Coordinate transcriptional and translational repression of p53 by TGF-?1 impairs the stress response.
ABSTRACT: Cellular stress results in profound changes in RNA and protein synthesis. How cells integrate this intrinsic, p53-centered program with extracellular signals is largely unknown. We demonstrate that TGF-?1 signaling interferes with the stress response through coordinate transcriptional and translational repression of p53 levels, which reduces p53-activated transcription, and apoptosis in precancerous cells. Mechanistically, E2F-4 binds constitutively to the TP53 gene and induces transcription. TGF-?1-activated Smads are recruited to a composite Smad/E2F-4 element by an E2F-4/p107 complex that switches to a Smad corepressor, which represses TP53 transcription. TGF-?1 also causes dissociation of ribosomal protein RPL26 and elongation factor eEF1A from p53 mRNA, thereby reducing p53 mRNA association with polyribosomes and p53 translation. TGF-?1 signaling is dominant over stress-induced transcription and translation of p53 and prevents stress-imposed downregulation of Smad proteins. Thus, crosstalk between the TGF-? and p53 pathways defines a major node of regulation in the cellular stress response, enhancing drug resistance.
Project description:Ribosomal protein RPL26 enhances p53 translation after DNA damage, and this regulation depends upon interactions between the 5'- and 3'-UTRs of human p53 mRNA (Takagi, M., Absalon, M. J., McLure, K. G., and Kastan, M. B. (2005) Cell 123, 49-63; Chen, J., and Kastan, M. B. (2010) Genes Dev. 24, 2146-2156). In contrast, nucleolin (NCL) suppresses the translation of p53 mRNA and its induction after DNA damage. We confirmed reports that RPL26 and NCL interact with each other and then explored the potential role of this interaction in the translational control of p53 after stress. NCL repression of p53 translation utilizes both the 5'- and 3'-UTRs of p53 mRNA, and NCL binds to the same 5'-3'-UTR interaction region that is critical for the recruitment of RPL26 to p53 mRNA after DNA damage. We also found that NCL is able to oligomerize, consistent with a model in which NCL stabilizes this double-stranded RNA structure. We found that the RNA-binding domain of NCL participates in binding to p53 mRNA, is required for both NCL dimerization and NCL-mediated translational repression, and is the domain of NCL that interacts with RPL26. Excessive RPL26 disrupts NCL dimerization, and point mutations in the NCL-interacting region of RPL26 reduce NCL-RPL26 interactions and attenuate both RPL26 binding to human p53 mRNA and p53 induction by RPL26. These observations suggest a model in which the base pairings in the p53 UTR interaction regions are critical for both translational repression and stress induction of p53 by NCL and RPL26, respectively, and that disruption of a NCL-NCL homodimer by RPL26 may be the switch between translational repression and activation after stress.
Project description:Crosstalk between transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) signaling and p53 has a critical role in cancer progression. TGF-? signals via Smad and non-Smad pathways. Under normal conditions, wild-type p53 forms a complex with Smad2/3 and co-activates transcription of a variety of tumor suppressor genes, resulting in tumor suppressive effects. Thus, p53 stability is essential in progression of tumor suppressive responses mediated by TGF-? signaling. However, it remains unknown whether p53 stability is regulated by TGF-?. In the current study, we identify that USP15 binds to and stabilizes p53 through deubiquitination in U2OS and HEK293 cells. TGF-? promotes the translation of USP15 through activation of mammalian target of rapamycin by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway. Upregulation of USP15 translation links the crosstalk between TGF-? signaling and p53 stability, allowing this cytokine to have a critical role in cancer progression.
Project description:The TGF-beta/SMAD pathway is part of a broader signaling network in which crosstalk between pathways occurs. While the molecular mechanisms of TGF-beta/SMAD signaling pathway have been studied in detail, the global networks downstream of SMAD remain largely unknown. The regulatory effect of SMAD complex likely depends on transcriptional modules, in which the SMAD binding elements and partner transcription factor binding sites (SMAD modules) are present in specific context.To address this question and develop a computational model for SMAD modules, we simultaneously performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by microarray analysis (ChIP-chip) and mRNA expression profiling to identify TGF-beta/SMAD regulated and synchronously coexpressed gene sets in ovarian surface epithelium. Intersecting the ChIP-chip and gene expression data yielded 150 direct targets, of which 141 were grouped into 3 co-expressed gene sets (sustained up-regulated, transient up-regulated and down-regulated), based on their temporal changes in expression after TGF-beta activation. We developed a data-mining method driven by the Random Forest algorithm to model SMAD transcriptional modules in the target sequences. The predicted SMAD modules contain SMAD binding element and up to 2 of 7 other transcription factor binding sites (E2F, P53, LEF1, ELK1, COUPTF, PAX4 and DR1).Together, the computational results further the understanding of the interactions between SMAD and other transcription factors at specific target promoters, and provide the basis for more targeted experimental verification of the co-regulatory modules.
Project description:The E2F family of proteins is required to establish the correct cell-cycle-dependent transcription of genes that direct the process of cell division. All previously identified E2F proteins can act in a similar manner; depending on whether or not they are associated with the cell cycle inhibitors the retinoblastoma protein (pRB), p107, or p130, they can either repress or activate the transcription of E2F-responsive genes. We now report the cloning and characterization of another E2F family member, E2F-6, whose structure is reminiscent of the dominant inhibitors of other transcription factor families. The dimerization and DNA binding properties of E2F-6 are similar to those of the other E2F family members. However, it is not regulated by pRB, p107, or p130, and it is unable to activate transcription. Instead, it can act to repress the transcription of E2F responsive genes by countering the activity of the other E2F complexes via a pRB-, p107-, or p130-independent mechanism.
Project description:Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) contributes to wound healing and, when dysregulated, to pathological fibrosis. TGF-? and the anti-fibrotic nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) repress each other's expression, and such PPAR? down-regulation is prominent in fibrosis and mediated, via previously unknown SMAD-signaling mechanisms. Here, we show that TGF-? induces the association of SMAD3 with both SMAD4, needed for translocation of the complex into the nucleus, and the essential context-sensitive co-repressors E2F4 and p107. The complex mediates TGF-?-induced repression by binding to regulatory elements in the target promoter. In the PPARG promoter, we found that the SMAD3-SMAD4 complex binds both to a previously unknown consensus TGF-? inhibitory element (TIE) and also to canonical SMAD-binding elements (SBEs). Furthermore, the TIE and SBEs independently mediated the partial repression of PPARG transcription, the first demonstration of a TIE and SBEs functioning within the same promoter. Also, TGF-?-treated fibroblasts contained SMAD complexes that activated a SMAD target gene in addition to those repressing PPARG transcription, the first finding of such dual activity within the same cell. These findings describe in detail novel mechanisms by which TGF-? represses PPARG transcription, thereby facilitating its own pro-fibrotic activity.
Project description:TP53 is mutated in 50% of all cancers, and its function is often compromised in cancers where it is not mutated. Here we demonstrate that the pro-tumorigenic/metastatic Six1 homeoprotein decreases p53 levels through a mechanism that does not involve the negative regulator of p53, MDM2. Instead, Six1 regulates p53 via a dual mechanism involving upregulation of microRNA-27a and downregulation of ribosomal protein L26 (RPL26). Mutation analysis confirms that RPL26 inhibits miR-27a binding and prevents microRNA-mediated downregulation of p53. The clinical relevance of this interaction is underscored by the finding that Six1 expression strongly correlates with decreased RPL26 across numerous tumour types. Importantly, we find that Six1 expression leads to marked resistance to therapies targeting the p53-MDM2 interaction. Thus, we identify a competitive mechanism of p53 regulation, which may have consequences for drugs aimed at reinstating p53 function in tumours.
Project description:TP53 is mutated in 50% of all cancers, and is often functionally compromised in cancers where it is not mutated. We demonstrate that the pro-tumorigenic/metastatic Six1 homeoprotein decreases p53 levels through a mechanism that does not involve the negative regulator of p53, MDM2. Instead, Six1 regulates p53 via a dual mechanism involving upregulation of microRNA-27a and downregulation of the ribosomal protein L26 (RPL26), a positive regulator of p53 translation. Mutation analysis confirms that RPL26, whose expression inversely correlates with Six1 expression in numerous tumor types, inhibits miR-27a binding to the p53 3’UTR and prevents microRNA-mediated translational inhibition of p53. Thus, through simultaneous downregulation of RPL26 and upregulation of miR-27a, Six1 efficiently lowers p53 levels despite regulation of p53 at the level of the proteasome. Consequently, Six1 overexpression, which is observed in numerous tumor types, leads to dramatic resistance to nutlins, as well as other therapies targeting the p53-MDM2 interaction. Overall design: reference x sample
Project description:In hepatic cells, Smad and SnoN proteins converge with p53 to repress transcription of AFP, an oncodevelopmental tumor marker aberrantly reactivated in hepatoma cells. Using p53- and SnoN-depleted hepatoma cell clones, we define a mechanism for repression mediated by this novel transcriptional partnership. We find that p53 anchors activated Smads and the corepressor mSin3A to the AFP distal promoter. Sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses and molecular modeling indicate that p53 and Smad proteins simultaneously occupy overlapping p53 and Smad regulatory elements to establish repression of AFP transcription. In addition to its well-known function in antagonizing transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) responses, we find that SnoN actively participates in AFP repression by positively regulating mSin3A protein levels. We propose that activation of TGF-beta signaling restores a dynamic interplay between p53 and TGF-beta effectors that cooperate to effectively target mSin3A to tumor marker AFP and reestablish transcription repression.
Project description:The 'activating' E2fs (E2f1-3) are transcription factors that potently induce quiescent cells to divide. Work on cultured fibroblasts suggested they were essential for division, but in vivo analysis in the developing retina and other tissues disproved this notion. The retina, therefore, is an ideal location to assess other in vivo adenovirus E2 promoter binding factor (E2f) functions. It is thought that E2f1 directly induces apoptosis, whereas other activating E2fs only induce death indirectly by upregulating E2f1 expression. Indeed, mouse retinoblastoma (Rb)-null retinal neuron death requires E2f1, but not E2f2 or E2f3. However, we report an entirely distinct mechanism in dying cone photoreceptors. These neurons survive Rb loss, but undergo apoptosis in the cancer-prone retina lacking both Rb and its relative p107. We show that while E2f1 killed Rb/p107 null rod, bipolar and ganglion neurons, E2f2 was required and sufficient for cone death, independent of E2f1 and E2f3. Moreover, whereas E2f1-dependent apoptosis was p53 and p73-independent, E2f2 caused p53-dependent cone death. Our in vivo analysis of cone photoreceptors provides unequivocal proof that E2f-induces apoptosis independent of E2f1, and reveals distinct E2f1- and E2f2-activated death pathways in response to a single tumorigenic insult.
Project description:TP53 is mutated in 50% of all cancers, and is often functionally compromised in cancers where it is not mutated. We demonstrate that the pro-tumorigenic/metastatic Six1 homeoprotein decreases p53 levels through a mechanism that does not involve the negative regulator of p53, MDM2. Instead, Six1 regulates p53 via a dual mechanism involving upregulation of microRNA-27a and downregulation of the ribosomal protein L26 (RPL26), a positive regulator of p53 translation. Mutation analysis confirms that RPL26, whose expression inversely correlates with Six1 expression in numerous tumor types, inhibits miR-27a binding to the p53 3’UTR and prevents microRNA-mediated translational inhibition of p53. Thus, through simultaneous downregulation of RPL26 and upregulation of miR-27a, Six1 efficiently lowers p53 levels despite regulation of p53 at the level of the proteasome. Consequently, Six1 overexpression, which is observed in numerous tumor types, leads to dramatic resistance to nutlins, as well as other therapies targeting the p53-MDM2 interaction. Overall design: Two samples were profiled in triplicates. 66cl4 scrambled and 66cl4 with shRNA knockdown of SIX1. Knockdown experiment