Selenoprotein gene expression in thyroid and pituitary of young pigs is not affected by dietary selenium deficiency or excess.
ABSTRACT: Expression and function of selenoproteins in endocrine tissues remain unclear, largely due to limited sample availability. Pigs have a greater metabolic similarity and tissue size than rodents as a model of humans for that purpose. We conducted 2 experiments: 1) we cloned 5 novel porcine selenoprotein genes; and 2) we compared the effects of dietary selenium (Se) on mRNA levels of 12 selenoproteins, activities of 4 antioxidant enzymes, and Se concentrations in testis, thyroid, and pituitary with those in liver of pigs. In Experiment 1, porcine Gpx2, Sephs2, Sep15, Sepn1, and Sepp1 were cloned and demonstrated 84-94% of coding sequence homology to human genes. In Experiment 2, weanling male pigs (n = 30) were fed a Se-deficient (0.02 mg Se/kg) diet added with 0, 0.3, or 3.0 mg Se/kg as Se-enriched yeast for 8 wk. Although dietary Se resulted in dose-dependent increases (P < 0.05) in Se concentrations and GPX activities in all 4 tissues, it did not affect the mRNA levels of any selenoprotein gene in thyroid or pituitary. Testis mRNA levels of Txnrd1 and Sep15 were decreased (P < 0.05) by increasing dietary Se from 0.3 to 3.0 mg/kg. Comparatively, expressions of Gpx2, Gpx4, Dio3, and Sep15 were high in pituitary and Dio1, Sepp1, Sephs2, and Gpx1 were high in liver. In conclusion, the mRNA abundances of the 12 selenoprotein genes in thyroid and pituitary of young pigs were resistant to dietary Se deficiency or excess.
Project description:To evaluate the effects of dietary Se deficiency and excess on the mRNA levels of selenoproteins in pig spleen tissues, 20 healthy uncastrated boars (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, 10 ± 0.72 kg) were randomly divided into four groups (5 pigs per group). The pigs were fed a Se deficient corn-soybean basal feed (Se content <0.03 mg/kg) or basal feed with added sodium selenite at 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg Se/kg diet, respectively. The experiment lasted 16 weeks. The spleen tissue was collected to examine the mRNA expression levels of 24 selenoprotein genes at the end of the study. Compared with pigs in other groups, those fed with the 1.0 mg Se/kg diet had higher mRNA levels of glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), glutathione peroxidase 2 (Gpx2), deiodinase type II (Dio2), thioredoxin reductase 3 (Txnrd3), selenoprotein H (Selh), selenoprotein N, 1 (Sepn1), selenoprotein P1 (Sepp1), and selenoprotein V (Selv) in the spleen (p < 0.05). Dietary Se deficiency resulted in lower mRNA levels of Gpx1, Gpx2, glutathione peroxidase 3 (Gpx3), Dio2, thioredoxin reductase 2 (Txnrd2), Txnrd3, Selh, selenoprotein I (Seli), selenoprotein K (Selk), selenoprotein M (Selm), Sepn1, Sepp1, and Selv in the spleen than the other three groups. Dietary Se levels did not affect the mRNA levels of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4), deiodinase type I (Dio1), deiodinase type III (Dio3), selenophosphate synthetase 2 (Sephs2), thioredoxin reductase 1 (Txnrd1), selenoprotein O (Selo), selenoprotein S (Sels), selenoprotein W (Selw), selenoprotein X (Selx), and selenoprotein 15 (Sel15) in the spleen (p > 0.05). Dietary Se levels can affect the transcription levels of 14 selenoprotein genes in the spleen of pigs.
Project description:Effect of selenium (Se) supplementation on the selenoprotein and lipid metabolism gene expression patterns in ruminants, especially in lambs is not yet fully understood. The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of Se supplementation on the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression patterns of selected selenoproteins and genes related to lipid metabolism in growing lambs. The experiment was conducted on 48 Polish Merino lambs divided into two groups (n?=?24): control (C)-lambs fed with a basal diet (BD) with no Se supplementation, and supplemented (S)-lambs fed with a BD, supplemented with 0.5 mg Se/kg as sodium selenate for 8 weeks. Expression of 12 selenoproteins and six genes related to lipid metabolism was analyzed in the liver and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of growing lambs by qPCR. Significant differences were found in the expression of GPX1, GPX2, SEPM, SEPW1, SEP15, SEPGS2, and TXNRD1 in the liver, and GPX1, SEPP1, SEPN1, SEPW1, SEP15, and MSRB1 in the LD muscle between S and C lambs. Se supplementation mainly upregulated SEPW1, SEP15 (P?<?0.001; P?<?0.01) mRNA expression in the liver, and GPX1, SEPP1, SEPN1, SEPW1 (P?<?0.001; P?<?0.01) in the muscle of S group. On the other hand, significant decrease in GPX2 (P?<?0.01), SEPM (P?<?0.001), and SEPHS2 (P?<?0.01) mRNA expression levels were observed in the liver of S group of lambs. Se supplementation did not affect PON1, LXR?, and PPAR? mRNA expression levels, but a significant increase in mRNA levels of APOE and LPL in the LD muscle (P?<?0.05) as well as LPL (P?<?0.05) in the liver were noticed in the group of Se supplemented lambs. Our study confirmed that, in lambs, similarly to other species, mRNA expression patterns of several selenoproteins highly depend on dietary Se levels, and their expression is ruled by hierarchical principles and tissue-specific mechanisms. Moreover, the study showed that changes Se intake leads to different levels of genes expression related with lipid metabolism.
Project description:We previously determined the effects of dietary selenium (Se) deficiency or excess on mRNA abundance of 12 selenoprotein genes in pig tissues. In this study, we determined the effect of dietary Se on mRNA levels of the remaining porcine selenoprotein genes along with protein production of 4 selenoproteins (Gpx1, Sepp1, Selh, and Sels) and body glucose homeostasis. Weanling male pigs (n = 24) were fed a Se-deficient (<0.02 mg Se/kg), basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.3, or 3.0 mg Se/kg as Se-enriched yeast (Angel Yeast) for 16 wk. Although mRNA abundance of the 13 selenoproteins in 10 tissues responded to dietary Se in 3 patterns, there was no common regulation for any given gene across all tissues or for any given tissue across all genes. Dietary Se affected (P < 0.05) 2, 3, 3, 5, 6, 7, 7, and 8 selenoprotein genes in muscle, hypothalamus, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, thyroid, and pituitary, respectively. Protein abundance of Gpx1, Sepp1, Selh, and Sels in 6 tissues was regulated (P < 0.05) by dietary Se concentrations in 3 ways. Compared with those fed 0.3 mg Se/kg, pigs fed 3.0 mg Se/kg became hyperinsulinemic (P < 0.05) and had lower (P < 0.05) tissue levels of serine/threonine protein kinase. In conclusion, dietary Se exerted no global regulation of gene transcripts or protein levels of individual selenoproteins across porcine tissues. Pigs may be a good model for studying mechanisms related to the potential prodiabetic risk of high-Se intake in humans.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) status in non-deficient subjects is typically assessed by the Se contents of plasma/serum. That pool comprises two functional, specific selenoprotein components and at least one non-functional, non-specific components which respond differently to changes in Se intake. A more informative means of characterizing Se status in non-deficient individuals is needed. METHODS: Multiple biomarkers of Se status (plasma Se, serum selenoprotein P [SEPP1], plasma glutathione peroxidase activity [GPX3], buccal cell Se, urinary Se) were evaluated in relation to selenoprotein genotypes (GPX1, GPX3, SEPP1, SEP15), dietary Se intake, and parameters of single-carbon metabolism in a cohort of healthy, non-Se-deficient men (n = 106) and women (n = 155). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma Se concentration was 142.0 ± 23.5 ng/ml, with GPX3 and serum-derived SEPP1 calculated to comprise 20% and 34%, respectively, of that total. The balance, comprised of non-specific components, accounted for virtually all of the interindividual variation in total plasma Se. Buccal cell Se was associated with age and plasma homocysteine (hCys), but not plasma Se. SEPP1 showed a quadratic relationship with body mass index, peaking at BMI 25-30. Urinary Se was greater in women than men, and was associated with metabolic body weight (kg0.75), plasma folate, vitamin B12 and hCys (negatively). One GPX1 genotype (679T/T) was associated with significantly lower plasma Se levels than other allelic variants. Selenium intake, estimated from food frequency questionnaires, did not predict Se status as indicated by any biomarker. These results show that genotype, methyl-group status and BMI contribute to variation in Se biomarkers in Se-adequate individuals.
Project description:Selenoproteins are a class of proteins containing a selenocysteine residue, many of which have been shown to have redox functions, acting as antioxidants to decrease oxidative stress. Selenoproteins have previously been associated with risk of various cancers and redox-related diseases. In this study we evaluated possible associations between breast cancer risk and survival and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the selenoprotein genes GPX1, GPX2, GPX3, GPX4, SELS, SEP15, SEPN1, SEPP1, SEPW1, TXNRD1, and TXNRD2 among Hispanic/Native American (2111 cases, 2597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) (1481 cases, 1586 controls) women in the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study. Adaptive Rank Truncated Product (ARTP) analysis was used to determine both gene and pathway significance with these genes. The overall selenoprotein pathway PARTP was not significantly associated with breast cancer risk (PARTP = 0.69), and only one gene, GPX3, was of borderline significance for the overall population (PARTP =0.09) and marginally significant among women with 0-28% Native American (NA) ancestry (PARTP=0.06). The SEPP1 gene was statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk among women with higher NA ancestry (PARTP=0.002) and contributed to a significant pathway among those women (PARTP=0.04). GPX1, GPX3, and SELS were associated with Estrogen Receptor-/Progesterone Receptor+ status (PARTP = 0.002, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively). Four SNPs (GPX3 rs2070593, rsGPX4 rs2074451, SELS rs9874, and TXNRD1 rs17202060) significantly interacted with dietary oxidative balance score after adjustment for multiple comparisons to alter breast cancer risk. GPX4 was significantly associated with breast cancer survival among those with the highest NA ancestry (PARTP = 0.05) only. Our data suggest that SEPP1 alters breast cancer risk among women with higher levels of NA ancestry.
Project description:Dietary selenium (Se) intake is essential for synthesizing selenoproteins that are important in countering oxidative and inflammatory processes linked to colorectal carcinogenesis. However, there is limited knowledge on the selenoprotein expression in colorectal adenoma (CRA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, or the interaction with Se status levels. We studied the expression of seventeen Se pathway genes (including fifteen of the twenty-five human selenoproteins) in RNA extracted from disease-normal colorectal tissue pairs, in the discovery phase of sixty-two CRA/CRC patients from Ireland and a validation cohort of a hundred and five CRC patients from the Czech Republic. Differences in transcript levels between the disease and paired control mucosa were assessed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. GPX2 and TXNRD3 showed a higher expression and GPX3, SELENOP, SELENOS, and SEPHS2 exhibited a lower expression in the disease tissue from adenomas and both cancer groups (p-values from 0.023 to <0.001). In the Czech cohort, up-regulation of GPX1, SELENOH, and SOD2 and down-regulation of SELENBP1, SELENON, and SELENOK (p-values 0.036 to <0.001) was also observed. We further examined the correlation of gene expression with serum Se status (assessed by Se and selenoprotein P, SELENOP) in the Irish patients. While there were no significant correlations with both Se status markers, SELENOF, SELENOK, and TXNRD1 tumor tissue expression positively correlated with Se, while TXNRD2 and TXNRD3 negatively correlated with SELENOP. In an analysis restricted to the larger Czech CRC patient cohort, Cox regression showed no major association of transcript levels with patient survival, except for an association of higher SELENOF gene expression with both a lower disease-free and overall survival. Several selenoproteins were differentially expressed in the disease tissue compared to the normal tissue of both CRA and CRC patients. Altered selenoprotein expression may serve as a marker of functional Se status and colorectal adenoma to cancer progression.
Project description:Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the occurrence of many diseases. However, excessive Se supplementation, especially with inorganic Se, can result in toxicity. Selenoproteins are the major forms of Se in vivo to exert its biological function. Expression of those selenoproteins, especially with the application of a newly developed system, is thus very important for studying the mechanism of Se in nutrition. The use of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) as a biological vector to express an heterogeneous protein is still at the initial stages of development. In order to investigate the possibility of using this system to express selenoproteins, human 15-KDa selenoprotein (Sep15), a small but widely distributed selenoprotein in mammals, was chosen for the expression platform test. Apart from the wild-type human Sep15 gene fragment, two Sep15 recombinants were constructed containing Sep15 open reading frame (ORF) and the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element from either human Sep15 or C. reinhardtii selenoprotein W1, a highly expressed selenoprotein in this alga. Those Sep15-containing plasmids were transformed into C. reinhardtii CC-849 cells. Results showed that Sep15 fragments were successfully inserted into the nuclear genome and expressed Sep15 protein in the cells. The transgenic and wild-type algae demonstrated similar growth curves in low Se culture medium. To our knowledge, this is the first report on expressing human selenoprotein in green alga.
Project description:While several studies showed that selenium may prevent prostate cancer (PCa), few studies have evaluated variation in selenoenzyme genes in relation to PCa risk and survival.We studied common variants in seven selenoenzymes genes in relation to risk of PCa and PCa-specific mortality (PCSM). In a population-based case-control study of men of European ancestry (1,309 cases, 1,266 controls), we evaluated 35 common, tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GPX1 (n = 2), GPX2 (n = 4), GPX3 (n = 6), GPX4 (n = 6), SEP15 (n = 4), SEPP1 (n = 6), and TXNRD1 (n = 7) in relation to PCa risk, and among cases, associations between these variants and risk of PCSM. We used logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the relative risk of PCa and PCSM, respectively.Of the SNPs examined, only GPX1 rs3448 was associated with overall PCa risk with an odds ratio of 0.62 for TT versus CC (95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.88). SNPs in GPX2, GPX3, GPX4, SEP15, and SEPP1 had different risk estimates for PCa in subgroups based on stage and grade. We observed associations between SNPs in GPX4, and TXNRD1 and risk of PCSM. None of these associations, however, remained significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons.We found evidence that genetic variation in a subset of selenoenzyme genes may alter risk of PCa and PCSM. These results need validation in additional subsets.
Project description:Selenium (Se), a dietary trace metal essential for human health, is incorporated into ~25 selenoproteins including selenoprotein S (SelS) and the 15-kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) both of which have functions in the endoplasmic reticulum protein unfolding response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variants in such selenoprotein genes are associated with altered risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). A Korean population of 827 patients with CRC and 733 healthy controls was genotyped for 7 SNPs in selenoprotein genes and one SNP in the gene encoding manganese superoxide dismutase using Sequenom technology. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that after adjustment for lifestyle factors three SNP variants were associated with altered disease risk. There was a mean odds ratio of 2.25 [95% CI 1.13,4.48] in females homozygous TT for rs34713741 in SELS with the T variant being associated with higher risk of rectal cancer, and odds ratios of 2.47 and 2.51, respectively, for rs5845 and rs5859 in SEP15 with the minor A and T alleles being associated with increased risk of male rectal cancer. The data indicate that the minor alleles for rs5845, rs5859 and rs34713741 are associated with increased rectal cancer risk and that the effects of the three SNPs are dependent on gender. The results highlight potential links between Se, the function of two selenoproteins involved in the protein unfolding response and CRC risk. Further studies are required to investigate whether the effects of the variants on CRC risk are also modulated by dietary Se intake.
Project description:To investigate alleviative effect of selenium (Se) on lead (Pb)-induced apoptosis in chicken nervous tissues, 7-day-old chickens were randomly divided into four groups. The control group was fed a standard diet and drinking water. In the Pb and Se/Pb groups, (CH3OO)2Pb was dissolved in drinking water. In the Se and Se/Pb groups, Na2SeO3 was put into the standard diet. Embryonic neurocytes were divided into the control, Se (containing Na2SeO3), Pb (containing (CH3COO)2Pb), and Se/Pb (containing Na2SeO3 and (CH3COO)2Pb) groups. The following contents were performed: Morphologic observation for 90 days in brain tissues and for 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours in embryonic neurocytes; and antioxidant indexes, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of twenty-five selenoproteins, and mRNA and protein expression of five apoptosis-related genes for 30, 60, and 90 days in brain tissues and for 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours in embryonic neurocytes. The results indicated that Se alleviated Pb-caused morphological changes; the decrease of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), GPx1, GPx2, GPx3, GPx4, thioredoxin reductases (Txnrd)1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, iodothyronine deiodinases (Dio)1, Dio2, Dio3, selenoprotein (Sel)T, SelK, SelS, SelH, SelM, SelU, SelI, SelO, Selpb, selenoprotein (Sep)n1, Sepp1, Sepx1, Sepw1, 15-kDa selenoprotein, and selenophosphate synthetases 2, and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2); the increase of malondialdehyde, p53, Bcl-2 associated X protein, cytochrome c, and Caspase-3. Pb had time-dependent effects on GPx4, SelM, and malondialdehyde in the brain tissues; and on SelU in the embryonic neurocytes. Our data demonstrated that Se alleviated Pb-induced apoptosis in the chicken nervous tissues via mitochondrial pathway.