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Adenosine inhibits voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx in cone photoreceptor terminals of the tiger salamander retina.


ABSTRACT: Endogenous adenosine has already been shown to inhibit transmitter release from the rod synapse by suppressing Ca(2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. However, it is not clear how adenosine modulates the cone synapse. Cone photoreceptors, like rod photoreceptors, also possess L-type Ca(2+) channels that regulate the release of L-glutamate. To assess the impact of adenosine on Ca(2+) influx though voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in cone terminals, whole-cell perforated-patch clamp recording and Ca(2+) imaging with fluo-4 were used on isolated cones and salamander retinal slices. Synaptic markers (VAMP and piccolo) and activity-dependent dye labeling revealed that tiger salamander cone terminals contain a broad, vesicle-filled cytoplasmic extension at the base of the somatic compartment, which is unlike rod terminals that contain one or more thin axons, each terminating in a large bulbous synaptic terminal. The spatiotemporal Ca(2+) responses of the cone terminals do not differ significantly from the Ca(2+) responses of the soma or inner segment like that observed in rods. Whole-cell recording of cone I(Ca) and Ca(2+) imaging of synaptic terminals in cones demonstrate that adenosine inhibited both I(Ca) and the depolarization-evoked Ca(2+) increase in cone terminals in a dose-dependent manner from 1 to 50 muM. These results indicate that, as in rods, adenosine's ability to suppress voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels at the cone synapse will limit the amount of L-glutamate released. Therefore, adenosine has an inhibitory effect on L-glutamate release at the first synapse, which likely favors elevated adenosine levels in the dark or during dark-adapted conditions.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC3737423 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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