Associations between fine and coarse particles and mortality in Mediterranean cities: results from the MED-PARTICLES project.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the independent health effects of different size fractions of particulate matter (PM) in multiple locations, especially in Europe. OBJECTIVES: We estimated the short-term effects of PM with aerodynamic diameter ? 10 ?m (PM10), ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), and between 2.5 and 10 ?m (PM2.5-10) on all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in 10 European Mediterranean metropolitan areas within the MED-PARTICLES project. METHODS: We analyzed data from each city using Poisson regression models, and combined city-specific estimates to derive overall effect estimates. We evaluated the sensitivity of our estimates to co-pollutant exposures and city-specific model choice, and investigated effect modification by age, sex, and season. We applied distributed lag and threshold models to investigate temporal patterns of associations. RESULTS: A 10-?g/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.55% (95% CI: 0.27, 0.84%) increase in all-cause mortality (0-1 day cumulative lag), and a 1.91% increase (95% CI: 0.71, 3.12%) in respiratory mortality (0-5 day lag). In general, associations were stronger for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality than all-cause mortality, during warm versus cold months, and among those ? 75 versus < 75 years of age. Associations with PM2.5-10 were positive but not statistically significant in most analyses, whereas associations with PM10 seemed to be driven by PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of adverse effects of PM2.5 on mortality outcomes in the European Mediterranean region. Associations with PM2.5-10 were positive but smaller in magnitude. Associations were stronger for respiratory mortality when cumulative exposures were lagged over 0-5 days, and were modified by season and age.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Evidence on the short-term effects of fine and coarse particles on morbidity in Europe is scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the association between daily concentrations of fine and coarse particles with hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in eight Southern European cities, within the MED-PARTICLES project. METHODS: City-specific Poisson models were fitted to estimate associations of daily concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), ? 10 ?m (PM10), and their difference (PM2.5-10) with daily counts of emergency hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. We derived pooled estimates from random-effects meta-analysis and evaluated the robustness of results to co-pollutant exposure adjustment and model specification. Pooled concentration-response curves were estimated using a meta-smoothing approach. RESULTS: We found significant associations between all PM fractions and cardiovascular admissions. Increases of 10 ?g/m3 in PM2.5, 6.3 ?g/m3 in PM2.5-10, and 14.4 ?g/m3 in PM10 (lag 0-1 days) were associated with increases in cardiovascular admissions of 0.51% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.90%), 0.46% (95% CI: 0.10, 0.82%), and 0.53% (95% CI: 0.06, 1.00%), respectively. Stronger associations were estimated for respiratory hospitalizations, ranging from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.21, 2.11%) for PM10 to 1.36% (95% CI: 0.23, 2.49) for PM2.5 (lag 0-5 days). CONCLUSIONS: PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were positively associated with cardiovascular and respiratory admissions in eight Mediterranean cities. Information on the short-term effects of different PM fractions on morbidity in Southern Europe will be useful to inform European policies on air quality standards.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of Saharan-Sahel dust over Euro-Mediterranean areas frequently induce exceedances of the Europen Union's 24-hr standard of 50 ?g/m3 for particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ? than 10 ?m (PM10). OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of Saharan dust on the association between different PM fractions and daily mortality in Rome, Italy. METHODS: In a study of 80,423 adult residents who died in Rome between 2001 and 2004, we performed a time-series analysis to explore the effects of PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM10 on natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory mortality. We defined Saharan dust days by combining light detection and ranging (LIDAR) observations and analyses from operational models. We tested a Saharan dust-PM interaction term to evaluate the hypothesis that the effects of PM, especially coarse PM (PM2.5-10), on mortality would be enhanced on dust days. RESULTS: Interquartile range increases in PM2.5-10 (10.8 ?g/m3) and PM10 (19.8 ?g/m3) were associated with increased mortality due to natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory causes, with estimated effects ranging from 2.64% to 12.65% [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-25.42%] for the association between PM2.5-10 and respiratory mortality (0- to 5-day lag). Associations of PM2.5-10 with cardiac mortality were stronger on Saharan dust days (9.73%; 95% CI, 4.25-15.49%) than on dust-free days (0.86%; 95% CI, -2.47% to 4.31%; p = 0.005). Saharan dust days also modified associations between PM10 and cardiac mortality (9.55% increase; 95% CI, 3.81-15.61%; vs. dust-free days: 2.09%; 95% CI, -0.76% to 5.02%; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of effects of PM2.5-10 and PM10 on natural and cause-specific mortality, with stronger estimated effects on cardiac mortality during Saharan dust outbreaks. Toxicological and biological effects of particles from desert sources need to be further investigated and taken into account in air quality standards.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The link between PM2.5 exposure and adverse health outcomes is well documented from studies across the world. However, the reported effect estimates vary across studies, locations and constituents. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis on associations between short-term exposure to PM2.5 constituents and mortality using city-specific estimates, and explore factors that may explain some of the observed heterogeneity. METHODS:We systematically reviewed epidemiological studies on particle constituents and mortality using PubMed and Web of Science databases up to July 2015.We included studies that examined the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 constituents and all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, in the general adult population. Each study was summarized based on pre-specified study key parameters (e.g., location, time period, population, diagnostic classification standard), and we evaluated the risk of bias using the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) Method for each included study. We extracted city-specific mortality risk estimates for each constituent and cause of mortality. For multi-city studies, we requested the city-specific risk estimates from the authors unless reported in the article. We performed random effects meta-analyses using city-specific estimates, and examined whether the effects vary across regions and city characteristics (PM2.5 concentration levels, air temperature, elevation, vegetation, size of elderly population, population density, and baseline mortality). RESULTS:We found a 0.89% (95% CI: 0.68, 1.10%) increase in all-cause, a 0.80% (95% CI: 0.41, 1.20%) increase in cardiovascular, and a 1.10% (95% CI: 0.59, 1.62%) increase in respiratory mortality per 10?g/m3 increase in PM2.5. Accounting for the downward bias induced by studies of single days, the all-cause mortality estimate increased to 1.01% (95% CI: 0.81, 1.20%). We found significant associations between mortality and several PM2.5 constituents. The most consistent and stronger associations were observed for elemental carbon (EC) and potassium (K). For most of the constituents, we observed high variability of effect estimates across cities. CONCLUSIONS:Our meta-analysis suggests that (a) combustion elements such as EC and K have a stronger association with mortality, (b) single lag studies underestimate effects, and (c) estimates of PM2.5 and constituents differ across regions. Accounting for PM mass in constituent's health models may lead to more stable and comparable effect estimates across different studies. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION:PROSPERO: CRD42017055765.
Project description:With the continuous rapid urbanization process over the last three decades, outdoors air pollution has become a progressively more serious public health hazard in China. To investigate the possible associations, lag effects and seasonal differences of urban air quality on respiratory health (allergic rhinitis) in Changchun, a city in Northeastern China, we carried out a time-series analysis of the incidents of allergic rhinitis (AR) from 2013 to 2015. Environmental monitoring showed that PM2.5 and PM10 were the major air pollutants in Changchun, followed by SO?, NO? and O?. The results also demonstrated that the daily concentrations of air pollutants had obvious seasonal differences. PM10 had higher daily mean concentrations in spring (May, dust storms), autumn (October, straw burning) and winter (November to April, coal burning). The mean daily number of outpatient AR visits in the warm season was higher than in the cold season. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with PM2.5, PM10, SO? and NO?, and the increased mobility was 10.2% (95% CI, 5.5%-15.1%), 4.9% (95% CI, 0.8%-9.2%), 8.5% (95% CI, -1.8%-19.8%) and 11.1% (95% CI, 5.8%-16.5%) for exposure to each 1-Standard Deviation (1-SD) increase of pollutant, respectively. Weakly or no significant associations were observed for CO and O?. As for lag effects, the highest Relative Risks (RRs) of AR from SO?, NO?, PM10 and PM2.5 were on the same day, and the highest RR from CO was on day 4 (L4). The results also indicated that the concentration of air pollutants might contribute to the development of AR. To summarize, this study provides further evidence of the significant association between ambient particulate pollutants (PM2.5 and PM10, which are usually present in high concentrations) and the prevalence of respiratory effects (allergic rhinitis) in the city of Changchun, located in Northeastern China. Environmental control and public health strategies should be enforced to address this increasingly challenging problem.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Acute exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5) is associated with acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate these associations with specific causes of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in Mexico City. METHODS:We obtained daily mortality records for Mexico City from 2004 to 2013 for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular causes in people ?25 and ?65 years old. Exposure to PM2.5 was assessed with daily estimates from a new hybrid spatiotemporal model using satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth PM2.5 and compared to ground level PM2.5 measurements with missing data estimated with generalized additive models PM2.5. We fitted Poisson regression models with distributed lags for all mortality outcomes. RESULTS:An increase of 10 µg/m3 in aerosol optical depth PM2.5 was associated with increased cardiovascular (1.22%; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-2.28) and cerebrovascular mortality (3.43%; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-6.28) for lag days 0 to 1 (lag 0-1). Stronger effects were identified for hemorrhagic stroke and people ?65 years. Associations were slightly smaller using generalized additive models PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS:These results support the evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 is associated with increased risk of specific cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality causes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To estimate the attributable and targeted avoidable deaths (ADs; TADs) of outdoor air pollution by ambient particulate matter (PM10), PM2.5 and O3 according to specific WHO methodology. DESIGN:Health impact assessment. SETTING:City of Valladolid, Spain (around 300?000 residents). DATA SOURCES:Demographics; mortality; pollutant concentrations collected 1999-2008. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Attributable fractions; ADs and TADs per year for 1999-2008. RESULTS:Higher TADs estimates (shown here) were obtained when assuming as 'target' concentrations WHO Air Quality Guidelines instead of Directive 2008/50/EC. ADs are considered relative to pollutant background levels. All-cause mortality associated to PM10 (all ages): 52 ADs (95% CI 39 to 64); 31 TADs (95% CI 24 to 39).All-cause mortality associated to PM10 (<5?years): 0 ADs (95% CI 0 to 1); 0 TADs (95% CI 0 to 1). All-cause mortality associated to PM2.5 (>30?years): 326 ADs (95% CI 217 to 422); 231 TADs (95% CI 153 to 301). Cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated to PM2.5 (>30?years): Cardiopulmonary: 186 ADs (95% CI 74 to 280); 94 TADs (95% CI 36 to 148). Lung cancer : 51 ADs (95% CI 21 to 73); 27 TADs (95% CI 10 to 41).All-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality associated to O3 (all ages): All-cause: 52ADs (95% CI 25 to 77) ; 31 TADs (95% CI 15 to 45). Respiratory: 5ADs (95% CI -2 to 13) ; 3 TADs (95% CI -1 to 8). Cardiovascular: 30 ADs (95% CI 8 to 51) ; 17 TADs (95% CI 5 to 30). Negative estimates which should be read as zero were obtained when pollutant concentrations were below counterfactuals or assumed risk coefficients were below one. CONCLUSIONS:Our estimates suggest a not negligible negative impact on mortality of outdoor air pollution. The implementation of WHO methodology provides critical information to distinguish an improvement range in air pollution control.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has been associated with endothelial dysfunction, an early marker of cardiovascular risk. Our aim was to extend this research to a genetically homogenous, geographically stable rural population using location-specific moving-average air pollution exposure estimates indexed to the date of endothelial function measurement. METHODS:We measured endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 615 community-dwelling healthy Amish participants. Exposures to PM?<?2.5??m (PM2.5) and PM?<?10??m (PM10) were estimated at participants' residential addresses using previously developed geographic information system-based spatio-temporal models and normalized. Associations between PM exposures and FMD were evaluated using linear mixed-effects regression models, and polynomial distributed lag (PDL) models followed by Bayesian model averaging (BMA) were used to assess response to delayed effects occurring across multiple months. RESULTS:Exposure to PM10 was consistently inversely associated with FMD, with the strongest (most negative) association for a 12-month moving average (-?0.09; 95% CI: -?0.15, -?0.03). Associations with PM2.5 were also strongest for a 12-month moving average but were weaker than for PM10 (-?0.07; 95% CI: -?0.13, -?0.09). Associations of PM2.5 and PM10 with FMD were somewhat stronger in men than in women, particularly for PM10. CONCLUSIONS:Using location-specific moving-average air pollution exposure estimates, we have shown that 12-month moving-average estimates of PM2.5 and PM10 exposure are associated with impaired endothelial function in a rural population.
Project description:Short-term health effects of ambient PM2.5 have been established with numerous studies, but evidence in Asian countries is limited. This study aimed to investigate the short-term effects of PM2.5 on acute health outcomes, particularly all-cause, cardiovascular, respiratory, cerebrovascular and neuropsychological outcomes. We utilized daily emergency ambulance dispatches (EAD) data from eight Japanese cities (2007-2011). Statistical analyses included two stages: (1) City-level generalized linear model with Poisson distribution; (2) Random-effects meta-analysis in pooling city-specific effect estimates. Lag patterns were explored using (1) unconstrained-distributed lags (lag 0 to lag 7) and (2) average lags (lag: 0-1, 0-3, 0-5, 0-7). In all-cause EAD, significant increases were observed in both shorter lag (lag 0: 1.24% (95% CI: 0.92, 1.56)) and average lag 0-1 (0.64% (95% CI: 0.23, 1.06)). Increases of 1.88% and 1.48% in respiratory and neuropsychological EAD outcomes, respectively, were observed at lag 0 per 10 µg/m³ increase in PM2.5. While respiratory outcomes demonstrated significant average effects, no significant effect was observed for cardiovascular outcomes. Meanwhile, an inverse association was observed in cerebrovascular outcomes. In this study, we observed that effects of PM2.5 on all-cause, respiratory and neuropsychological EAD were acute, with average effects not exceeding 3 days prior to EAD onset.
Project description:We observed significant effects of particulate matter (PM2.5) on cause-specific mortality by applying a time-stratified case-crossover and lag-structure designs in Beijing over a nine-year study period (2005-2013). The year-round odds ratio (OR) was 1.005 on the current day with a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 for all-cause mortality. For cardiovascular mortality and stroke, the ORs were 1.007 and 1.008 on the current day, respectively. Meanwhile, during a lag of six days, the cumulative effects of haze on relative risk of mortality, respiratory mortality and all-cause mortality was in the range of 2~11%. Moreover, we found a significant seasonal pattern in the associations for respiratory mortality: significant associations were observed in spring and fall, while for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiac and stroke, significant associations were observed in winter. Moreover, increasing temperature would decrease risks of mortalities in winter taking fall as the reference season. We concluded that in summer, temperature acted as a direct enhancer of air pollutants; while in winter and spring, it was an index of the diameter distribution and composition of fine particles.
Project description:Evidence on the association between short-term exposure to desert dust and health outcomes is controversial.We aimed to estimate the short-term effects of particulate matter ? 10 ?m (PM10) on mortality and hospital admissions in 13 Southern European cities, distinguishing between PM10 originating from the desert and from other sources.We identified desert dust advection days in multiple Mediterranean areas for 2001-2010 by combining modeling tools, back-trajectories, and satellite data. For each advection day, we estimated PM10 concentrations originating from desert, and computed PM10 from other sources by difference. We fitted city-specific Poisson regression models to estimate the association between PM from different sources (desert and non-desert) and daily mortality and emergency hospitalizations. Finally, we pooled city-specific results in a random-effects meta-analysis.On average, 15% of days were affected by desert dust at ground level (desert PM10 > 0 ?g/m3). Most episodes occurred in spring-summer, with increasing gradient of both frequency and intensity north-south and west-east of the Mediterranean basin. We found significant associations of both PM10 concentrations with mortality. Increases of 10 ?g/m3 in non-desert and desert PM10 (lag 0-1 days) were associated with increases in natural mortality of 0.55% (95% CI: 0.24, 0.87%) and 0.65% (95% CI: 0.24, 1.06%), respectively. Similar associations were estimated for cardio-respiratory mortality and hospital admissions.PM10 originating from the desert was positively associated with mortality and hospitalizations in Southern Europe. Policy measures should aim at reducing population exposure to anthropogenic airborne particles even in areas with large contribution from desert dust advections.Stafoggia M, Zauli-Sajani S, Pey J, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Basagaña X, Cernigliaro A, Chiusolo M, Demaria M, Díaz J, Faustini A, Katsouyanni K, Kelessis AG, Linares C, Marchesi S, Medina S, Pandolfi P, Pérez N, Querol X, Randi G, Ranzi A, Tobias A, Forastiere F, MED-PARTICLES Study Group. 2016. Desert dust outbreaks in Southern Europe: contribution to daily PM10 concentrations and short-term associations with mortality and hospital admissions. Environ Health Perspect 124:413-419;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409164.