/M transition, a requirement that we previously found depends on an intact Golgi ribbon. Furthermore, mimicking mitotic phosphorylation of GRASP55 by using aspartic acid substitutions is sufficient to unlink the Golgi apparatus in a gene replacement assay. Our results implicate MEK1/ERK regulation of GRASP55-mediated Golgi linking as a control point in cell cycle progression.
Project description:Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is an NAD-dependent sirtuin deacetylase that regulates microtubule and chromatin dynamics, gene expression and cell cycle progression, as well as nuclear envelope reassembly. Recent proteomic analyses have identified Golgi proteins as SIRT2 interactors, indicating that SIRT2 may also play a role in Golgi structure formation. Here, we show that SIRT2 depletion causes Golgi fragmentation and impairs Golgi reassembly at the end of mitosis. SIRT2 interacts with the Golgi reassembly stacking protein GRASP55 (also known as GORASP2) in mitosis when GRASP55 is highly acetylated on K50. Expression of wild-type and the K50R acetylation-deficient mutant of GRASP55, but not the K50Q acetylation-mimetic mutant, in GRASP55 and GRASP65 (also known as GORASP1) double-knockout cells, rescued the Golgi structure and post-mitotic Golgi reassembly. Acetylation-deficient GRASP55 exhibited a higher self-interaction efficiency, a property required for Golgi structure formation. These results demonstrate that SIRT2 regulates Golgi structure by modulating GRASP55 acetylation levels.
Project description:GRASP65 phosphorylation during mitosis and dephosphorylation after mitosis are required for Golgi disassembly and reassembly during the cell cycle. At least eight phosphorylation sites on GRASP65 have been identified, but whether they are modified in a coordinated fashion during mitosis is so far unknown. In this study, we raised phospho-specific antibodies that recognize phosphorylated T220/T224, S277 and S376 residues of GRASP65, respectively. Biochemical analysis showed that cdc2 phosphorylates all three sites, while plk1 enhances the phosphorylation. Microscopic studies using these antibodies for double and triple labeling demonstrate sequential phosphorylation and dephosphorylation during the cell cycle. S277 and S376 are phosphorylated from late G2 phase through metaphase until telophase when the new Golgi is reassembled. T220/224 is not modified until prophase, but is highly modified from prometaphase to anaphase. In metaphase, phospho-T220/224 signal localizes on both Golgi haze and mitotic Golgi clusters that represent dispersed Golgi vesicles and Golgi remnants, respectively, while phospho-S277 and S376 labeling is more concentrated on mitotic Golgi clusters. Expression of a phosphorylation-resistant GRASP65 mutant T220A/T224A inhibited mitotic Golgi fragmentation to a much larger extent than the expression of the S277A and S376A mutants. In cytokinesis, T220/224 dephosphorylation occurs prior to that of S277, but after S376. This study provides evidence that GRASP65 is sequentially phosphorylated and dephosphorylated during mitosis at different sites to orchestrate Golgi disassembly and reassembly during cell division, with phosphorylation of the T220/224 site being most critical in the process.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The dual specificity phosphatase cdc25C was the first human cdc25 family member found to be essential in the activation of cdk1/cyclin B1 that takes place at the entry into mitosis. Human cdc25C is phosphorylated on Proline-dependent SP and TP sites when it becomes active at mitosis and the prevalent model is that this phosphorylation/activation of cdc25C would be part of an amplification loop with cdk1/cyclin B1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using highly specific antibodies directed against cdc25C phospho-epitopes, pT67 and pT130, we show here that these two phospho-forms of cdc25C represent distinct pools with differential localization during human mitosis. Phosphorylation on T67 occurs from prophase and the cdc25C-pT67 phospho-isoform closely localizes with condensed chromosomes throughout mitosis. The phospho-T130 form of cdc25C arises in late G2 and associates predominantly with centrosomes from prophase to anaphase B where it colocalizes with Plk1. As shown by immunoprecipitation of each isoform, these two phospho-forms are not simultaneously phosphorylated on the other mitotic TP sites or associated with one another. Phospho-T67 cdc25C co-precipitates with MPM2-reactive proteins while pT130-cdc25C is associated with Plk1. Interaction and colocalization of phosphoT130-cdc25C with Plk1 demonstrate in living cells, that the sequence around pT130 acts as a true Polo Box Domain (PBD) binding site as previously identified from in vitro peptide screening studies. Overexpression of non-phosphorylatable alanine mutant forms for each isoform, but not wild type cdc25C, strongly impairs mitotic progression showing the functional requirement for each site-specific phosphorylation of cdc25C at mitosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show for the first time that in human mitosis, distinct phospho-isoforms of cdc25C exist with different localizations and interacting partners, thus implying that the long-standing model of a cdc25C/cdk1 multi-site auto amplification loop is implausible.
Project description:In vitro studies have suggested that Golgi stack formation involves two homologous peripheral Golgi proteins, GRASP65 and GRASP55, which localize to the cis and medial-trans cisternae, respectively. However, no mechanism has been provided on how these two GRASP proteins work together to stack Golgi cisternae. Here, we show that depletion of either GRASP55 or GRASP65 by siRNA reduces the number of cisternae per Golgi stack, whereas simultaneous knockdown of both GRASP proteins leads to disassembly of the entire stack. GRASP55 stacks Golgi membranes by forming oligomers through its N-terminal GRASP domain. This process is regulated by phosphorylation within the C-terminal serine/proline-rich domain. Expression of nonphosphorylatable GRASP55 mutants enhances Golgi stacking in interphase cells and inhibits Golgi disassembly during mitosis. These results demonstrate that GRASP55 and GRASP65 stack mammalian Golgi cisternae via a common mechanism.
Project description:The MPM2 monoclonal antibody binds to a phospho amino acid-containing epitope present on more than 40 proteins of M-phase eukaryotic cells. We have developed a technique for cloning cDNAs encoding MPM2-reactive phosphoproteins from bacteriophage lambda expression libraries. Proteins from phage plaques were absorbed to nitrocellulose filters, phosphorylated by M-phase kinases, and screened for MPM2 binding. Partial-length cDNAs encoding two MPM2-reactive proteins termed MPM2-reactive phosphoproteins 1 and 2 (MPP1 and MPP2) were isolated. The deduced MPP1 and MPP2 amino acid sequences are not closely related to any previously described proteins. To determine which amino acid stretches contained the MPM2 epitope, sequences from a 15 amino acid peptide expression library were selected for binding to MPM2 after phosphorylation by M-phase kinases. A string of five amino acids was similar among all selected peptides, and the sequence reflecting the most frequent amino acid at each position was Leu-Thr-Pro-Leu-Lys (LTPLK). MPP1 and MPP2 proteins, respectively, contained five and nine sites closely related to LTPLK, including two that were common to both proteins, (F/T)TPLQ and SSP(I/S)D. Peptides containing LTPLK and FTPLQ were strongly phosphorylated by M-phase, but not interphase, cytosolic kinases, and the phosphorylated peptides were bound by MPM2. Thus, we have identified M-phase-specific phosphorylation sites bound by MPM2 and two putative M-phase phosphoproteins containing these sites.
Project description:Phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) on tyrosine and threonine residues within the TEY tripeptide motif induces ERK activation and targeting of substrates. Although it is recognized that phosphorylation of both residues is required for ERK activation, it is not known if a single phosphorylation of either residue regulates physiological functions. In light of recent evidence indicating that ERK proteins regulate substrate function in the absence of ERK enzymatic activity, we have begun to examine functional roles for partially phosphorylated forms of ERK. Using phosphorylation site--specific ERK antibodies and immunofluorescence, we demonstrate that ERK phosphorylated on the tyrosine residue (pY ERK) within the TEY activation sequence is found constitutively in the nucleus, and localizes to the Golgi complex of cells that are in late G2 or early mitosis of the cell cycle. As cells progress through metaphase and anaphase, pY ERK localization to Golgi vesicles is most evident around the mitotic spindle poles. During telophase, pY ERK associates with newly formed Golgi vesicles but is not found on there after cytokinesis and entry into G1. Increased ERK phosphorylation causes punctate distribution of several Golgi proteins, indicating disruption of the Golgi structure. This observation is reversible by overexpression of a tyrosine phosphorylation--defective ERK mutant, but not by a kinase-inactive ERK2 mutant that is tyrosine phosphorylated. These data provide the first evidence that pY ERK and not ERK kinase activity regulates Golgi structure and may be involved in mitotic Golgi fragmentation and reformation.
Project description:Heterotrimeric G proteins (αβγ) function at the cytoplasmic surface of a cell's plasma membrane to transduce extracellular signals into cellular responses. However, numerous studies indicate that G proteins also play noncanonical roles at unique intracellular locations. Previous work has established that G protein βγ subunits (Gβγ) regulate a signaling pathway on the cytoplasmic surface of Golgi membranes that controls the exit of select protein cargo. Now, we demonstrate a novel role for Gβγ in regulating mitotic Golgi fragmentation, a key checkpoint of the cell cycle that occurs in the late G2 phase. We show that small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of Gβ1 and Gβ2 in synchronized cells causes a decrease in the number of cells with fragmented Golgi in late G2 and a delay of entry into mitosis and progression through G2/M. We also demonstrate that during G2/M Gβγ acts upstream of protein kinase D and regulates the phosphorylation of the Golgi structural protein GRASP55. Expression of Golgi-targeted GRK2ct, a Gβγ-sequestering protein used to inhibit Gβγ signaling, also causes a decrease in Golgi fragmentation and a delay in mitotic progression. These results highlight a novel role for Gβγ in regulation of Golgi structure.
Project description:Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1c (ERK1c) is an alternatively spliced form of ERK1 that is regulated differently than other ERK isoforms. We studied the Golgi functions of ERK1c and found that it plays a role in MEK-induced mitotic Golgi fragmentation. Thus, in late G2 and mitosis of synchronized cells, the expression and activity of ERK1c was increased and it colocalized mainly with Golgi markers. Small interfering RNA of ERK1c significantly attenuated, whereas ERK1c overexpression facilitated, mitotic Golgi fragmentation. These effects were also reflected in mitotic progression, indicating that ERK1c is involved in cell cycle regulation via modulation of Golgi fragmentation. Although ERK1 was activated in mitosis as well, it could not replace ERK1c in regulating Golgi fragmentation. Therefore, MEKs regulate mitosis via all three ERK isoforms, where ERK1c acts specifically in the Golgi, whereas ERK1 and 2 regulate other mitosis-related processes. Thus, ERK1c extends the specificity of the Ras-MEK cascade by activating ERK1/2-independent processes.
Project description:GRASP65 and GRASP55 were classified as Golgi reassembly stacking proteins which play crucial and complementary roles in the stacking of Golgi cisternae. They also participate in vesicle tethering, mitotic progression, the disassembly and reassembly of the Golgi apparatus during mitosis and unconventional secretory pathway regulation. In this study, the expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the GRASP65 GRASP domain from Rattus norvegicus are presented. The crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.99, b = 104.29, c = 37.93 Å, ? = ? = ? = 90°. Furthermore, molecular replacement was employed to determine the structure of the GRASP65 GRASP domain from R. norvegicus.