The family structure of the Mucorales: a synoptic revision based on comprehensive multigene-genealogies.
ABSTRACT: The Mucorales (Mucoromycotina) are one of the most ancient groups of fungi comprising ubiquitous, mostly saprotrophic organisms. The first comprehensive molecular studies 11 yr ago revealed the traditional classification scheme, mainly based on morphology, as highly artificial. Since then only single clades have been investigated in detail but a robust classification of the higher levels based on DNA data has not been published yet. Therefore we provide a classification based on a phylogenetic analysis of four molecular markers including the large and the small subunit of the ribosomal DNA, the partial actin gene and the partial gene for the translation elongation factor 1-alpha. The dataset comprises 201 isolates in 103 species and represents about one half of the currently accepted species in this order. Previous family concepts are reviewed and the family structure inferred from the multilocus phylogeny is introduced and discussed. Main differences between the current classification and preceding concepts affects the existing families Lichtheimiaceae and Cunninghamellaceae, as well as the genera Backusella and Lentamyces which recently obtained the status of families along with the Rhizopodaceae comprising Rhizopus, Sporodiniella and Syzygites. Compensatory base change analyses in the Lichtheimiaceae confirmed the lower level classification of Lichtheimia and Rhizomucor while genera such as Circinella or Syncephalastrum completely lacked compensatory base changes.
Project description:Mucorales comprises fungi commonly isolated as saprobes from soil, dung, stored grains and plants. Although these fungi have been studied in several countries, there are relatively a few reports of them in semi-arid areas. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess and compare the Mucorales communities in dung from different species and breeds of herbivores in the semi-arid of Pernambuco, based on the frequency of occurrence and species richness of these fungi. Samples of dung collected in the cities of Arcoverde, Serra Talhada and Sertânia were incubated in moist chambers in triplicate. Altogether, 24 taxa of Mucorales distributed in the genera Absidia, Circinella, Cunninghamella, Lichtheimia, Mucor, Pilobolus, Rhizopus and Syncephalastrum were identified. The highest species richness was found in sheep excrement. Mucor circinelloides f. griseo-cyanus was the most common taxon, followed by M. ramosissimus. The similarity of the composition of Mucorales species was greatest between the excrements of Guzerá and Sindi breeds (bovine). All mucoralean species isolated are being cited for the first time from animal dung found in Caatinga and a new species of Mucor was recorded. An identification key for species of Mucorales from dung in the semi-arid region of Brazil is provided.
Project description:The in vitro susceptibilities of 66 molecularly identified strains of the Mucorales to eight antifungals (amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and 5-fluorocytosine) were tested. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on the nuclear ribosomal large subunit to reveal taxon-specific susceptibility profiles. The impressive phylogenetic diversity of the Mucorales was reflected in susceptibilities differing at family, genus, and species levels. Amphotericin B was the most active drug, though somewhat less against Rhizopus and Cunninghamella species. Posaconazole was the second most effective antifungal agent but showed reduced activity in Mucor and Cunninghamella strains, while voriconazole lacked in vitro activity for most strains. Genera attributed to the Mucoraceae exhibited a wide range of MICs for posaconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine and included resistant strains. Cunninghamella also comprised strains resistant to all azoles tested but was fully susceptible to terbinafine. In contrast, the Lichtheimiaceae completely lacked strains with reduced susceptibility for these antifungals. Syncephalastrum species exhibited susceptibility profiles similar to those of the Lichtheimiaceae. Mucor species were more resistant to azoles than Rhizopus species. Species-specific responses were obtained for terbinafine where only Rhizopus arrhizus and Mucor circinelloides were resistant. Complete or vast resistance was observed for 5-fluorocytosine, caspofungin, and micafungin. Intraspecific variability of in vitro susceptibility was found in all genera tested but was especially high in Mucor and Rhizopus for azoles and terbinafine. Accurate molecular identification of etiologic agents is compulsory to predict therapy outcome. For species of critical genera such as Mucor and Rhizopus, exhibiting high intraspecific variation, susceptibility testing before the onset of therapy is recommended.
Project description:The in vitro activity of isavuconazole against Mucorales isolates measured by EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 methodologies was investigated in comparison with those of amphotericin B, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Seventy-two isolates were included: 12 of Lichtheimia corymbifera, 5 of Lichtheimia ramosa, 5 of group I and 9 of group II of Mucor circinelloides, 9 of Rhizomucor pusillus, 26 of Rhizopus microsporus, and 6 of Rhizopus oryzae. Species identification was confirmed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. EUCAST MICs were read on day 1 (EUCAST-d1) and day 2 (EUCAST-d2), and CLSI MICs were read on day 2 (CLSI-d2). Isavuconazole MIC50s (range) (mg/liter) by EUCAST-d1, CLSI-d2, and EUCAST-d2 were 1 (0.125 to 16), 1 (0.125 to 2), and 4 (0.5 to >16), respectively, across all isolates. The similar values for comparator drugs were as follows: posaconazole, 0.25 (? 0.03 to >16), 0.25 (0.06 to >16), and 1 (0.06 to >16); amphotericin, 0.06 (? 0.03 to 0.5), 0.06 (? 0.03 to 0.25), and 0.125 (? 0.03 to 1); voriconazole, 16 (2 to >16), 8 (1 to >16), and >16 (8 to >16), respectively. Isavuconazole activity varied by species: Lichtheimia corymbifera, 1 (0.5 to 2), 1 (1 to 2), and 2 (1 to 4); Lichtheimia ramosa, 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5), 1 (0.5 to 2), and 2 (0.5 to 4); Rhizomucor pusillus, 0.5 (0.5 to 1), 1 (0.125 to 1), and 2 (1 to 2); Rhizopus microsporus, 1 (0.5 to 4), 0.5 (0.125 to 1), and 4 (1 to 8); and Rhizopus oryzae, 1 (0.5 to 4), 1 (0.125 to 2), and 4 (0.5 to 8), respectively, were more susceptible than Mucor circinelloides: group I, 8 (4 to 8), 4 (2 to 4), and 16 (2 to 16), respectively, and group II, 8 (1 to 16), 8 (1 to 8), and 16 (4 to >16), respectively. This was also observed for posaconazole. The essential agreement was best between EUCAST-d1 and CLSI-d2 (75% to 83%). Isavuconazole displayed in vitro activity against Mucorales isolates with the exception of Mucor circinelloides. The MICs were in general 1 to 3 steps higher than those for posaconazole. However, in the clinical setting this may be compensated for by the higher exposure at standard dosing.
Project description:Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to improving the outcome of mucormycosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the contribution of quantitative PCR detection of Mucorales DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids for early diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples (n = 450) from 374 patients with pneumonia and immunosuppressive conditions were analyzed using a combination of 3 quantitative PCR assays targeting the main genera involved in mucormycosis in France (Rhizomucor, Mucor/Rhizopus, and Lichtheimia). Among these 374 patients, 24 patients had at least one bronchoalveolar lavage fluid sample with a positive PCR; 23/24 patients had radiological criteria for invasive fungal infections according to consensual criteria; 10 patients had probable or proven mucormycosis, and 13 additional patients had other invasive fungal infections (4 probable aspergillosis, 1 proven fusariosis, and 8 possible invasive fungal infections). Only 2/24 patients with a positive PCR result on a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid sample had a positive Mucorales culture. PCR was also positive on serum in 17/24 patients. In most cases, a positive PCR result was first detected using sera (15/17). However, a positive PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was the earliest and/or the only biological test revealing mucormycosis in 4 patients with a final diagnosis of probable or proven mucormycosis, 3 patients with probable aspergillosis, and one patient with a possible invasive fungal infection. Mucorales PCR performed on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid could provide additional support for earlier administration of Mucorales-directed antifungal therapy, thus improving the outcome of lung mucormycosis cases.
Project description:In a retrospective multicenter study, 102 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens with histopathology results were tested. Two 4- to 5-?m FFPE tissue sections from each specimen were digested with proteinase K, followed by automated nucleic acid extraction. Multiple real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of ribosomal DNA, using fluorescently labeled primers, was performed to identify clinically important genera and species of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Scedosporium, and the Mucormycetes The molecular identification was correlated with results from histological examination. One of the main findings of our study was the high sensitivity of the automated DNA extraction method, which was estimated to be 94%. The qPCR procedure that was evaluated identified a range of fungal genera/species, including Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus microsporus, Mucor spp., and Syncephalastrum Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani DNA was amplified from five specimens from patients initially diagnosed by histopathology as having aspergillosis. Aspergillus flavus, S. apiospermum, and Syncephalastrum were detected from histopathological mucormycosis samples. In addition, examination of four samples from patients suspected of having concomitant aspergillosis and mucormycosis infections resulted in the identification of two A. flavus isolates, one Mucor isolate, and only one sample having both R. oryzae and A. flavus Our results indicate that histopathological features of molds may be easily confused in tissue sections. The qPCR assay used in this study is a reliable tool for the rapid and accurate identification of fungal pathogens to the genus and species levels directly from FFPE tissues.
Project description:The original report of sex in fungi dates 2 centuries ago to the species Syzygites megalocarpus (Mucoromycotina). The organism was subsequently used in 1904 to represent self-fertile homothallic species when the concepts of heterothallism and homothallism were developed for the fungal kingdom. In this study, two putative sex/MAT loci were identified in individual strains of S. megalocarpus, accounting for its homothallic behavior. The strains encode both of the high-mobility-group domain-containing proteins, SexM and SexP, flanked by RNA helicase and glutathione oxidoreductase genes that are found adjacent to the mating-type loci in other Mucoromycotina species. The presence of pseudogenes and the arrangement of genes suggest that the origin of homothallism in this species is from a heterothallic relative, obtained via a chromosomal rearrangement to switch two alleles into two separated loci within a single genetic background. Similar events have given rise to homothallic species from heterothallic species in ascomycete fungi, demonstrating that conserved forces shape the evolution of sex determination and speciation in highly diverged fungi.
Project description:Mucormycosis infections are infrequent yet aggressive and serious fungal infections. Early diagnosis of mucormycosis and its discrimination from other fungal infections is required for targeted treatment and more favorable patient outcomes. The majority of the molecular assays use 18 S rDNA. In the current study, we aimed to explore the potential of the mitochondrial rnl (encoding for large-subunit-ribosomal-RNA) gene as a novel molecular marker suitable for research and diagnostics. Rnl was evaluated as a marker for: (1) the Mucorales family, (2) species identification (Rhizopus arrhizus, R. microsporus, Mucor circinelloides, and Lichtheimia species complexes), (3) growth stage, and (4) quantification. Sensitivity, specificity, discriminatory power, the limit of detection (LoD), and cross-reactivity were evaluated. Assays were tested using pure cultures, spiked clinical samples, murine organs, and human paraffin-embedded-tissue (FFPE) samples. Mitochondrial markers were found to be superior to nuclear markers for degraded samples. Rnl outperformed the UMD universal® (Molyzm) marker in FFPE (71.5% positive samples versus 50%). Spiked blood samples highlighted the potential of rnl as a pan-Mucorales screening test. Fungal burden was reproducibly quantified in murine organs using standard curves. Identification of pure cultures gave a perfect (100%) correlation with the detected internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence. In conclusion, mitochondrial genes, such as rnl, provide an alternative to the nuclear 18 S rDNA genes and deserve further evaluation.
Project description:The zygomycete genus Lichtheimia (syn. Absidia pro parte, Mycocladus) consists of saprotrophic fungi inhabiting soil or dead plant material. Lichtheimia corymbifera (syn. Absidia corymbifera, Mycocladus corymbifer) and Lichtheimia ramosa (syn. Absidia ramosa, Mycocladus ramosus) may cause fulminant infections in patients with impaired immunity. The present study investigated the species boundaries in Lichtheimia using genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition (by comparison of the genealogies of the internal transcribed spacer [ITS] sequence, the D1/D2 region of the large subunit [LSU], and actin), biological species recognition by mating tests, as well as morphological and physiological characteristics. The three molecular markers used were selected by evaluating the polymorphisms and paralogies of several loci, including those for beta-tubulin, translation elongation factor 1alpha, the two largest subunits of the RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2), the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and the mitochondrial small-subunit (mtSSU) rDNA, among four strains belonging to different putative species. Comparing the genealogies of the ITS, LSU, and actin genes, we recognized seven phylogenetic species. However, mating tests did not show intrinsic reproductive barriers for two pairs of the phylogenetic species. Therefore, we regard five species in Lichtheima to be confirmed: Lichtheimia corymbifera, L. ornata comb. nov., L. ramosa, L. hyalospora, and L. sphaerocystis sp. nov. Only the first three species seem to have clinical relevance. Lichtheimia blakesleeana is reduced to a synonym of Lichtheimia hyalospora. We provide a detailed description of Lichtheimia sphaerocystis sp. nov. and a key for the identification of all accepted species identified in the present study on the basis of their morphological traits and growth at different temperatures.
Project description:We present an expansion of the classification of the family Papillomaviridae, which now contains 29 genera formed by 189 papillomavirus (PV) types isolated from humans (120 types), non-human mammals, birds and reptiles (64, 3 and 2 types, respectively). To accommodate the number of PV genera exceeding the Greek alphabet, the prefix "dyo" is used, continuing after the Omega-PVs with Dyodelta-PVs. The current set of human PVs is contained within five genera, whereas mammalian, avian and reptile PVs are contained within 20, 3 and 1 genera, respectively. We propose standardizations to the names of a number of animal PVs. As prerequisite for a coherent nomenclature of animal PVs, we propose founding a reference center for animal PVs. We discuss that based on emerging species concepts derived from genome sequences, PV types could be promoted to the taxonomic level of species, but we do not recommend implementing this change at the current time.
Project description:This study aimed to validate the effectiveness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification of filamentous fungi of the order Mucorales. A total of 111 isolates covering six genera preserved at the Research Center for Medical Mycology of Peking University were selected for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. We emphasized the study of 23 strains of Mucor irregularis predominantly isolated from patients in China. We first used the Bruker Filamentous Fungi library (v1.0) to identify all 111 isolates. To increase the identification rate, we created a compensatory in-house database, the Beijing Medical University (BMU) database, using 13 reference strains covering 6 species, including M. irregularis, Mucor hiemalis, Mucor racemosus, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, Cunninghamella phaeospora, and Cunninghamella echinulata All 111 isolates were then identified by MALDI-TOF MS using a combination of the Bruker library and BMU database. MALDI-TOF MS identified 55 (49.5%) and 74 (66.7%) isolates at the species and genus levels, respectively, using the Bruker Filamentous Fungi library v1.0 alone. A combination of the Bruker library and BMU database allowed MALDI-TOF MS to identify 90 (81.1%) and 111 (100%) isolates at the species and genus levels, respectively, with a significantly increased accuracy rate. MALDI-TOF MS poorly identified Mucorales when the Bruker library was used alone due to its lack of some fungal species. In contrast, this technique perfectly identified M. irregularis after main spectrum profiles (MSPs) of relevant reference strains were added to the Bruker library. With an expanded Bruker library, MALDI-TOF MS is an effective tool for the identification of pathogenic Mucorales.