ABSTRACT: Microsurgical training is imperative for urologists and clinical andrologists specializing in male infertility. Success in male infertility microsurgery is heavily dependent on the surgeon's microsurgical skills. Laboratory-based practice to enhance microsurgical skills improves the surgeon's confidence, and reduces stress and operating time, benefiting both the patient and the surgeon. This review provides guidelines for setting up a microsurgical laboratory to develop and enhance microsurgical skills using synthetic and animal models. The role of emerging techniques, such as robotic-assisted microsurgery, is also discussed.
Project description:Robotic-assisted microsurgery can be utilized for either intracorporal or extracorporeal surgical procedures. Three-dimensional high-definition magnification, a stable ergonomic platform, elimination of physiologic tremor, and motion scaling make the robotic platform attractive for microsurgeons for complex procedures. Additionally, robotic assistance enables the microsurgeon to take microsurgery to challenging intracorporeal locations in a minimally invasive manner. Recent adjunctive technological developments offer the robotic platform enhanced optical magnification, improved intraoperative imaging, and more precise ablation techniques for microsurgical procedures. The authors present the current state-of-the art tools available in the robotic-assisted microsurgical platform.
Project description:Advancements in reconstructive microsurgery have evolved into supermicrosurgery; connecting vessels with diameter between 0.3 and 0.8?mm for reconstruction of lymphatic flow and vascularized tissue transplantation. Supermicrosurgery is limited by the precision and dexterity of the surgeon's hands. Robot assistance can help overcome these human limitations, thereby enabling a breakthrough in supermicrosurgery. We report the first-in-human study of robot-assisted supermicrosurgery using a dedicated microsurgical robotic platform. A prospective randomized pilot study is conducted comparing robot-assisted and manual supermicrosurgical lymphatico-venous anastomosis (LVA) in treating breast cancer-related lymphedema. We evaluate patient outcome at 1 and 3 months post surgery, duration of the surgery, and quality of the anastomosis. At 3 months, patient outcome improves. Furthermore, a steep decline in duration of time required to complete the anastomosis is observed in the robot-assisted group (33-16?min). Here, we report the feasibility of robot-assisted supermicrosurgical anastomosis in LVA, indicating promising results for the future of reconstructive supermicrosurgery.
Project description:Varicocelectomy is the most commonly performed surgical procedure for the treatment of male infertility. Although several different techniques for varicocele repair have been described in the literature, microsurgical varicocelectomy performed through a subinguinal or inguinal incision is recognized as the gold-standard approach for varicocelectomy, due to high success rates with minimal complications. Standard indications for varicocelectomy include palpable varicocele(s), with one or more abnormal semen parameters, and, for the couple trying to conceive, in the setting of normal or correctable female infertility. However, varicocele repair is often recommended and undertaken for reasons other than infertility, including low serum testosterone, testicular pain, testicular hypotrophy and poor sperm DNA quality. This article reviews the technical aspects of microsurgical varicocelectomy, and its indications in adults and adolescents.
Project description:Microsurgical skill acquisition is an integral component of training in plastic surgery. Current microsurgical training is based on the subjective Halstedian model. An ideal microsurgery assessment tool should be able to deconstruct all the subskills of microsurgery and assess them objectively and reliably. For our study, to analyze the feasibility, reliability, and validity of microsurgery skill assessment, a video-based objective structured assessment of technical skill tool was chosen. Two blinded experts evaluated 40 videos of six residents performing microsurgical anastomosis for arteriovenous fistula surgery. The generic Reznick's global rating score (GRS) and University of Western Ontario microsurgical skills acquisition/assessment (UWOMSA) instrument were used as checklists. Correlation coefficients of 0.75 to 0.80 (UWOMSA) and 0.71 to 0.77 (GRS) for interrater and intrarater reliability showed that the assessment tools were reliable. Convergent validity of the UWOMSA tool with the prevalidated GRS tool showed good agreement. The mean improvement of scores with years of residency was measured with analysis of variance. Both UWOMSA ( p -value: 0.034) and GRS ( p -value: 0.037) demonstrated significant improvement in scores from postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) to PGY2 and a less marked improvement from PGY2 to PGY3. We conclude that objective assessment of microsurgical skills in an actual clinical setting is feasible. Tools like UWOMSA are valid and reliable for microsurgery assessment and provide feedback to chart progression of learning. Acceptance and validation of such objective assessments will help to improve training and bring uniformity to microsurgery education.
Project description:Robotic surgery has expanded rapidly over the past two decades and is in widespread use among the surgical subspecialties. Clinical applications in plastic surgery have emerged gradually over the last few years. One of the promising applications is robotic-assisted microvascular anastomosis. Here the authors first describe a process by which an assessment instrument they developed called the Structured Assessment of Robotic Microsurgical Skills (SARMS) was validated. The instrument combines the previously validated Structured Assessment of Microsurgical Skills (SAMS) with other skill domains in robotic surgery. Interrater reliability for the SARMS instrument was excellent for all skill areas among four expert, blinded evaluators. They then present a process by which the learning curve for robotic-assisted microvascular anastomoses was measured and plotted. Ten study participants performed five robotic microanastomoses each that were recorded, deidentified and scored. Trends in SARMS scores were plotted. All skill areas and overall performance improved significantly for each participant over the five microanastomotic sessions, and operative time decreased for all participants. The results showed an initial steep ascent in technical skill acquisition followed by more gradual improvement, and a steady decrease in operative times for the cohort. Participants at all levels of training, ranging from minimal microsurgical experience to expert microsurgeons gained proficiency over the course of five robotic sessions.
Project description:PURPOSE:In the field of microsurgery, the use of conventional operating microscope, adopted in several disciplines, is not suitable with the full adoption of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), as goggles and face shields, needing the eyes to be at close contact with oculars. METHODS:Herein we present an exoscopic surgical setup, implemented for transoral laser microsurgery, by the VITOM® 3D-HD system. RESULTS:Our proposed exoscopic setting overcomes safety limits of the conventional operating microscope, being suitable with the adoption of full PPE necessary facing with suspected or confirmed positive SARS-CoV-2 patients needing urgent microsurgical procedures. CONCLUSION:The use of protocols to reduce the virus spreading is mandatory to safely treat also patients potentially SARS-CoV-2 infected. The described surgical setup is advisable to manage urgent microsurgical procedures along the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic, being applicable PPE necessary to treat potentially or confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.
Project description:Residents are required to learn a multitude of skills during their microsurgical training. One such skill is the judicious application of force when handling delicate tissue. An instrument has been developed that indicates to the surgeon when a force threshold has been exceeded by providing vibrotactile feedback. The objective of this study was to validate the use of this "smart" force-limiting instrument for microsurgery. A laboratory and an in vivo experiment were performed to evaluate the force-limiting instrument. In the laboratory experiment, twelve novice surgeons were randomly allocated to use either the force-limiting instrument or a standard instrument. Surgeons were then asked to perform microsurgical dissection in a model. In the in vivo experiment, an intermediate surgeon performed microsurgical dissection in a stepwise fashion, alternating every 30 seconds between use of the force-limiting instrument and a standard instrument. The primary outcomes were the forces exerted and the OSATS scores. In the laboratory experiment, the maximal forces exerted by novices using the force-limiting instrument were significantly less than using a standard instrument, and were comparable to intermediate and expert surgeons (0.637N versus 4.576N; p = 0.007). In the in vivo experiment, the maximal forces exerted with the force-limiting instrument were also significantly less than with a standard instrument (0.441N versus 0.742N; p <0.001). Notably, use of the force-limiting instrument did not significantly impede the surgical workflow as measured by the OSATS score (p >0.1). In conclusion, the development and use of this force-limiting instrument in a clinical setting may improve patient safety.
Project description:To compare the timing of soft-tissue (flap) coverage and occurrence of complications before and after the establishment of an integrated orthopaedic trauma/microsurgical team.Retrospective cohort study.A single level 1 trauma center.Twenty-eight subjects (13 pre- and 15 post-integration) with open tibia shaft fractures (OTA/AO 42A, 42B, and 42C) treated with flap coverage between January 2009 and March 2015.Flap coverage for open tibia shaft fractures treated before ("preintegration") and after ("postintegration") implementation of an integrated orthopaedic trauma/microsurgical team.Time from index injury to flap coverage.The unadjusted median time to coverage was 7 days (95% confidence interval, 5.9-8.1) preintegration, and 6 days (95% confidence interval, 4.6-7.4) postintegration (P = 0.48). For preintegration, 9 (69%) of the patients experienced complications, compared with 7 (47%) postintegration (P = 0.23).After formation of an integrated orthopaedic trauma/microsurgery team, we observed a 1-day decrease in median days to coverage from index injury. Complications overall were lowered in the postintegration group, although statistically insignificant.Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Project description:Minimally-invasive microsurgery has resulted in improved outcomes for patients. However, operating through a microscope limits depth perception and fixes the visual perspective, which result in a steep learning curve to achieve microsurgical proficiency. We introduce a surgical imaging system employing four-dimensional (live volumetric imaging through time) microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (4D MIOCT) capable of imaging at up to 10 volumes per second to visualize human microsurgery. A custom stereoscopic heads-up display provides real-time interactive volumetric feedback to the surgeon. We report that 4D MIOCT enhanced suturing accuracy and control of instrument positioning in mock surgical trials involving 17 ophthalmic surgeons. Additionally, 4D MIOCT imaging was performed in 48 human eye surgeries and was demonstrated to successfully visualize the pathology of interest in concordance with preoperative diagnosis in 93% of retinal surgeries and the surgical site of interest in 100% of anterior segment surgeries. In vivo 4D MIOCT imaging revealed sub-surface pathologic structures and instrument-induced lesions that were invisible through the operating microscope during standard surgical maneuvers. In select cases, 4D MIOCT guidance was necessary to resolve such lesions and prevent post-operative complications. Our novel surgical visualization platform achieves surgeon-interactive 4D visualization of live surgery which could expand the surgeon's capabilities.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Although microsurgical resection is currently the first-line treatment modality for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), microsurgery of these lesions is complicated due to the fact that they are very heterogeneous vascular anomalies. The Spetzler-Martin grading system and the supplementary grading system have demonstrated excellent performances in predicting the risk of AVM surgery. However, there are currently no predictive models based on multimodal MRI techniques. The purpose of this study is to propose a predictive model based on multimodal MRI techniques to assess the microsurgical risk of intracranial AVMs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The study consists of 2 parts: the first part is to conduct a single-centre retrospective analysis of 201 eligible patients to create a predictive model of AVM surgery based on multimodal functional MRIs (fMRIs); the second part is to validate the efficacy of the predictive model in a prospective multicentre cohort study of 400 eligible patients. Patient characteristics, AVM features and multimodal fMRI data will be collected. The functional status at pretreatment and 6?months after surgery will be analysed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. The patients in each part of this study will be dichotomised into 2 groups: those with improved or unchanged functional status (a decreased or unchanged mRS 6?months after surgery) and those with worsened functional status (an increased mRS). The first part will determine the risk factors of worsened functional status after surgery and create a predictive model. The second part will validate the predictive model and then a new AVM grading system will be proposed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study protocol and informed consent form have been reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of Beijing Tiantan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University (KY2016-031-01). The results of this study will be disseminated through printed media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02868008.