Control of APN/CD13 and NEP/CD10 on sperm motility.
ABSTRACT: Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP/CD10) are enzymes present in human sperm cells and involved in regulation of sperm motility of noncapacitated spermatozoa. We investigated the involvement of APN/CD13 and NEP/CD10 in motility and in kinematic parameters of human capacitated spermatozoa. Sperm cells isolated by a discontinuous Percoll gradient (40%-80%) followed up by swim-up techniques were incubated with the APN/CD13-specific inhibitor, leuhistin (100 μmol L(-1)), and the NEP/CD10-specific inhibitor, thiorphan (1 μmol L(-1)). The complete inhibition of both APN/CD13 and NEP/CD10 improved sperm motility. Spermatozoa incubated with the APN/CD13-specific inhibitor leuhistin showed asymmetrical trajectories, whereas sperm trajectories were more regular after treatment with the NEP/CD10-specific inhibitor thiorphan. In conclusion, APN/CD13 and NEP/CD10 modulate the motility of capacitated spermatozoa, although each of the enzymes seems to participate in the control of different aspects of sperm motility. Therefore, both inhibitors may be useful for sperm activation at different functional stages of spermatozoa.
Project description:Aminopeptidase N (APN) is a naturally occurring ectopeptidase present in mammalian semen. Previous studies have demonstrated that APN adversely affects male fertility through the alteration of sperm motility. This enzyme constitutes 0.5 to 1% of the seminal plasma proteins, which can be transferred from the prostasomes to sperms by a fusion process. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of action of APN and its role in regulating sperm functions and male fertility. In this in vitro study, epididymal mouse spermatozoa were incubated in a capacitating media (pH 7) containing 20 ng/mL of recombinant mouse APN for 90 min. Our results demonstrated that the supplementation of recombinant APN in sperm culture medium significantly increased APN activity, and subsequently altered motility, hyperactivated motility, rapid and medium swimming speeds, viability, and the acrosome reaction of mouse spermatozoa. These effects were potentially caused by increased toxicity in the spermatozoa. Further, altered APN activity in sperm culture medium affected early embryonic development. Interestingly, the effect of elevated APN activity in sperm culture medium was independent of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and protein kinase A activity. On the basis of these results, we concluded that APN plays a significant role in the regulation of several sperm functions and early embryonic development. In addition, increased APN activity could potentially lead to several adverse consequences related to male fertility.
Project description:Successful internal fertilization in mammals depends on several mechanisms, including those triggering the so-called "sperm attraction" towards the oocyte, which include some oocyte-derived sperm chemoattractants and interactive protein complexes, such as the cytokine C-X-C motif chemokine 12/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCL12-CXCR4) receptor complex. The presence and precise localization of these crucial proteins was determined hereby, for the first time, in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and spermatozoa. CXCL12 was overexpressed in the cumulus cells of in vitro matured, compared to immature COCs (<i>p</i> < 0.05), with its receptor (CXCR4) being up-regulated in capacitated spermatozoa (<i>p</i> < 0.03) compared to uncapacitated spermatozoa. The CXCR4 appeared specifically localized in the sperm tail of non-capacitated spermatozoa and also in the sperm head of capacitated spermatozoa, suggesting that the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling complex would play a pivotal role in attracting capacitated spermatozoa towards the oocyte, facilitating fertilization in pigs.
Project description:PURPOSE:The aims of this paper were to study whether heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a regulator of sperm functions and to determine its association with oligoasthenozoospermia. METHODS:The levels of HSP90 in sperm lysates were measured by ELISA. Localization of HSP90 and its isoforms was evaluated by immunofluorescence. Sperm motility and kinetics were assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Acrosome reaction was determined by lectin staining. RESULTS:The levels of HSP90 were lower in oligoasthenozoospermic men and correlated positively with the number of motile spermatozoa. In capacitated human spermatozoa, HSP90α was mostly found in residual nuclear envelope, and the HSP90β isoform was higher in the flagella. Inhibition of HSP90 by geldanamycin or 17-AAG did not affect basal motility, but suppressed progesterone-mediated forward progressive motility, hyperactivation and acrosome reaction. Progesterone treatment dephosphorylated both HSP90α and HSP90β at Ser/Thr-Pro residues, but not Tyr residues. CONCLUSION:HSP90 levels are downregulated in oligoasthenozoospermia, and its functional inhibition attenuates progesterone-mediated sperm motility and acrosome reaction.
Project description:Prdx6 -/- male mice are subfertile, and the deficiency or inactivation of Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) is associated with human male infertility. We elucidate the impact of the lack of PRDX6 or inhibition of its calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (Ca2+-iPLA2) activity by MJ33 on fertilization competence of mouse spermatozoa. Sperm motility, viability, fertilization and blastocyst rates were lower in Prdx6 -/- spermatozoa than in C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) controls (p???0.05). MJ33 inhibited the PRDX6 Ca2+-iPLA2 activity and reduced these parameters in WT spermatozoa compared with controls (p???0.05). Levels of lipid peroxidation and of superoxide anion (O2•?) were higher in Prdx6 -/- than in WT spermatozoa (p???0.05). MJ33 increased the levels of lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial O2•? production in treated versus non-treated WT spermatozoa. Acrosome reaction, binding to zona pellucida and fusion with the oolemma were lower in Prdx6 -/- capacitated spermatozoa than WT capacitated controls and lower in WT spermatozoa treated with the PRDX6 inhibitor. In conclusion, the inhibition of the PRDX6 Ca2+-iPLA2 activity promotes an oxidative stress affecting viability, motility, and the ability of mouse spermatozoa to fertilize oocytes. Thus, PRDX6 has a critical role in the protection of the mouse spermatozoon against oxidative stress to assure fertilizing competence.
Project description:The role of Na(+) fluxes through voltage-gated sodium channels in the regulation of sperm cell function remains poorly understood. Previously, we reported that several genes encoding voltage-gated Na(+) channels were expressed in human testis and mature spermatozoa. In this study, we analyzed the presence and function of the TTX-resistant VGSC ? subunit Nav1.8 in human capacitated sperm cells. Using an RT-PCR assay, we found that the mRNA of the gene SCN10A, that encode Na v1.8, was abundantly and specifically expressed in human testis and ejaculated spermatozoa. The Na v1.8 protein was detected in capacitated sperm cells using three different specific antibodies against this channel. Positive immunoreactivity was mainly located in the neck and the principal piece of the flagellum. The presence of Na v1.8 in sperm cells was confirmed by Western blot. Functional studies demonstrated that the increases in progressive motility produced by veratridine, a voltage-gated sodium channel activator, were reduced in sperm cells preincubated with TTX (10 ?M), the Na v1.8 antagonist A-803467, or a specific Na v1.8 antibody. Veratridine elicited similar percentage increases in progressive motility in sperm cells maintained in Ca(2+)-containing or Ca(2+)-free solution and did not induce hyperactivation or the acrosome reaction. Veratridine caused a rise in sperm intracellular Na(+), [Na(+)]i, and the sustained phase of the response was inhibited in the presence of A-803467. These results verify that the Na(+) channel Na v1.8 is present in human sperm cells and demonstrate that this channel participates in the regulation of sperm function.
Project description:Cryopreservation by negatively affecting sperm quality decreases the efficiency of assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs). Thus, we first evaluated sperm motility at different conditions for the manipulation of equine cryopreserved spermatozoa. Higher motility was observed when spermatozoa were incubated for 30 min at 30 × 10<sup>6</sup>/mL compared to lower concentrations (<i>p</i> < 0.05) and when a short centrifugation at 200× <i>g</i> was performed (<i>p</i> < 0.05). Moreover, because sperm suitable for oocyte fertilization is released from oviduct epithelial cells (OECs), in response to the capacitation process, we established an in vitro OEC culture model to select a sperm population with potential fertilizing capacity in this species. We demonstrated E-cadherin and cytokeratin expression in cultures of OECs obtained. When sperm-OEC cocultures were performed, the attached spermatozoa were motile and presented an intact acrosome, suggesting a selection by the oviductal model. When co-cultures were incubated in capacitating conditions a greater number of alive (<i>p</i> < 0.05), capacitated (<i>p</i> < 0.05), with progressive motility (<i>p</i> < 0.05) and with the intact acrosome sperm population was observed (<i>p</i> < 0.05) suggesting that the sperm population released from OECs in vitro presents potential fertilizing capacity. Improvements in handling and selection of cryopreserved sperm would improve efficiencies in ARTs allowing the use of a population of higher-quality sperm.
Project description:Although cryopreservation has been developed and optimized over the past decades, it causes various stresses, including cold shock, osmotic stress, and ice crystal formation, thereby reducing fertility. During cryopreservation, addition of cryoprotective agent (CPA) is crucial for protecting spermatozoa from freezing damage. However, the intrinsic toxicity and osmotic stress induced by CPA cause damage to spermatozoa. To identify the effects of CPA addition during cryopreservation, we assessed the motility (%), motion kinematics, capacitation status, and viability of epididymal spermatozoa using computer-assisted sperm analysis and Hoechst 33258/chlortetracycline fluorescence staining. Moreover, the effects of CPA addition were also demonstrated at the proteome level using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Our results demonstrated that CPA addition significantly reduced sperm motility (%), curvilinear velocity, viability (%), and non-capacitated spermatozoa, whereas straightness and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa increased significantly (p < 0.05). Ten proteins were differentially expressed (two decreased and eight increased) (>3 fold, p < 0.05) after CPA, whereas NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein 2, f-actin-capping protein subunit beta, superoxide dismutase 2, and outer dense fiber protein 2 were associated with several important signaling pathways (p < 0.05). The present study provides a mechanistic basis for specific cryostresses and potential markers of CPA-induced stress. Therefore, these might provide information about the development of safe biomaterials for cryopreservation and basic ground for sperm cryopreservation.
Project description:Do peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) control reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during human sperm capacitation?PRDXs are necessary to control the levels of ROS generated during capacitation allowing spermatozoa to achieve fertilizing ability.Sperm capacitation is an oxidative event that requires low and controlled amounts of ROS to trigger phosphorylation events. PRDXs are antioxidant enzymes that not only act as scavengers but also control ROS action in somatic cells. Spermatozoa from infertile men have lower levels of PRDXs (particularly of PRDX6), which are thiol-oxidized and therefore inactive.Semen samples were obtained from a cohort of 20 healthy nonsmoker volunteers aged 22-30 years old over a period of 1 year.Sperm from healthy donors was capacitated with fetal cord serum ultrafiltrate (FCSu) in the absence or presence of thiostrepton (TSP), inhibitor of 2-Cys PRDXs or 1-Hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethyl)-sn-glycero-2-phosphomethanol lithium (MJ33), inhibitor of calcium independent-phospholipase A2 (Ca2+-iPLA2) activity of PRDX6, added at different times of incubation. Capacitation was also induced by the dibutyryl cAMP+3-isobuty1-1-methylxanthine system. Sperm viability and motility were determined by the hypo-osmotic swelling test and computer-assisted semen analysis system, respectively. Capacitation was determined by the ability of spermatozoa to undergo the acrosome reaction triggered by lysophosphatidylcholine. Percentages of acrosome reaction were obtained using the FITC-conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin assay. Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues and of protein kinase A (PKA) substrates were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Actin polymerization was determined by phalloidin labeling.TSP and MJ33 prevented sperm capacitation and its associated actin polymerization in spermatozoa incubated with 10% FCSu (capacitation inducer) compared to non-capacitated controls (P < 0.05) without altering sperm viability. PKA substrates and tyrosine phosphorylations were prevented in FCSu-treated spermatozoa in a differential fashion depending on the type and the time of addition of the inhibitor used compared to non-capacitated controls (P < 0.05). TSP and MJ33 promoted an increase of lipid peroxidation in spermatozoa (P < 0.01) and these levels were higher in those spermatozoa incubated with the inhibitors and FCSu compared to those capacitated spermatozoa incubated without the inhibitors (P < 0.0001). Inhibition of 2-Cys PRDXs by TSP generated an oxidative stress in spermatozoa, affecting their viability compared to controls (P < 0.05). This oxidative stress was prevented by nuclephile D-penicillamine (PEN). MJ33 also promoted an increase of lipid peroxidation and impaired sperm viability compared to non-treated controls (P < 0.05) but its effect was not circumvented by PEN, suggesting that not only peroxidase but also Ca2+-iPLA2 activity of PRDX6 are necessary to guarantee viability in human spermatozoa.Not applicable.We focused on the global effect of PRDXs inhibitors on human sperm capacitation and in two of its associated phosphorylation events. Thus, other phosphorylation events and mechanisms necessary for capacitation may also be affected.PRDXs are the major antioxidant system in ejaculated spermatozoa and are necessary to allow spermatozoon to achieve fertilizing ability (capacitation and acrosome reaction).This research was supported by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (MOP 133661) and the Fonds de Recherché en Santé Quebec (FRSQS #22151) to C.O. The authors have nothing to disclose.
Project description:In sea urchins, spermatozoan motility is altered by chemotactic peptides, giving rise to the assumption that mammalian eggs also emit chemotactic agents that guide spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract to the mature oocyte. Mammalian spermatozoa indeed undergo complex adaptations within the female (the process of capacitation) that are initiated by agents ranging from pH to progesterone, but these factors are not necessarily taxic. Currently, chemotaxis, thermotaxis, and rheotaxis have not been definitively established in mammals.Here, we show that positive rheotaxis, the ability of organisms to orient and swim against the flow of surrounding fluid, is a major taxic factor for mouse and human sperm. This flow is generated within 4 hr of sexual stimulation and coitus in female mice; prolactin-triggered oviductal fluid secretion clears the oviduct of debris, lowers viscosity, and generates the stream that guides sperm migration in the oviduct. Rheotaxic movement is demonstrated in capacitated and uncapacitated spermatozoa in low- and high-viscosity media. Finally, we show that a unique sperm motion, which we quantify using the sperm head's rolling rate, reflects sperm rotation that generates essential force for positioning the sperm in the stream. Rotation requires CatSper channels, presumably by enabling Ca(2+) influx.We propose that rheotaxis is a major determinant of sperm guidance over long distances in the mammalian female reproductive tract. Coitus induces fluid flow to guide sperm in the oviduct. Sperm rheotaxis requires rotational motion during CatSper channel-dependent hyperactivated motility.
Project description:This study sought to identify and localize SLO1 channels in boar spermatozoa by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, and to determine their physiological role during in vitro sperm capacitation. Sperm samples from 14 boars were incubated in a capacitation medium for 300 min in the presence of paxilline (PAX), a specific SLO1-channel blocker, added either at 0 min or after 240 min of incubation. Negative controls were incubated in capacitation medium, and positive controls in capacitation medium plus tetraethyl ammonium (TEA), a general K+-channel blocker, also added at 0 min or after 240 min of incubation. In all samples, acrosome exocytosis was triggered with progesterone after 240 min of incubation. Sperm motility and kinematics, integrity of plasma and acrosome membranes, membrane lipid disorder, intracellular calcium levels and acrosin activity were evaluated after 0, 60, 120, 180, 240, 250, 270 and 300 min of incubation. In boar spermatozoa, SLO1 channels were found to have 80 kDa and be localized in the anterior postacrosomal region and the mid and principal piece of the tail; their specific blockage through PAX resulted in altered calcium levels and acrosome exocytosis. As expected, TEA blocker impaired in vitro sperm capacitation, by altering sperm motility and kinematics and calcium levels. In conclusion, SLO1 channels are crucial for the acrosome exocytosis induced by progesterone in in vitro capacitated boar spermatozoa.