Macular morphology and visual acuity in the comparison of age-related macular degeneration treatments trials.
ABSTRACT: To describe the effects of treatment for 1 year with ranibizumab or bevacizumab on macular morphology and the association of macular morphology with visual acuity (VA) in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).Prospective cohort study within a randomized clinical trial.Participants in the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials.Participants were assigned randomly to treatment with ranibizumab or bevacizumab on a monthly or as-needed schedule. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), fluorescein angiography (FA), color fundus photography (FP), and VA testing were performed periodically throughout 52 weeks. Masked readers graded images. General linear models were applied to evaluate effects of time and treatment on outcomes.Fluid type and location and thickness by OCT, size, and lesion composition on FP, FA, and VA.Intraretinal fluid (IRF), subretinal fluid (SRF), subretinal pigment epithelium fluid, and retinal, subretinal, and subretinal tissue complex thickness decreased in all treatment groups. A higher proportion of eyes treated monthly with ranibizumab had fluid resolution at 4 weeks, and the difference persisted through 52 weeks. At 52 weeks, there was little association between the presence of fluid of any type (without regard to fluid location) and the mean VA. However, at all time points, eyes with residual IRF, especially foveal IRF, had worse mean VA (9 letters) than those without IRF. Eyes with abnormally thin (<120 ?m) or thick (>212 ?m) retinas had worse VA than those with normal thickness (120-212 ?m). At week 52, eyes with larger neovascular lesions or with foveal scar had worse VA than eyes without these features.Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy reduced lesion activity and improved VA in all treatment groups. At all time points, eyes with residual IRF had worse VA than those without. Eyes with abnormally thin or thick retinas, residual large lesions, and scar also had worse VA. Monthly ranibizumab dosing yielded more eyes with no fluid and an abnormally thin retina, although the long-term significance is unknown. These results have important treatment implications in eyes undergoing anti-VEGF therapy for neovascular AMD.Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
Project description:To describe the association between morphologic features on fundus photography (FP), fluorescein angiography (FA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual acuity (VA) in the second year of the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT).Prospective cohort study within a randomized clinical trial.Participants in the CATT.Study eye eligibility required angiographic and OCT evidence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and VA between 20/25 and 20/320. Treatment was assigned randomly to ranibizumab or bevacizumab with 3 different dosing regimens over a 2-year period.Fluid type, location, and thickness; retina and subretinal tissue complex thickness on OCT; size and lesion composition on FP and FA; and VA.Among 1185 CATT participants, 993 (84%) had fluid on OCT at baseline and completed 2 years of follow-up. At 2 years, intraretinal fluid (IRF), subretinal fluid (SRF), sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fluid, and subretinal tissue complex thickness decreased in all treatment groups. Ranibizumab monthly was best able to resolve each type of fluid. Eyes with SRF in the foveal center on OCT had better mean VA than eyes with no SRF (72.8 vs. 66.6 letters; P = 0.006). Eyes with IRF in the foveal center had worse mean VA than eyes without IRF (59.9 vs. 70.9 letters; P < 0.0001). Eyes with retinal thickness <120 ?m had worse VA compared with eyes with retinal thickness 120 to 212 and >212 ?m (59.4 vs. 71.3 vs. 70.3 letters; P < 0.0001). At 2 years, the mean VA (letters) of eyes varied substantially by the type of subfoveal pathology on FP and FA: 70.6 for no pathology; 74.1 for fluid only; 73.3 for CNV or pigment epithelial (RPE) detachment; 68.4 for nongeographic atrophy; and 62.9 for geographic atrophy, hemorrhage, RPE tear, or scar (P < 0.0001).The associations between VA and morphologic features identified through year 1 were maintained or strengthened during year 2. Eyes with foveal IRF, abnormally thin retina, greater thickness of the subretinal tissue complex on OCT, and subfoveal geographic atrophy or scar on FP/FA had the worst VA. Subretinal fluid was associated with better VA.
Project description:To describe morphologic and visual outcomes in eyes with angiographic cystoid macular edema (CME) treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD).Prospective cohort study within a randomized clinical trial.A total of 1185 CATT study subjects.Baseline fluorescein angiography (FA) images of all CATT study eyes were evaluated for CME. Grading of other characteristics on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and photographic images at baseline and during 2-year follow-up was completed by readers at the CATT Reading Centers. Three groups were created on the basis of baseline CME and intraretinal fluid (IRF) status: (1) CME, (2) IRF without CME, (3) neither CME nor IRF.Visual acuity (VA) and total central retinal thickness (CRT) on OCT at baseline, year 1, and year 2.Among 1131 participants with images of sufficient quality for determining CME and IRF at baseline, 92 (8.1%) had CME, 766 (67.7%) had IRF without CME, and 273 (24.1%) had neither. At baseline, eyes with CME had worse mean VA (letters) than eyes with IRF without CME and eyes with neither CME nor IRF (52 vs. 60 vs. 66 letters, P < 0.001); higher mean total CRT (?m) on OCT (514 vs. 472 vs. 404, P < 0.001); and greater hemorrhage, retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) lesions, and classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). All groups showed improvement in VA at follow-up; however, the CME group started and ended with the worst VA among the 3 groups. Central retinal thickness, although higher at baseline for the CME group, was similar at 1 and 2 years follow-up for all groups. More eyes with CME (65.3%) developed scarring during 2 years of follow-up compared with eyes with IRF without CME (43.8%) and eyes with neither CME nor IRF (32.5%; P < 0.001).In CATT, eyes with CME had worse baseline and follow-up VA, although all groups showed similar rates of improvement in VA during 2 years of follow-up. Cystoid macular edema seems to be a marker for poorer visual outcomes in nAMD because of underlying baseline retinal dysfunction and subsequent scarring.
Project description:Antivascular endothelial growth factor injection is the mainstay of treating neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous studies have shown that switching treatment from ranibizumab to aflibercept led to an improvement in eyes with recalcitrant activity. Herein, we identify a unique subset of patients whose eyes with neovascular AMD were previously well controlled with ranibizumab injections were then worsened after being switched to aflibercept.This is a retrospective interventional case series. Eyes with neovascular AMD, previously well controlled with monthly injections of ranibizumab, which then developed worsening of subretinal fluid after being switched to aflibercept were included.A total of 17 eyes were included. All eyes developed increased subretinal fluid when switched from ranibizumab to aflibercept. Fourteen patients were switched back to ranibizumab after a single injection of aflibercept and had subsequent rapid resolution of subretinal fluid. Three patients continued with monthly aflibercept injections for two subsequent months and demonstrated the persistence of the increased subretinal fluid until they were switched back to treatment with ranibizumab at which time the fluid resolved. No eye had persistent decline in visual acuity.Switching from intravitreal ranibizumab to aflibercept in eyes with well-controlled neovascular AMD may result in worsening in a subset of patients and resolves when therapy is switched back to ranibizumab.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate associations of morphologic features with 5-year visual acuity (VA) in the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). DESIGN:Cohort study within a randomized clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS:Participants in CATT. METHODS:Eyes with age-related macular degeneration-associated choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and VA between 20/25 and 20/320 were eligible. Treatment was assigned randomly to ranibizumab or bevacizumab and to 3 dosing regimens for 2 years and was at the ophthalmologists' discretion thereafter. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Visual acuity, thickness and morphologic features on OCT, and lesion size and foveal composition on fundus photography (FP) and fluorescein angiography (FA). RESULTS:Visual acuity and image gradings were available for 523 of 914 participants (57%) alive at 5 years. At 5 years, 60% of eyes had intraretinal fluid (IRF), 38% had subretinal fluid (SRF), 36% had subretinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fluid, and 66% had subretinal hyper-reflective material (SHRM). Mean (standard deviation) foveal center thickness was 148 ?m (99) for retina, 5 ?m (21) for SRF, 125 ?m (107) for subretinal tissue complex, 11 ?m (33) for SHRM, and 103 ?m (95) for RPE + RPE elevation. The SHRM, thinner retina, greater CNV lesion area, and foveal center pathology (all P < 0.001) and IRF (P < 0.05) were independently associated with worse VA. Adjusted mean VA letters were 62 for no pathology in the foveal center; 61 for CNV, fluid, or hemorrhage; 65 for non-geographic atrophy (GA); 64 for nonfibrotic scar; 53 for GA; and 56 for fibrotic scar. Incidence or worsening of 8 pathologic features (foveal GA, foveal scar, foveal CNV, SHRM, foveal IRF, retinal thinning, CNV lesion area, and GA area) between years 2 and 5 was independently associated with greater loss of VA from years 2 to 5 and VA loss from baseline to year 5. CONCLUSIONS:Associations between VA and morphologic features previously identified through year 1 were maintained or strengthened at year 5. New foveal scar, CNV, intraretinal fluid, SHRM and retinal thinning, development or worsening of foveal GA, and increased lesion size are important contributors to the VA decline from years 2 to 5. A significant need to develop therapies to address these adverse pathologic features remains.
Project description:Purpose:To determine baseline predictors of visual acuity (VA) outcomes at 5 years after initiating treatment with ranibizumab or bevacizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design:Secondary analysis of data from a cohort study. Participants:Patients enrolled in the Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials (CATT) who completed a 5-year follow-up visit. Methods:Participants were randomly assigned to ranibizumab or bevacizumab and to 1 of 3 dosing regimens. After two years, patients were released from the clinical trial protocol, and were recalled for examination at 5 years. Trained readers evaluated baseline lesion features, fluid and thickness. Baseline predictors were determined using univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Main Outcome Measures:VA score and change from baseline, ?3-line gain, and VA 20/200 or worse at 5 years. Results:Among 647 patients with VA measured at 5 years, mean VA score in the study eye was 58.9 letters (?20/63), mean decrease from baseline was 3.3 letters, 17.6% eyes gained ?3 lines, and 19.9% had VA of 20/200 or worse. In multivariate analysis, worse baseline VA was associated with worse VA, more VA gain, higher percentage with ?3-line gain, and higher percentage with 20/200 or worse at 5 years (all p<0.001). Larger baseline CNV lesion area was associated with worse VA, greater VA loss, and higher percentage with 20/200 or worse at 5 years (all p<0.05). Absence of baseline subretinal fluid was associated with worse VA (p=0.03) and more VA loss (p=0.03). Female gender, bevacizumab treatment in the first 2 years, and absence of RPE elevation were associated with higher percentage with ?3-line gain. Cigarette smoking was associated with a higher percentage with 20/200 or worse. None of the 21 SNPs evaluated were associated with VA outcomes. Conclusions:Five years after initiating treatment with ranibizumab or bevacizumab in CATT participants, worse baseline VA, larger baseline CNV lesion area, and presence of baseline RPE elevation remained independently associated with worse VA at 5 years. In addition, male gender, cigarette smoking, absence of subretinal fluid and treatment with ranibizumab in the first 2 years were independently associated with worse vision outcomes at 5 years.
Project description:PURPOSE:To describe outcomes 5 years after initiating treatment with bevacizumab or ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN:Cohort study. PARTICIPANTS:Patients enrolled in the Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials. METHODS:Patients were assigned randomly to ranibizumab or bevacizumab and to 1 of 3 dosing regimens. After 2 years, patients were released from the clinical trial protocol. At 5 years, patients were recalled for examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Visual acuity (VA) and morphologic retinal features. RESULTS:Visual acuity was obtained for 647 of 914 (71%) living patients with average follow-up of 5.5 years. The mean number of examinations for AMD care after the clinical trial ended was 25.3, and the mean number of treatments was 15.4. Most patients (60%) were treated 1 time or more with a drug other than their assigned drug. At the 5-year visit, 50% of eyes had VA of 20/40 or better and 20% had VA of 20/200 or worse. Mean change in VA was -3 letters from baseline and -11 letters from 2 years. Among 467 eyes with fluorescein angiography, mean total lesion area was 12.9 mm(2), a mean of 4.8 mm(2) larger than at 2 years. Geographic atrophy was present in 213 of 515 (41%) gradable eyes and was subfoveal in 85 eyes (17%). Among 555 eyes with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, 83% had fluid (61% intraretinal, 38% subretinal, and 36% sub-retinal pigment epithelium). Mean foveal total thickness was 278 ?m, a decrease of 182 ?m from baseline and 20 ?m from 2 years. The retina was abnormally thin (<120 ?m) in 36% of eyes. Between 2 and 5 years, the group originally assigned to ranibizumab for 2 years lost more VA than the bevacizumab group (-4 letters; P = 0.008). Otherwise, there were no statistically significant differences in VA or morphologic outcomes between drug or regimen groups. CONCLUSIONS:Vision gains during the first 2 years were not maintained at 5 years. However, 50% of eyes had VA of 20/40 or better, confirming anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy as a major long-term therapeutic advance for neovascular AMD.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:To investigate the association between optical coherence tomography (OCT) markers of lesion activity and changes in visual acuity (VA) during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy of eyes diagnosed with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD); and how VA and OCT markers are considered in physicians' decision to retreat with anti-VEGFs. SUBJECTS/METHODS:Retrospective, non-comparative, non-randomised cohort study involving electronic medical record data collected from 1190 patient eyes with nAMD diagnosis at two sites in the United Kingdom. Two sub-cohorts consisting of 321 and 301 eyes, respectively, were selected for analyses. RESULTS:In 321 eyes, absence of IRF or SRF at ?2 clinic visits resulted in a gain of five ETDRS letters from baseline, compared with two letters gained in eyes with <2 clinic visits with absence of IRF (p?=?0.006) or SRF (p?=?0.042). Anti-VEGF treatment was administered at 421 clinic visits, and 308 visits were without treatment. Comparing treatment visits with non-treatment visits, the maximum difference in frequency of OCT markers of lesion activity were for intraretinal fluid (IRF; 24% versus 5%) and subretinal fluid (SRF; 32% versus 5%). Pigment epithelial detachment (PED) was reported in 58% of treatment visits compared with 36% in non-treatment visits. VA loss was not a consistent trigger for retreatment as it was present in 63% of injection visits and in 49% of non-injection visits. CONCLUSIONS:Retreatment decision making is most strongly influenced by the presence of IRF and SRF and less by the presence of PED or VA loss.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to determine the following: (1) Is polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) a subretinal neovascular process, rather than a choroidal vascular anomaly? and (2) Is a higher dose of ranibizumab (2.0 mg/0.05 mL) more effective in treating PCV than the current dose (0.5 mg/0.05 mL) approved for treatment of age-related macular degeneration?Retrospective evaluation of PCV in 104 eyes of 86 patients was accomplished with use of indocyanine green angiography plus optical coherence tomography to localize the branching vascular network and the polyps. Nineteen eyes of 19 patients with active leaking and exudation underwent a prospective open-label trial of monthly high-dose intravitreal ranibizumab (2.0 mg/0.05 mL). The primary outcome was prevention of major vision loss (?15 ETDRS letters). Secondary outcomes included adverse events, improved vision, and changes in subretinal hemorrhage, subretinal fluid, macular edema, and polypoidal complexes at 6 months.The PCV vessels were localized beneath the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and above Bruch's membrane in 103 (99%) of 104 eyes. In the high-dose ranibizumab trial at 6 months, none of the patients lost ?15 letters in visual acuity, and 5 (26%) of 19 gained ?15 letters. Decreases were noted in subretinal fluid in 14 (82%) of 17 eyes, subretinal hemorrhage in 12 (100%) of 12, RPE detachment in 14 (88%) of 16, macular edema in 11 (92%) of 12, and polyps in 15 (79%) of 19 eyes.PCV vessels are a subtype of subretinal neovascularization located above Bruch's membrane and below RPE. High-dose ranibizumab (2.0 mg/0.05 mL) decreased exudation and hemorrhage and resulted in significant polyp regression, although branching vascular networks persisted.
Project description:To determine the prevalence of, risk factors for, and visual acuity (VA) correlations with outer retinal tubulation (ORT) seen on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy.Prospective cohort study within a randomized clinical trial.Patients with SD OCT images at weeks 56 and 104 in the Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials (CATT).Participants in the CATT were assigned randomly to ranibizumab (0.5 mg) or bevacizumab (1.25 mg) treatment and to a monthly or pro re nata (PRN) injection-dosing regimen. A subset of eyes was imaged with SD OCT beginning at week 56. Cirrus 512×128 or Spectralis 20°×20° volume cube scan protocols were used to acquire SD OCT images. Two independent readers at the CATT OCT reading center graded scans, and a senior reader arbitrated discrepant grades. The prevalence of ORT, identified as tubular structures seen on at least 3 consecutive Cirrus B scans or 2 consecutive Spectralis B scans, was determined. The associations of patient-specific and ocular features at baseline and follow-up with ORT were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses.Outer retinal tubulations.Seven of 69 eyes (10.1%) at 56 weeks and 64 of 368 eyes (17.4%) at week 104 had ORTs. Absence of diabetes, poor VA, blocked fluorescence, geographic atrophy, greater lesion size, and presence of subretinal hyperreflective material at baseline were associated independently with greater risk of ORT at 104 weeks (P < 0.05). Neither drug nor dosing regimen were associated significantly with ORT. The mean VA of eyes with ORT at week 104 (58.5 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters) was worse than the mean VA of eyes without ORT (68.8 letters; P < 0.0001).At 2 years after initiation of anti-VEGF therapy for neovascular AMD, ORTs are present in a substantial proportion of eyes. We identified baseline features that independently predict ORTs. It is important to identify ORTs because eyes with ORTs have worse VA outcomes than those without this finding.
Project description:PURPOSE:To describe changes in visual acuity (VA) and macular morphologic features at 5 years in eyes with nonfibrotic scar (NFS) identified at 1 year in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). DESIGN:Prospective cohort study within a randomized clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS:Participants in CATT. METHODS:Participants assigned to ranibizumab or bevacizumab and to 1 of 3 dosing regimens were released from the clinical trial protocol after 2 years and recalled at 5 years. Nonfibrotic scar was identified on color images at year 1 as flat, small, well-circumscribed areas of pigmentation with varying degrees of central hypopigmentation without exposure of underlying choroidal vessels at the site of baseline choroidal neovascularization. Follow-up images were assessed for changes in and around NFS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Pigmentation changes, VA, development of fibrotic scar (FS), nongeographic atrophy (NGA), geographic atrophy (GA), retinal fluid on OCT, and fluorescein leakage. RESULTS:Among 474 eyes with images obtained at 1, 2, and 5 years, 39 (8.2%) showed NFS at 1 year with a mean VA of 80 letters (Snellen equivalent, 20/25). Among these eyes, FS developed in 5% at 2 years and 28% at 5 years. Nongeographic atrophy was observed in 34%, 47%, and 65% of eyes at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively. Geographic atrophy developed in 5% of eyes at 2 years and 21% at 5 years. Among eyes with NFS, FS, or no scar at 1 year, mean VA at 5 years was 73 letters (20/32), 48 letters (20/100), and 62 letters (20/63), respectively. At 5 years, NFS eyes demonstrated less GA, less intraretinal fluid, more subretinal fluid, and less subretinal pigment epithelium fluid (all P < 0.01). Among NFS eyes, mean thickness of the retina, subretinal tissue complex, and total retina did not change across years 1 to 5 (P > 0.50). The proportion of eyes with fluid on OCT also did not change (P = 0.36). Subretinal hyperreflective material disappeared by 5 years in 40% of eyes with NFS. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that, on average, eyes with NFS after anti-VEGF treatment have good VA not only at 1 and 2 years, but also through 5 years.