Identification of an endo-1,4-beta-xylanase of Ustilago maydis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The utilization of raw biomass components such as cellulose or hemicellulose for the production of valuable chemicals has attracted considerable research interest in recent years. One promising approach is the application of microorganisms that naturally convert biomass constituents into value added chemicals. One of these organisms--Ustilago maydis--can grow on xylan, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, while at the same time it produces chemicals of biotechnological interest. RESULTS: In this study, we present the identification of an endo-1,4-beta xylanase responsible for xylan degradation. Xylanase activity of U. maydis cells was indirectly detected by the quantification of released reducing sugars and could be confirmed by visualizing oligosaccharides as degradation products of xylan by thin layer chromatography. A putative endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, encoded by um06350.1, was identified in the supernatant of xylan-grown cells. To confirm the activity, we displayed the putative xylanase on the surface of the xylanase negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY100. The presented enzyme converted xylan to xylotriose, similar to the source organism U. maydis. CONCLUSIONS: The xylan degradation ability together with its unicellular and yeast-like growth makes U. maydis MB215 a promising candidate for the production of valuable chemicals such as itaconic acid or glycolipids from lignocellulosic biomass. Therefore, the characterization of the endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, encoded by um06350.1, is a further step towards the biotechnological application of U. maydis and its enzymes.
Project description:Endo-β-1,4-xylanase is a key enzyme in the degradation of β-1,4-d-xylan polysaccharides through hydrolysis. A glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) endo-β-1,4-xylanase (XylR) from <i>Duganella</i> sp. PAMC 27433, an Antarctic soil bacterium, was identified and functionally characterized. The XylR gene (1122-bp) encoded an acidic protein containing a single catalytic GH10 domain that was 86% identical to that of an uncultured bacterium BLR13 endo-β-1,4-xylanase (ACN58881). The recombinant enzyme (rXylR: 42.0 kDa) showed the highest beechwood xylan-degrading activity at pH 5.5 and 40 °C, and displayed 12% of its maximum activity even at 4 °C. rXylR was not only almost completely inhibited by 5 mM <i>N</i>-bromosuccinimide or metal ions (each 1 mM) including Hg<sup>2+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup>, or Cu<sup>2+</sup> but also significantly suppressed by 1 mM Ni<sup>2+</sup>, Zn<sup>2+</sup>, or Fe<sup>2+</sup>. However, its enzyme activity was upregulated (>1.4-fold) in the presence of 0.5% Triton X-100 or Tween 80. The specific activities of rXylR toward beechwood xylan, birchwood xylan, oat spelts xylan, and <i>p</i>-nitrophenyl-β-d-cellobioside were 274.7, 103.2, 35.6, and 365.1 U/mg, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of birchwood xylan and d-xylooligosaccharides yielded d-xylose and d-xylobiose as the end products. The results of the present study suggest that rXylR is a novel cold-adapted d-xylobiose- and d-xylose-releasing endo-β-1,4-xylanase.
Project description:The Clostridium cellulovorans xynA gene encodes the cellulosomal endo-1,4-beta-xylanase XynA, which consists of a family 11 glycoside hydrolase catalytic domain (CD), a dockerin domain, and a NodB domain. The recombinant acetyl xylan esterase (rNodB) encoded by the NodB domain exhibited broad substrate specificity and released acetate not only from acetylated xylan but also from other acetylated substrates. rNodB acted synergistically with the xylanase CD of XynA for hydrolysis of acetylated xylan. Immunological analyses revealed that XynA corresponds to a major xylanase in the cellulosomal fraction. These results indicate that XynA is a key enzymatic subunit for xylan degradation in C. cellulovorans.
Project description:Background:The extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus can degrade and metabolize untreated lignocellulosic biomass containing xylan. The mechanism of the bacterium for degradation of insoluble xylan in untreated biomass has not been revealed. Results:In the present study, the only annotated extracellular endo-?-1,4-xylanase (Xyn10B) with multidomain structures in C. lactoaceticus genome was biochemically characterized. Xyn10B contains three N-terminal consecutive family 22 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), one GH10 catalytic domain (CD), two family 9 CBMs and two S-layer homology (SLH) modules in the C-terminal. CBM22a shares 27.1% and 27.2% sequence homology with CBM22b and CBM22c, respectively. The sequence homology between two CBM9 s and two SLHs is 26.8% and 25.6%, respectively. To elucidate the effect of multiple domains on the enzymatic properties of Xyn10B, the truncated variants of which (Xyn10B-TM1: CBM22a-CBM22b-CBM22c-CD10; Xyn10B-TM2: CBM22c-CD10; Xyn10B-TM3: CBM22c-CD10-CBM9a; and Xyn10B-TM4: CD10-CBM9a) were separately reconstructed, recombinantly expressed and biochemically characterized. Enzymatic properties studies showed that the optimal temperature for all four Xyn10B truncations was 65 °C. Compared to Xyn10B-TM3 and Xyn10B-TM4, Xyn10B-TM1 and Xyn10B-TM2 had higher hydrolytic activity, thermostability and affinity on insoluble substrates. It is noteworthy that Xyn10B-TM1 and Xyn10B-TM2 have higher enzymatic activity on insoluble xylan than the soluble counterparts, whereas Xyn10B-TM3 and Xyn10B-TM4 showed opposite characteristics. The kinetic parameters analysis of Xyn10B-TM1 on xylan showed V max was 5740, 1300, 1033, and 3925 U/?mol on insoluble oat spelt xylan (OSX), soluble beechwood xylan (BWX), soluble sugar cane xylan (SCX), and soluble corncob xylan (CCX), respectively. The results indicated that CBM22s especially CBM22c promoted the hydrolytic activity, thermostability and affinity on insoluble substrates of the Xyn10B truncations. The functions of CBM22, CBM9, CD and SLH are different, while contribute synergetically to the thermostability, protein structure integrity, substrate binding, and high hydrolytic activity on insoluble xylan of untreated lignocellulosic biomass. The domains of CBM22, CBM9, CD and SLH have different characteristics, which synergistically promote the thermostability, protein structure integrity, affinity on insoluble substrates and enzymatic activity properties of Xyn10B. Conclusions:The extracellular endo-?-1,4-xylanase with multidomain structures of CBM, CD and SLH promote the biodegradation of insoluble xylan in untreated lignocellulosic biomass by thermophilic C. lactoaceticus.
Project description:Plant pathogenic fungi must be able to degrade host cell walls in order to penetrate and invade plant tissues. Among the plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) produced, xylanases are of special interest since its degradation target, xylan, is one of the main structural polysaccharides in plant cell walls. In the biotrophic fungus <i>Ustilago maydis</i>, attempts to characterize PCWDEs required for virulence have been unsuccessful, most likely due to functional redundancy. In previous high-throughput screening, we found one xylanase to be important for <i>U. maydis</i> infection. Here, we characterize the entire <i>U. maydis</i> endo-xylanase family, comprising two enzymes from the glycoside hydrolase (GH) 10 family, Xyn1 and Xyn2, one from GH11, Xyn11A, and one from GH43, Xyn3. We show that all endo-xylanases except Xyn3 are secreted and involved in infection in a non-redundant manner, suggesting different roles for each xylanase in this process. Taking a closer look inside the plant during the pathogenic process, we observed that all secreted xylanases were necessary for fungal proliferation. Finally, we found that at least Xyn11A accumulated in the apoplast of the infected plant after three days, highlighting the role of these enzymes as important secreted proteins during fungal proliferation inside plant tissues.
Project description:Xanthomonas pathogens attack a variety of economically relevant plants, and their xylan CUT system (carbohydrate utilization with TonB-dependent outer membrane transporter system) contains two major xylanase-related genes, xynA and xynB, which influence biofilm formation and virulence by molecular mechanisms that are still elusive. Herein, we demonstrated that XynA is a rare reducing end xylose-releasing exo-oligoxylanase and not an endo-?-1,4-xylanase as predicted. Structural analysis revealed that an insertion in the ?7-?7 loop induces dimerization and promotes a physical barrier at the +2 subsite conferring this unique mode of action within the GH10 family. A single mutation that impaired dimerization became XynA active against xylan, and high endolytic activity was achieved when this loop was tailored to match a canonical sequence of endo-?-1,4-xylanases, supporting our mechanistic model. On the other hand, the divergent XynB proved to be a classical endo-?-1,4-xylanase, despite the low sequence similarity to characterized GH10 xylanases. Interestingly, this enzyme contains a calcium ion bound nearby to the glycone-binding region, which is required for catalytic activity and structural stability. These results shed light on the molecular basis for xylan degradation by Xanthomonas and suggest how these enzymes synergistically assist infection and pathogenesis. Our findings indicate that XynB contributes to breach the plant cell wall barrier, providing nutrients and facilitating the translocation of effector molecules, whereas the exo-oligoxylanase XynA possibly participates in the suppression of oligosaccharide-induced immune responses.
Project description:Twenty-four Actinobacteria strains, isolated from Arundo donax, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Populus nigra biomass during natural biodegradation and with potential enzymatic activities specific for the degradation of lignocellulosic materials, were identified by a polyphasic approach. All strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces (S.) and in particular, the most highly represented species was Streptomyces argenteolus representing 50% of strains, while 8 strains were identified as Streptomyces flavogriseus (synonym S. flavovirens) and Streptomyces fimicarius (synonyms Streptomyces acrimycini, Streptomyces baarnensis, Streptomyces caviscabies, and Streptomyces flavofuscus), and the other four strains belonged to the species Streptomyces drozdowiczii, Streptomyces rubrogriseus, Streptomyces albolongus, and Streptomyces ambofaciens. Moreover, all Streptomyces strains, tested for endo and exo-cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase, ligninase, peroxidase, and laccase activities using qualitative and semi-quantitative methods on solid growth medium, exhibited multiple enzymatic activities (from three to six). The 24 strains were further screened for endo-cellulase activity in liquid growth medium and the four best endo-cellulase producers (S. argenteolus AE58P, S. argenteolus AE710A, S. argenteolus AE82P, and S. argenteolus AP51A) were subjected to partial characterization and their enzymatic crude extracts adopted to perform saccharification experiments on A. donax pretreated biomass. The degree of cellulose and xylan hydrolysis was evaluated by determining the kinetics of glucose and xylose release during 72 h incubation at 50°C from the pretreated biomass in the presence of cellulose degrading enzymes (cellulase and ?-glucosidase) and xylan related activities (xylanase and ?-xylosidase). The experiments were carried out utilizing the endo-cellulase activities from the selected S. argenteolus strains supplemented with commercial ?-gucosidase and xylanase preparations from Genencore (Accellerase BG and Accellerase XY). Cellulose and xylan conversion, when conducted using commercial (hemi)cellulases, gave glucose and xylose yields of 30.17 and 68.9%, respectively. The replacement of the cellulolytic preparation from Genencor (Accellerase 1500), with the endo-cellulase from S. argenteolus AE58P resulted in almost 76% of the glucose yield obtained in the presence of the commercial counterpart. Due to the promising results obtained by using the enzymatic crude extracts from S. argenteolus AE58P in the pretreated A. donax saccharification experiments, the proteins putatively responsible for endo-cellulase activity in this strain were identified by proteomics. Several proteins were confidently identified in different Streptomyces spp., eight of which belong to the class of Carbohydrate active enzymes. Overall results highlighted the biotechnological potential of S. argenteolus AE58P being an interesting candidate biocatalyst-producing bacterium for lignocellulose conversion and production of biochemicals and bioenergy.
Project description:As is well-known, endo-1,4-?-xylanase and ?-xylosidase are the rate-limiting enzymes in the degradation of xylan (the major hemicellulosic component), main functions of which are cleavaging xylan to release xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and xylose that these two compounds have important application value in fuel, food, and other industries. This study focuses on enzymatic hydrolysis of poplar sawdust xylan for production of XOS and xylose by a GH11 endo-1,4-?-xylanase MxynB-8 and a GH39 ?-xylosidase Xln-DT. MxynB-8 showed excellent ability to hydrolyze hemicellulose of broadleaf plants, such as poplar. Under optimized conditions (50°C, pH 6.0, dosage of 500 U/g, substrate concentration of 2 mg/mL), the final XOS yield was 85.5%, and the content of XOS<sub>2-3</sub> reached 93.9% after 18 h. The enzymatic efficiency by MxynB-8 based on the poplar sawdust xylan in the raw material was 30.5%. Xln-DT showed excellent xylose/glucose/arabinose tolerance, which is applied as a candidate to apply in degradation of hemicellulose. In addition, the process and enzymatic mode of poplar sawdust xylan with MxynB-8 and Xln-DT were investigated. The results showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of poplar sawdust xylan was improved by adding Xln-DT, and a xylose-rich hydrolysate could be obtained at high purity, with the xylose yield of 89.9%. The enzymatic hydrolysis yield was higher (32.2%) by using MxynB-8 and Xln-DT together. This study provides a deep understanding of double-enzyme synergetic enzymolysis of wood polysaccharides to valuable products.
Project description:Xylanases decrease the xylan content in pretreated biomass releasing it from hemicellulose, thus improving the accessibility of cellulose for cellulases. In this work, an endo-β-1,4-xylanase from Aspergillus fumigatus var. niveus (AFUMN-GH10) was successfully expressed. The structural analysis and biochemical characterization showed this AFUMN-GH10 does not contain a carbohydrate-binding module. The enzyme retained its activity in a pH range from 4.5 to 7.0, with an optimal temperature at 60 °C. AFUMN-GH10 showed the highest activity in beechwood xylan. The mode of action of AFUMN-GH10 was investigated by hydrolysis of APTS-labeled xylohexaose, which resulted in xylotriose and xylobiose as the main products. AFUMN-GH10 released 27% of residual xylan from hydrothermally-pretreated corn stover and 14% of residual xylan from hydrothermally-pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The results showed that environmentally friendly pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with AFUMN-GH10 in low concentration is a suitable method to remove part of residual and recalcitrant hemicellulose from biomass.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has been widely used as a workhorse for cellulase and xylanase productions. Xylanase has been reported as the crucial accessory enzyme in the degradation of lignocellulose for higher accessibility of cellulase. In addition, the efficient hydrolysis of xylan needs the co-work of multiple xylanolytic enzymes, which rise an increasing demand for the high yield of xylanase for efficient biomass degradation.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, a xylanase hyper-producing system in T. reesei was established by tailoring two transcription factors, XYR1 and ACE1, and homologous overexpression of the major endo-xylanase XYNII. The expressed xylanase cocktail contained 5256 U/mL xylanase activity and 9.25 U/mL β-xylosidase (pNPXase) activity. Meanwhile, the transcription level of the xylanolytic genes in the strain with XYR1 overexpressed was upregulated, which was well correlated with the amount of XYR1-binding sites. In addition, the higher expression of associated xylanolytic enzymes would result in more efficient xylan hydrolysis. Besides, 2310-3085 U/mL of xylanase activities were achieved using soluble carbon source, which was more efficient and economical than the traditional strategy of xylan induction. Unexpectedly, deletion of ace1 in C30OExyr1 did not give any improvement, which might be the result of the disturbed function of the complex formed between ACE1 and XYR1. The enzymatic hydrolysis of alkali pretreated corn stover using the crude xylanase cocktails as accessory enzymes resulted in a 36.64% increase in saccharification efficiency with the ratio of xylanase activity vs FPase activity at 500, compared to that using cellulase alone.<h4>Conclusions</h4>An efficient and economical xylanase hyper-producing platform was developed in T. reesei RUT-C30. The novel platform with outstanding ability for crude xylanase cocktail production would greatly fit in biomass degradation and give a new perspective of further engineering in T. reesei for industrial purposes.
Project description:In this study, a bacterial strain CP22 with ability to produce cellulase, xylanase and mannanase was isolated from the oil palm compost. Based on the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strain was affiliated to genus <i>Micromonospora</i>. To further investigate genes that are related to cellulose and hemicellulose degradation, the genome of strain CP22 was sequenced, annotated and analyzed. The de novo assembled genome of strain CP22 featured a size of 5,856,203 bp with G + C content of 70.84%. Detailed genome analysis on lignocellulose degradation revealed a total of 60 genes consisting of 47 glycoside hydrolase domains and 16 carbohydrate esterase domains predicted to be involved in cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic deconstruction. Particularly, 20 genes encode for cellulases (8 endoglucanases, 3 exoglucanases and 9 β-glucosidases) and 40 genes encode for hemicellulases (15 endo-1,4-β-xylanase, 3 β-xylosidase, 3 α-arabinofuranosidase, 10 acetyl xylan esterase, 6 polysaccharide deacetylase, 1 β-mannanase, 1 β-mannosidase and 1 α-galactosidase). Thirty-two genes encoding carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM) from six different families (CBM2, CBM4, CBM6, CBM9, CBM13 and CBM22) were present in the genome of strain CP22. These CBMs were found in 27 cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic genes, indicating their potential role in enhancing the substrate-binding capability of the enzymes. CBM2 and CBM13 are the major CBMs present in cellulases and hemicellulases (xylanases and mannanases), respectively. Moreover, a GH10 xylanase was found to contain 3 CBMs (1 CBM9 and 2 CBM22) and these CBMs were reported to bind specifically to xylan. This genome-based analysis could facilitate the exploration of this strain for lignocellulosic biomass degradation.