Genome-wide organization and expression profiling of the NAC transcription factor family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).
ABSTRACT: NAC [no apical meristem (NAM), Arabidopsis thaliana transcription activation factor [ATAF1/2] and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC2)] proteins belong to one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor (TF) families and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signalling. Our genome-wide analysis identified 110 StNAC genes in potato encoding for 136 proteins, including 14 membrane-bound TFs. The physical map positions of StNAC genes on 12 potato chromosomes were non-random, and 40 genes were found to be distributed in 16 clusters. The StNAC proteins were phylogenetically clustered into 12 subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis of StNACs along with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts divided these proteins into 18 subgroups. Our comparative analysis has also identified 36 putative TNAC proteins, which appear to be restricted to Solanaceae family. In silico expression analysis, using Illumina RNA-seq transcriptome data, revealed tissue-specific, biotic, abiotic stress and hormone-responsive expression profile of StNAC genes. Several StNAC genes, including StNAC072 and StNAC101that are orthologs of known stress-responsive Arabidopsis RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 26 (RD26) were identified as highly abiotic stress responsive. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis largely corroborated the expression profile of StNAC genes as revealed by the RNA-seq data. Taken together, this analysis indicates towards putative functions of several StNAC TFs, which will provide blue-print for their functional characterization and utilization in potato improvement.
Project description:BACKGROUND: To combat infection to biotic stress plants elicit the biosynthesis of numerous natural products, many of which are valuable pharmaceutical compounds. Jasmonate is a central regulator of defense response to pathogens and accumulation of specialized metabolites. Catharanthus roseus produces a large number of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) and is an excellent model for understanding the regulation of this class of valuable compounds. Recent work illustrates a possible role for the Catharanthus WRKY transcription factors (TFs) in regulating TIA biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis and other plants, the WRKY TF family is also shown to play important role in controlling tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, as well as secondary metabolism. RESULTS: Here, we describe the WRKY TF families in response to jasmonate in Arabidopsis and Catharanthus. Publically available Arabidopsis microarrays revealed at least 30% (22 of 72) of WRKY TFs respond to jasmonate treatments. Microarray analysis identified at least six jasmonate responsive Arabidopsis WRKY genes (AtWRKY7, AtWRKY20, AtWRKY26, AtWRKY45, AtWRKY48, and AtWRKY72) that have not been previously reported. The Catharanthus WRKY TF family is comprised of at least 48 members. Phylogenetic clustering reveals 11 group I, 32 group II, and 5 group III WRKY TFs. Furthermore, we found that at least 25% (12 of 48) were jasmonate responsive, and 75% (9 of 12) of the jasmonate responsive CrWRKYs are orthologs of AtWRKYs known to be regulated by jasmonate. CONCLUSION: Overall, the CrWRKY family, ascertained from transcriptome sequences, contains approximately 75% of the number of WRKYs found in other sequenced asterid species (pepper, tomato, potato, and bladderwort). Microarray and transcriptomic data indicate that expression of WRKY TFs in Arabidopsis and Catharanthus are under tight spatio-temporal and developmental control, and potentially have a significant role in jasmonate signaling. Profiling of CrWRKY expression in response to jasmonate treatment revealed potential associations with secondary metabolism. This study provides a foundation for further characterization of WRKY TFs in jasmonate responses and regulation of natural product biosynthesis.
Project description:The NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2 (NAC) transcription factors form a large plant-specific gene family, which is involved in the regulation of tissue development in response to biotic and abiotic stress. To date, there have been no comprehensive studies investigating chromosomal location, gene structure, gene phylogeny, conserved motifs, or gene expression of NAC in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The recent release of the complete genome sequence of pepper allowed us to perform a genome-wide investigation of Capsicum annuum L. NAC (CaNAC) proteins. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of the CaNAC gene family in pepper was performed, and a total of 104 CaNAC genes were identified. Genome mapping analysis revealed that CaNAC genes were enriched on four chromosomes (chromosomes 1, 2, 3, and 6). In addition, phylogenetic analysis of the NAC domains from pepper, potato, Arabidopsis, and rice showed that CaNAC genes could be clustered into three groups (I, II, and III). Group III, which contained 24 CaNAC genes, was exclusive to the Solanaceae plant family. Gene structure and protein motif analyses showed that these genes were relatively conserved within each subgroup. The number of introns in CaNAC genes varied from 0 to 8, with 83 (78.9%) of CaNAC genes containing two or less introns. Promoter analysis confirmed that CaNAC genes are involved in pepper growth, development, and biotic or abiotic stress responses. Further, the expression of 22 selected CaNAC genes in response to seven different biotic and abiotic stresses [salt, heat shock, drought, Phytophthora capsici, abscisic acid, salicylic acid (SA), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA)] was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR to determine their stress-related expression patterns. Several putative stress-responsive CaNAC genes, including CaNAC72 and CaNAC27, which are orthologs of the known stress-responsive Arabidopsis gene ANAC055 and potato gene StNAC30, respectively, were highly regulated by treatment with different types of stress. Our results also showed that CaNAC36 plays an important role in the interaction network, interacting with 48 genes. Most of these genes are in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. Taken together, our results provide a platform for further studies to identify the biological functions of CaNAC genes.
Project description:The NAC designation is derived from petunia (Petunia hybrida) gene NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM) and Arabidopsis genes ATAF1/ATAF2 and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 (CUC2), which belongs to the family of plant-specific transcription factors (TFs), and plays important role in plant development processes, such as response to biotic and abiotic stress, and hormone signaling. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding endogenous RNAs which play versatile and significant role in plant stress response and development via negatively affecting gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. Here, we showed that Stu-mi164 had a complementary sequence in the CDS sequence of potato NAC TFs, and that NAC expression exhibited significant differences under osmotic stress. We measured expression levels of the Stu-mi164 target gene StNAC262 between control and PEG-treated plants using real-time PCR, and the results demonstrated that they had inverse relationship. We suggested that Stu-miR164 might drive overexpression of NAC gene under osmotic stress in potato. To confirm the regulation of NAC TFs by Stu-mi164, we developed transgenic plants, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, of the potato cultivars "Gannongshu 2" and "Kexin 3" overexpressing the Stu-mi164 or the TF StNAC262. Real-time PCR analysis of transgenic potato plants under osmotic (PEG) stress, showed that potato plants overexpressing Stu-mi164 had reduced expression of StNAC262 and their osmotic resistance decreased. Furthermore, these plants had low number of lateral roots although the same length as the control. Our findings support the regulatory role of Stu-miRNAs in controlling plant response to osmotic stress via StNAC262.
Project description:WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are responsible for the regulation of genes responsive to many plant growth and developmental cues, as well as to biotic and abiotic stresses. The modulation of gene expression by WRKY proteins primarily occurs by DNA binding at specific cis-regulatory elements, the W-box elements, which are short sequences located in the promoter region of certain genes. In addition, their action can occur through interaction with other TFs and the cellular transcription machinery. The current genome sequences available reveal a relatively large number of WRKY genes, reaching hundreds of copies. Recently, functional genomics studies in model plants have enabled the identification of function and mechanism of action of several WRKY TFs in plants. This review addresses the more recent studies in plants regarding the function of WRKY TFs in both model and crop plants for coping with environmental challenges, including a wide variety of abiotic and biotic stresses.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in plant cells in response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during normal growth and development. Although a large number of transcription factor (TF) genes are up- or down-regulated by ROS, currently very little is known about the functions of these TFs during oxidative stress. In this work, we examined the role of ERF6 (ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR6), an AP2/ERF domain-containing TF, during oxidative stress responses in Arabidopsis. Mutant analyses showed that NADPH oxidase (RbohD) and calcium signaling are required for ROS-responsive expression of ERF6. erf6 insertion mutant plants showed reduced growth and increased H2O2 and anthocyanin levels. Expression analyses of selected ROS-responsive genes during oxidative stress identified several differentially expressed genes in the erf6 mutant. In particular, a number of ROS responsive genes, such as ZAT12, HSFs, WRKYs, MAPKs, RBOHs, DHAR1, APX4, and CAT1 were more strongly induced by H2O2 in erf6 plants than in wild-type. In contrast, MDAR3, CAT3, VTC2 and EX1 showed reduced expression levels in the erf6 mutant. Taken together, our results indicate that ERF6 plays an important role as a positive antioxidant regulator during plant growth and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses.
Project description:NAC transcription factor (TF) family proteins are expressed in various developmental stages and following various stresses. NAC TFs are involved in mediating various physiological functions of plants and participate in various signaling pathways under biotic or abiotic stress. The present study provided a comprehensive functional analysis of members of the MtNAC TF family. Via screening of Medicago truncatula genome information, we identified 97 MtNAC TFs in M. truncatula and compared the phylogenetic analysis of 14 conserved groups with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts. The NAC TFs were categorized into 14 groups based on their conserved motifs and gene structure. The predicted M. truncatula NAC genes were distributed among eight chromosomes, and in addition, we found that these genes showed mass gene duplication. Through expression profiling of RNA-seq data analysis, we determined that NAC family members were expressed significantly under different abiotic stresses. This indicates that the NAC TF shows different functions in M. truncatula. Together, this genome-wide analysis of the NAC gene family in M. truncatula, could be applied to improving stress tolerance in plants.
Project description:Auxin response factors (ARFs) play central roles in conferring auxin-mediated responses through selection of target genes in plants. Despite their physiological importance, systematic analysis of ARF genes in potato have not been investigated yet. Our genome-wide analysis identified 20 StARF (Solanum tuberosum ARF) genes from potato and found that they are unevenly distributed in all the potato chromosomes except chromosome X. Sequence alignment and conserved motif analysis suggested the presence of all typical domains in all but StARF18c that lacks B3 DNA-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that potato ARF could be clustered into 3 distinct subgroups, a result supported by exon-intron structure, consensus motifs, and domain architecture. In silico expression analysis and quantitative real-time PCR experiments revealed that several StARFs were expressed in tissue-specific, biotic/abiotic stress-responsive or hormone-inducible manners, which reflected their potential roles in plant growth, development or under various stress adaptions. Strikingly, most StARFs were identified as highly abiotic stress responsive, indicating that auxin signaling might be implicated in mediating environmental stress-adaptation responses. Taken together, this analysis provides molecular insights into StARF gene family, which paves the way to functional analysis of StARF members and will facilitate potato breeding programs.
Project description:TFs are important proteins regulating plant responses during environmental stresses. These insults typically induce changes in cellular redox tone driven in part by promoting the production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The main source of these RNS is nitric oxide (NO), which serves as a signalling molecule, eliciting defence and resistance responses. To understand how these signalling molecules regulate key biological processes, we performed a large scale S-nitrosocysteine (CySNO)-mediated RNA-seq analysis. The DEGs were analysed to identify potential regulatory TFs. We found a total of 673 (up- and down-regulated) TFs representing a broad range of TF families. GO-enrichment and MapMan analysis suggests that more than 98% of TFs were mapped to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome and classified into pathways like hormone signalling, protein degradation, development, biotic and abiotic stress, etc. A functional analysis of three randomly selected TFs, DDF1, RAP2.6, and AtMYB48 identified a regulatory role in plant growth and immunity. Loss-of-function mutations within DDF1 and RAP2.6 showed compromised basal defence and effector triggered immunity, suggesting their positive role in two major plant defence systems. Together, these results imply an important data representing NO-responsive TFs that will help in exploring the core mechanisms involved in biological processes in plants.
Project description:The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins compose a family of transcription factors (TFs), which play a crucial role in plant growth, development, and abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, no comprehensive analysis of bZIP family has been reported in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). In this study, we identified and characterized 60 bZIP TF-encoding genes from two pepper genomes. These genes were divided into 10 groups based on their phylogenetic relationships with bZIP genes from Arabidopsis. Six introns/exons structural patterns within the basic and hinge regions and the conserved motifs were identified among all the pepper bZIP proteins, on the basis of which, we classify them into different subfamilies. Based on the transcriptomic data of Zunla-1 genome, expression analyses of 59 pepper bZIP genes (not including CabZIP25 of CM334 genome), indicated that the pepper bZIP genes were differentially expressed in the pepper tissues and developmental stages, and many of the pepper bZIP genes might be involved in responses to various abiotic stresses and phytohormones. Further, gene expression analysis, using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), showed that the CabZIP25 gene was expressed at relatively higher levels in vegetative tissues, and was strongly induced by abiotic stresses and phytohormones. In comparing with wild type Arabidopsis, germination rate, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, and root lengths increased in the CabZIP25-overexpressing Arabidopsis under salt stress. Additionally, CabZIP25-silenced pepper showed lower chlorophyll content than the control plants under salt stress. These results suggested that CabZIP25 improved salt tolerance in plants. Taken together, our results provide new opportunities for the functional characterization of bZIP TFs in pepper.
Project description:Members of the ERF transcription factor family play important roles in regulating gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In soybean (Glycine max L.), however, only a few ERF genes have been studied so far. In this study, 98 unigenes that contained a complete AP2/ERF domain were identified from 63,676 unique sequences in the DFCI Soybean Gene Index database. The phylogeny, gene structures, and putative conserved motifs in soybean ERF proteins were analysed, and compared with those of Arabidopsis and rice. The members of the soybean ERF family were divided into 12 subgroups, similar to the case for Arabidopsis. AP2/ERF domains were conserved among soybean, Arabidopsis, and rice. Outside the AP2/ERF domain, many soybean-specific conserved motifs were detected. Expression analysis showed that nine unigenes belonging to six ERF family subgroups were induced by both biotic/abiotic stresses and hormone treatment, suggesting that they were involved in cross-talk between biotic and abiotic stress-responsive signalling pathways. Overexpression of two full-length genes from two different subgroups enhanced the tolerances to drought, salt stresses, and/or pathogen infection of the tobacco plants. These results will be useful for elucidating ERF gene-associated stress response signalling pathways in soybean.