Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.
ABSTRACT: An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region) amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05). Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001). Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01) and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05). Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001). The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05) whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.
Project description:Macronutrient quality and composition are important determinants of energy balance and the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated how changes to protein quality (casein versus whey protein isolate; WPI) and the protein to carbohydrate (P/C) ratio within a high fat diet (HFD) impacts on these parameters. Mice were fed a low fat diet (10% kJ) or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kJ) for 21 weeks with either casein (20% kJ, HFD) or WPI at 20%, 30% or 40% kJ. In comparison to casein, WPI at a similar energy content normalised energy intake, increased lean mass and caused a trend towards a reduction in fat mass (P = 0.08), but the protein challenge did not alter oxygen consumption or locomotor activity. WPI reduced HFD-induced plasma leptin and liver triacylglycerol, and partially attenuated the reduction in adipose FASN mRNA in HFD-fed mice. High throughput sequence-based analysis of faecal microbial populations revealed microbiota in the HFD-20% WPI group clustering closely with HFD controls, although WPI specifically increased Lactobacillaceae/Lactobacillus and decreased Clostridiaceae/Clostridium in HFD-fed mice. There was no effect of increasing the P/C ratio on energy intake, but the highest ratio reduced HFD-induced weight gain, fat mass and plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids, glucose and leptin levels, while it increased lean mass and oxygen consumption. Similar effects were observed on adipose mRNA expression, where the highest ratio reduced HFD-associated expression of UCP-2, TNF? and CD68 and increased the diet-associated expression of ?3-AR, LPL, IR, IRS-1 and GLUT4. The P/C ratio also impacted on gut microbiota, with populations in the 30/40% WPI groups clustering together and away from the 20% WPI group. Taken together, our data show that increasing the P/C ratio has a dramatic effect on energy balance and the composition of gut microbiota, which is distinct from that caused by changes to protein quality.
Project description:Insufficient expression of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and stromal cell-derived factor 2 like 1 (Sdf2l1) reportedly leads to insulin resistance and hepatosteatosis in obesity and type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, increased expression of hepatic serotonin receptor 2a (htr2a) in diet-induced obesity contributes to hepatosteatosis. Here we show that increases in circulating FGF21 levels and expression of hepatic FGF21 preceded weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia in C57BLJ6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Expression of hepatic htr2a and Sdf2l1 increased in insulin-resistant mice fed a high-fat diet. Intake of whey protein isolate decreased plasma FGF21 levels and expression of hepatic FGF21 in mice fed either a high-fat diet or a chow diet, whereas it only suppressed the overexpression of hepatic Sdf2 and htr2a in insulin-resistant mice fed a high-fat diet. Moreover, intake of whey protein isolate decreased plasma serotonin levels in mice fed either a high-fat diet or a chow diet. Genetic inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 decreased hepatic FGF21 expression and plasma FGF21 levels in mice. These findings suggest that increased hepatic FGF21 production precedes diet-induced weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia, and that intake of whey protein isolate could inhibit hepatic FGF21 production by suppressing peripheral serotonin synthesis.
Project description:Protein consumption influences glucose homeostasis, but the effect depends on the type and origin of proteins ingested. The present study was designed to determine the effect of herring milt protein hydrolysate (HPH) on insulin function and glucose metabolism in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Male C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet for 6 weeks. Mice on the high-fat diet were divided into four groups where one group continued on the high-fat diet and the other three groups were fed a modified high-fat diet where 15%, 35%, and 70%, respectively, of casein was replaced with an equal percentage of protein derived from HPH. After 10 weeks, mice that continued on the high-fat diet showed significant increases in body weight, blood glucose, insulin, and leptin levels and exhibited impaired oral glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Compared to mice fed the high-fat diet, the 70% replacement of dietary casein with HPH protein reduced body weight, semi-fasting blood glucose, fasting blood glucose, insulin, leptin, and cholesterol levels and improved glucose tolerance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) indices. The 35% replacement of dietary casein with HPH protein showed moderate effects, while the 15% replacement of dietary casein with HPH protein had no effects. This is the first study demonstrating that replacing dietary casein with the same amount of protein derived from HPH can prevent high-fat-diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.
Project description:Bovine whey protein has been demonstrated to exert a positive effect on energy balance, lipid metabolism, and nutrient absorption. Additionally, it affects gut microbiota configuration. Thus, whey protein is considered as good dietary candidate to prevent or ameliorate metabolic diseases, such as obesity. However, the relationship that links energy balance, metabolism, and intestinal microbial population mediated by whey protein intake remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects attributed to whey protein in the context of high-fat diet (HFD) in mice at two different ages, with short or longer durations of whey protein supplementation. Here, a 5-week dietary intervention with HFD in combination with either whey protein isolate (WPI) or the control nonwhey milk protein casein (CAS) was performed using 5-week or 10-week-old C57BL/6J mice. Notably, the younger mice had no prior history of ingestion of WPI, while older mice did. 5-week-old HFD-WPI-fed mice showed a decrease in weight gain and changes in the expression of genes within the epidydimal white adipose tissue including those encoding leptin, inflammatory marker CD68, fasting-induced adipose factor FIAF and enzymes involved in fatty acids catabolism, relative to HFD-CAS-fed mice. Differences in ?-diversity and higher proportions of Lactobacillus murinus, and related functions, were evident within the gut microbiota of HFD-WPI mice. However, none of these changes were observed in mice that started the HFD dietary intervention at 10-weeks-old, with an extended period of WPI supplementation. These results suggest that the effect of whey protein on mouse body weight, adipose tissue, and intestinal parameters depends on diet duration and stage of life during which the diet is provided. In some instances, WPI influences gut microbiota composition and functional potential, which might orchestrate observed metabolic and physiological modifications.
Project description:The notion that the obesogenic potential of high fat diets in rodents is attenuated when the protein:carbohydrate ratio is increased is largely based on studies using casein or whey as the protein source. We fed C57BL/6J mice high fat-high protein diets using casein, soy, cod, beef, chicken or pork as protein sources. Casein stood out as the most efficient in preventing weight gain and accretion of adipose mass. By contrast, mice fed diets based on pork or chicken, and to a lesser extent mice fed cod or beef protein, had increased adipose tissue mass gain relative to casein fed mice. Decreasing the protein:carbohydrate ratio in diets with casein or pork as protein sources led to accentuated fat mass accumulation. Pork fed mice were more obese than casein fed mice, and relative to casein, the pork-based feed induced substantial accumulation of fat in classic interscapular brown adipose tissue accompanied by decreased UCP1 expression. Furthermore, intake of a low fat diet with casein, but not pork, as a protein source reversed diet-induced obesity. Compared to pork, casein seems unique in maintaining the classical brown morphology in interscapular brown adipose tissue with high UCP1 expression. This was accompanied by increased expression of genes involved in a futile cycling of fatty acids. Our results demonstrate that intake of high protein diets based on other protein sources may not have similar effects, and hence, the obesity protective effect of high protein diets is clearly modulated by protein source.
Project description:SCOPE:The gut microbiota might critically modify metabolic disease development. Dietary fibers such as galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) presumably stimulate bacteria beneficial for metabolic health. This study assesses the impact of GOS on obesity, glucose, and lipid metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS:Following Western-type diet feeding (C57BL/6 mice) with or without ?-GOS (7% w/w, 15 weeks), body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance, lipid profiles, fat kinetics and microbiota composition are analyzed. GOS reduces body weight gain (p < 0.01), accumulation of epididymal (p < 0.05), perirenal (p < 0.01) fat, and insulin resistance (p < 0.01). GOS-fed mice have lower plasma cholesterol (p < 0.05), mainly within low-density lipoproteins, lower intestinal fat absorption (p < 0.01), more fecal neutral sterol excretion (p < 0.05) and higher intestinal GLP-1 expression (p < 0.01). Fecal bile acid excretion is lower (p < 0.01) in GOS-fed mice with significant compositional differences, namely decreased cholic, ?-muricholic, and deoxycholic acid excretion, whereas hyodeoxycholic acid increased. Substantial changes in microbiota composition, conceivably beneficial for metabolic health, occurred upon GOS feeding. CONCLUSION:GOS supplementation to a Western-type diet improves body weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin sensitivity, supporting a therapeutic potential of GOS for individuals at risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
Project description:Low-fat diets and energy restriction are recommended to prevent obesity and to induce weight loss, but high-protein diets are popular alternatives. However, the importance of the protein source in obesity prevention and weight loss is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of different animal protein sources to prevent or reverse obesity by using lean or obese C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat/high-protein or low-fat diets with casein, cod or pork as protein sources. Only the high-fat/high-protein casein-based diet completely prevented obesity development when fed to lean mice. In obese mice, ad libitum intake of a casein-based high-fat/high-protein diet modestly reduced body mass, whereas a pork-based high-fat/high-protein diet aggravated the obese state and reduced lean body mass. Caloric restriction of obese mice fed high-fat/high-protein diets reduced body weight and fat mass and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, irrespective of the protein source. Finally, in obese mice, ad libitum intake of a low-fat diet stabilized body weight, reduced fat mass and increased lean body mass, with the highest loss of fat mass found in mice fed the casein-based diet. Combined with caloric restriction, the casein-based low-fat diet resulted in the highest loss of fat mass. Overall, the dietary protein source has greater impact in obesity prevention than obesity reversal.
Project description:Whey protein promotes weight loss and improves diabetic control, however, less is known of its bioactive components that produce such benefits. We compared the effects of normal protein (control) diet with high protein diets containing whey, or its fractions lactalbumin and lactoferrin, on energy balance and metabolism. Diet-induced obese rats were randomized to isocaloric diets: Control, Whey, Lactalbumin, Lactoferrin, or pair-fed to lactoferrin. Whey and lactalbumin produced transient hypophagia, whereas lactoferrin caused prolonged hypophagia; the hypophagia was likely due to decreased preference. Lactalbumin decreased weight and fat gain. Notably, lactoferrin produced sustained weight and fat loss, and attenuated the reduction in energy expenditure associated with calorie restriction. Lactalbumin and lactoferrin decreased plasma leptin and insulin, and lactalbumin increased peptide YY. Whey, lactalbumin and lactoferrin improved glucose clearance partly through differential upregulation of glucoregulatory transcripts in the liver and skeletal muscle. Interestingly, lactalbumin and lactoferrin decreased hepatic lipidosis partly through downregulation of lipogenic and/or upregulation of ?-oxidation transcripts, and differentially modulated cecal bacterial populations. Our findings demonstrate that protein quantity and quality are important for improving energy balance. Dietary lactalbumin and lactoferrin improved energy balance and metabolism, and decreased adiposity, with the effects of lactoferrin being partly independent of caloric intake.
Project description:Although genetic predisposition influences the onset and progression of insulin resistance and diabetes, dietary nutrients are critical. In general, protein is beneficial relative to carbohydrate and fat but dependent on protein source. Our recent study demonstrated that 70% replacement of dietary casein protein with the equivalent quantity of protein derived from herring milt protein hydrolysate (HMPH; herring milt with proteins being enzymatically hydrolyzed) significantly improved insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. As production of protein hydrolysate increases the cost of the product, it is important to determine whether a simply dried and ground herring milt product possesses similar benefits. Therefore, the current study was conducted to investigate the effect of herring milt dry powder (HMDP) on glucose control and the associated metabolic phenotypes and further to compare its efficacy with HMPH. Male C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat diet for 7 weeks were randomized based on body weight and blood glucose into three groups. One group continued on the high-fat diet and was used as the insulin-resistant/diabetic control and the other two groups were given the high-fat diet modified to have 70% of casein protein being replaced with the same amount of protein from HMDP or HMPH. A group of mice on a low-fat diet all the time was used as the normal control. The results demonstrated that mice on the high-fat diet increased weight gain and showed higher blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and leptin, as well as impaired glucose tolerance and pancreatic ?-cell function relative to those on the normal control diet. In comparison with the high-fat diet, the replacement of 70% dietary casein protein with the same amount of HMDP or HMPH protein decreased weight gain and significantly improved the aforementioned biomarkers, insulin sensitivity or resistance, and ?-cell function. The HMDP and HMPH showed similar effects on every parameter except blood lipids where HMDP decreased total cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels while the effect of HMPH was not significant. The results demonstrate that substituting 70% of dietary casein protein with the equivalent amount of HMDP or HMPH protein protects against obesity and diabetes, and HMDP is also beneficial to cholesterol homeostasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Increased adipose tissue mass closely associates with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Previously, we reported that CREB3L4 expressed in adipose tissue negatively regulates adipogenesis, and Creb3l4 knockout mice fed a high-fat diet for 16 weeks showed fat cell hyperplasia, with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. These mice did not show significant weight gain and fat mass. Because fat diet or aging is known to be associated with the development of obesity, we examined the effects of Creb3l4 gene subjected to low-fat diet (LFD) or aging process on body composition and obesity risk. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We fed Creb3l4 knockout mice a low-fat diet for 16 weeks (LFD group) or chow diet for over 1 year (aged group) and observed various metabolic parameters in the LFD-fed and aged Creb3l4 knockout mice. RESULTS: LFD-fed and aged Creb3l4 knockout mice showed significant weight gain and adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance and decreased insulin sensitivity, compared with wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Creb3l4 has a critical role in metabolic phenotypes and a better understanding of its function may provide improved insight into the etiology of diabetes and other metabolic disorders.