Proliferation and phenotypic changes of stromal cells in response to varying estrogen/androgen levels in castrated rats.
ABSTRACT: It is known that human benign prostatic hyperplasia might arise from an estrogen/androgen (E/T) imbalance. We studied the response of castrated rat prostate to different ratios of circulating E/T. The castrated male Wistar rats were randomly injected with E/T at different ratios for 4 weeks. The prostates of E/T (1:100) group showed a distinct prostatic hyperplasia response by prostatic index, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA). In this group, cells positive for Vimentin, non-muscle myosin heavy chain (NMMHC) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) increased in the stroma and epithelium. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) and NMMHC increased. So E/T at a ratio of 1:100 can induce a stromal hyperplastic response in the prostate of castrated rats. The main change observed was an increase of smooth muscle cells, whereas some epithelial changes were also seen in the rat prostates.
Project description:Estrogen has important roles in the initiation and development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Regulators of the estrogen receptor (ER) are tissue- and cell-specific. We evaluated the effect of estrogen antagonist, raloxifene (Ral), on the prevention and treatment of BPH by investigating its effect on the proliferation of two different prostate cell lines: a stromal cell line, WPMY-1, and a benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line, BPH-1. We additionally evaluated its effect on prostatic hyperplasia induced by estrogen and androgen in a rat model. The effect of Ral on the prevention of prostatic hyperplasia was analyzed by haematoxylin and eosin staining and quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) for proliferating cell nuclear antigen and alpha-smooth muscle actin. In vitro and in vivo, tamoxifen (Tam), another anti-estrogen drug, and finasteride (Fin), a drug for the clinical treatment of BPH, served as efficacy controls. The in vitro data showed that neither Ral nor Tam alone affected the proliferation of WPMY-1 and BPH-1, but both antagonized the effect of oestradiol in promoting the proliferation of the two cells. Results from the IHC staining of the rat prostates indicated that, similar to Tam and Fin, Ral inhibited the proliferation of stromal cells in vivo. Interestingly, in contrast to Tam, both Ral and Fin inhibited the proliferation of epithelial cells. Furthermore, Ral treatment much strongly decreased the number of prostatic acini and the surrounding layers of smooth muscle cells than Fin (P < 0.05). Our data showed for the first time that Ral may have a role in the response of the rat prostate to selective ER modulators.
Project description:The unfolded protein response (UPR) contributes to chlamydial pathogenesis, as a source of lipids and ATP during replication, and for establishing the initial anti-apoptotic state of host cell that ensures successful inclusion development. The molecular mechanism(s) of UPR induction by Chlamydia is unknown. Chlamydia use type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins (e.g, the Translocated Actin-Recruiting Phosphoprotein (Tarp) to stimulate host cell's cytoskeletal reorganization that facilitates invasion and inclusion development. We investigated the hypothesis that T3SS effector-mediated assembly of myosin-II complex produces activated non-muscle myosin heavy chain II (NMMHC-II), which then binds the UPR master regulator (BiP) and/or transducers to induce UPR. Our results revealed the interaction of the chlamydial effector proteins (CT228 and Tarp) with components of the myosin II complex and UPR regulator and transducer during infection. These interactions caused the activation and binding of NMMHC-II to BiP and IRE1? leading to UPR induction. In addition, specific inhibitors of myosin light chain kinase, Tarp oligomerization and myosin ATPase significantly reduced UPR activation and Chlamydia replication. Thus, Chlamydia induce UPR through T3SS effector-mediated activation of NMMHC-II components of the myosin complex to facilitate infectivity. The finding provides greater insights into chlamydial pathogenesis with the potential to identify therapeutic targets and formulations.
Project description:Previous findings have shown that non-muscle myosin heavy-chain IIA (NMMHC IIA) is involved in autophagy induction triggered by starvation in D. melanogaster; however, its functional contribution to neuronal autophagy remains unclear. The aim of this study is to explore the function of NMMHC IIA in cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal autophagy and the underlying mechanism related to autophagy-related gene 9A (ATG9A) trafficking. Functional assays and molecular mechanism studies were used to investigate the role of NMMHC IIA in cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal autophagy in vivo and in vitro. A middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in mice was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of blebbistatin, a myosin II ATPase inhibitor. Herein, either depletion or knockdown of NMMHC IIA led to increased cell viability in both primary cultured cortical neurons and pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R). In addition, NMMHC IIA and autophagic marker LC3B were upregulated by OGD/R, and inhibition of NMMHC IIA significantly reduced OGD-induced neuronal autophagy. Furthermore, NMMHC IIA-induced autophagy is through its interactions with F-actin and ATG9A in response to OGD/R. The NMMHC IIA-actin interaction contributes to ATG9A trafficking and autophagosome formation. Inhibition of the NMMHC IIA-actin interaction using blebbistatin and the F-actin polymerization inhibitor cytochalasin D significantly suppressed ATG9A trafficking and autophagy induction. Furthermore, blebbistatin significantly improved neurological deficits and infarct volume after ischemic attack in mice, accompanied by ATG9A trafficking and autophagy inhibition. These findings demonstrate neuroprotective effects of NMMHC IIA inhibition on regulating ATG9A trafficking-dependent autophagy activation in the context of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.
Project description:Objective- TCF7L2 (transcription factor 7-like 2) is a Wnt-regulated transcription factor that maintains stemness and promotes proliferation in embryonic tissues and adult stem cells. Mice with a coronary artery disease-linked mutation in Wnt-coreceptor LRP6 (LDL receptor-related protein 6) exhibit vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation and obstructive coronary artery disease, which are paradoxically associated with reduced TCF7L2 expression. We conducted a comprehensive study to explore the role of TCF7L2 in vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation and protection against intimal hyperplasia. Approach and Results- Using multiple mouse models, we demonstrate here that TCF7L2 promotes differentiation and inhibits proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. TCF7L2 accomplishes these effects by stabilization of GATA6 (GATA-binding protein 6) and upregulation of SM-MHC (smooth muscle cell myosin heavy chain) and cell cycle inhibitors. Accordingly, TCF7L2 haploinsufficient mice exhibited increased susceptibility to injury-induced hyperplasia, while mice overexpressing TCF7L2 were protected against injury-induced intimal hyperplasia compared with wild-type littermates. Consequently, the overexpression of TCF7L2 in LRP6 mutant mice rescued the injury-induced intimal hyperplasia. Conclusions- Our novel findings imply cell type-specific functional role of TCF7L2 and provide critical insight into mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of intimal hyperplasia.
Project description:Changes in the expression of heavy chains of myosin during development determine the functional characteristics of striated muscles. The distribution of heavy-chain isoforms of smooth-muscle myosin was determined in the airways of adult and infant humans to see whether it might underlie the hyperreactivity of human airways. The protein bands corresponding to myosin were separated using SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (4% gels) and identified by immunoblotting using both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against smooth-muscle myosin and non-muscle myosin. The relative proportion of each heavy chain stained by Coomassie Blue was measured by densitometric scanning. Three major bands corresponding to myosin heavy-chain isoforms were found; the two slower migrating bands (MHC1 and MHC2) were smooth-muscle myosin, and the third band was non-muscle myosin. The MHC1/MHC2 ratio was 0.69:1 in adult bronchus, and in infant bronchus and trachea. This contrasted with the airway smooth muscle in pigs, which was run concurrently, where the smooth-muscle heavy-chain ratio changed with development [Mohammad & Sparrow (1988) FEBS Lett. 228, 109-112]. The non-muscle myosin heavy chain comprised 63% of the smooth-muscle myosin. In both adult and infant lungs an additional putative myosin heavy chain which migrated slightly more rapidly than non-muscle myosin heavy chain was identified using the monoclonal smooth-muscle myosin antibody BF 48. This was unique to the human species.
Project description:Androgen is critical for the growth of the murine prostate. Castration removes the predominant source of androgen in the mouse, leading to prostatic atrophy and death of epithelial cells. However, studies show that epithelial cells which remain in the castrated prostate are enriched for progenitor activity compared to the intact prostate. We performed gene expression profiling of basal and luminal epithelial cells isolated from paired intact and castrated adult male C57BL/6 mouse prostates to gain insights into the mechanisms promoting survival in castration-resistant epithelial cells. Overall design: 3 distinct sets (biological replicates) of adult male (8 weeks) C57BL/6 mice were subjected to surgical orchiectomy (castration) or remained intact. Four weeks post castration, castrated and paired intact animals were sacrificed and epithelial subsets were isolated from dissociated prostate tissues using fluorescence activated cell sorting. Luminal cells have the antigenic profile Lin- CD49f(lo) EpCAM+ and basal cells have the antigenic profile Lin- CD49f(hi) EpCAM+.
Project description:Non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC IIA) has been shown to be involved in thrombus formation and inflammatory microparticle release in endothelial cells. However, the role of NMMHC IIA in regulating the expression of tissue factor (TF) and deep venous thrombosis remains to be elucidated. In the present study, endothelial cells were stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) to induce TF expression. Pretreatment with the NMMHC II inhibitor blebbistatin suppressed the mRNA and protein expressions as well as the procoagulant activity of TF in a dose-dependent manner. Blebbistatin enhanced Akt and GSK3? phosphorylation and inhibited NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation and I?B? degradation. These observations were similar to the effect of CHIR99021, a GSK3? inhibitor. TF downregulation by blebbistatin was antagonised by the PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of NMMHC IIA, but not IIB or IIC, inhibited TF expression, activated Akt/GSK3? and suppressed NF-?B signalling pathways, whereas the overexpression of NMMHC IIA increased TF expression. The binding of NMMHC IIA and TNF receptor 2 mediated signal internalisation in TNF-?-stimulated endothelial cells. Importantly, blebbistatin decreased endothelium NMMHC IIA and TF expression, deactivated GSK3? by inducing its phosphorylation, suppressed p65 nuclear translocation, and inhibited thrombus formation in a mouse deep venous thrombosis model.Our findings provide solid evidence that inhibition of NMMHC II, most likely NMMHC IIA, impedes TF expression and venous thrombosis via Akt/GSK3?-NF-?B signalling pathways in the endothelium both in vitro and in vivo. NMMHC IIA might be a potential novel target for the treatment of thrombotic disorders.
Project description:The role of plasminogen activators (PAs) as potential mediators of involution of the rat ventral prostate was investigated by using an approach involving the administration in vivo of anti-PA drugs. The prostates of castrated rats, which had been injected daily for 7 days with the anti-PA drugs 6-aminohexanoic acid, tranexamic acid, aprotinin and cortisol, were assayed for PA activity, weight and cell number. In the prostates from the castrated controls, there was a 10-fold increase in the mean PA activity and a 7-fold decrease in cell number relative to that of the non-castrated animals. Although this rise in enzyme activity could be decreased to some extent by all the drugs except aprotinin, only treatment with high doses of tranexamic acid or cortisol had a statistically significant effect. A similar pattern was observed with respect to the relative potency of the drugs in preventing the loss of prostatic weight and cell number after castration. The effects of cortisol were dose-dependent, with complete inhibition of both the rise in PA activity and cell loss occurring at a dose of about 15 mg/day. Since the concentration of the principal intranuclear androgen, dihydrotestosterone, was the same in the prostates from treated and untreated castrated rats, the effects of cortisol are not due to increased retention of this androgen. Rather, the high inverse correlation (r = 0.86) between the cellular concentration of PA activity and the cell population of the prostate implies that PAs are directly associated with prostatic involution and that cortisol, and to a lesser extent tranexamic acid, blocks the involution process through inhibition of PAs.
Project description:Medical therapy of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) targets smooth muscle contraction in the prostate, or prostate growth. However, current therapeutic options are insufficient. Here, we investigated the role of Rac in the control of smooth muscle tone in human prostates and growth of prostate stromal cells.Experiments were performed using human prostate tissues from radical prostatectomy and cultured stromal cells (WPMY-1). Expression of Rac was examined by Western blot and fluorescence staining. Effects of Rac inhibitors (NSC23766 and EHT1864)?on contractility were assessed in the organ bath. The effects of Rac inhibitors were assessed by pull-down, cytotoxicity using a cell counting kit, cytoskeletal organization by phalloidin staining and cell growth using an 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine assay.Expression of Rac1-3 was observed in prostate samples from each patient. Immunoreactivity for Rac1-3 was observed in the stroma, where it colocalized with the smooth muscle marker, calponin. NSC23766 and EHT1864 significantly reduced contractions of prostate strips induced by noradrenaline, phenylephrine or electrical field stimulation. NSC23766 and EHT1864 inhibited Rac activity in WPMY-1 cells. Survival of WPMY-1 cells ranged between 64 and 81% after incubation with NSC23766 (50 or 100??M) or EHT1864 (25??M) for 24?h. NSC23766 and EHT1864 induced cytoskeletal disorganization in WPMY-1 cells. Both inhibitors impaired the growth of WPMY-1 cells.Rac may be a link connecting the control of prostate smooth muscle tone with proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Improvements in LUTS suggestive of BPH by Rac inhibitors appears possible.
Project description:Prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are common genitourinary diseases in aging men. Both pathologies may coexist and share numerous similarities, which have suggested several connections or some interplay between them. However, solid evidence confirming their existence is lacking. Recent studies on extensive series of prostatectomy specimens have shown that tumors originating in larger prostates present favorable pathological features. Hence, large prostates may exert a protective effect against prostate cancer. In this work, we propose a mechanical explanation for this phenomenon. The mechanical stress fields that originate as tumors enlarge have been shown to slow down their dynamics. Benign prostatic hyperplasia contributes to these mechanical stress fields, hence further restraining prostate cancer growth. We derived a tissue-scale, patient-specific mechanically coupled mathematical model to qualitatively investigate the mechanical interaction of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. This model was calibrated by studying the deformation caused by each disease independently. Our simulations show that a history of benign prostatic hyperplasia creates mechanical stress fields in the prostate that impede prostatic tumor growth and limit its invasiveness. The technology presented herein may assist physicians in the clinical management of benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer by predicting pathological outcomes on a tissue-scale, patient-specific basis.