A randomized, phase 3 trial of naltrexone SR/bupropion SR on weight and obesity-related risk factors (COR-II).
ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of naltrexone/bupropion (NB) combination therapy on weight and weight-related risk factors in overweight and obese participants.CONTRAVE Obesity Research-II (COR-II) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 1,496 obese (BMI 30-45 kg/m(2) ) or overweight (27-45 kg/m(2) with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension) participants randomized 2:1 to combined naltrexone sustained-release (SR) (32 mg/day) plus bupropion SR (360 mg/day) (NB32) or placebo for up to 56 weeks. The co-primary endpoints were percent weight change and proportion achieving ? 5% weight loss at week 28.Significantly (P < 0.001) greater weight loss was observed with NB32 versus placebo at week 28 (-6.5% vs. -1.9%) and week 56 (-6.4% vs. -1.2%). More NB32-treated participants (P < 0.001) experienced ? 5% weight loss versus placebo at week 28 (55.6% vs. 17.5%) and week 56 (50.5% vs. 17.1%). NB32 produced greater improvements in various cardiometabolic risk markers, participant-reported weight-related quality of life, and control of eating. The most common adverse event with NB was nausea, which was generally mild to moderate and transient. NB was not associated with increased events of depression or suicidality versus placebo.NB represents a novel pharmacological approach to the treatment of obesity, and may become a valuable new therapeutic option.
Project description:To assess the efficacy and safety of 32 mg naltrexone sustained-release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR (NB) in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes with or without background oral antidiabetes drugs.This was a 56-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which 505 patients received standardized lifestyle intervention and were randomized 2:1 to NB or placebo. Coprimary end points were percent weight change and achievement of ≥5% weight loss. Secondary end points included achievement of HbA1c <7% (53 mmol/mol), achievement of weight loss ≥10%, and change in HbA1c, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and lipids.In the modified intent-to-treat population (54% female, 80% Caucasian, and mean age 54 years, weight 106 kg, BMI 37 kg/m(2), and HbA1c 8.0% [64 mmol/mol]), NB resulted in significantly greater weight reduction (-5.0 vs. -1.8%; P < 0.001) and proportion of patients achieving ≥5% weight loss (44.5 vs. 18.9%, P < 0.001) compared with placebo. NB also resulted in significantly greater HbA1c reduction (-0.6 vs. -0.1% [6.6 vs. 1.1 mmol/mol]; P < 0.001), percent of patients achieving HbA1c <7% (53 mmol/mol) (44.1 vs. 26.3%; P < 0.001), and improvement in triglycerides and HDL cholesterol compared with placebo. NB was associated with higher incidence of nausea (42.3 vs. 7.1%), constipation (17.7 vs. 7.1%), and vomiting (18.3 vs. 3.6%). No difference was observed between groups in the incidence of depression, suicidal ideation, or hypoglycemia.NB therapy in overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes induced weight loss, which was associated with improvements in glycemic control and select cardiovascular risk factors and was generally well tolerated with a safety profile similar to that in patients without diabetes.
Project description:This study assessed the effects of 32 mg naltrexone sustained release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR (NB) on body weight in adults with obesity, with comprehensive lifestyle intervention (CLI), for 78 weeks.In this phase 3b, randomized, open-label, controlled study, subjects received NB?+?CLI or usual care (standard diet/exercise advice) for 26 weeks. NB subjects not achieving 5% weight loss at week 16 were discontinued, as indicated by product labeling. After week 26, usual care subjects began NB?+?CLI. Assessments continued through week 78. The primary end point was percent change in weight from baseline to week 26 in the per protocol population. Other end points included percentage of subjects achieving ?5%, ?10%, and ?15% weight loss, percent change in weight at week 78, and adverse events (AEs) necessitating study medication discontinuation.NB?+?CLI subjects lost significantly more weight than usual care subjects at week 26 (8.52% difference; P < 0.0001). Weight loss persisted through 78 weeks. In total, 20.7% of subjects discontinued medication for AEs, including 7.0% for nausea.Treatment with NB, used as indicated by prescribing information and with CLI, significantly improved weight loss over usual care alone. NB-facilitated weight loss was sustained for 78 weeks and was deemed safe and well tolerated.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Food cravings are associated with dysregulated eating behaviour and obesity, and may impede successful weight loss attempts. Gaining control over food craving is therefore a component in the management of obesity. The current paper examined whether early changes in control over food craving (assessed using the Craving Control subscale on the Control of Eating Questionnaire (CoEQ)) was predictive of weight loss in four phase 3 clinical trials investigating a sustained-release combination of naltrexone/bupropion (NB) in obese adults. The underlying component structure of the CoEQ was also examined. METHOD:In an integrated analysis of four 56-week phase 3 clinical trials, subjects completed the CoEQ and had their body weight measured at baseline and at weeks 8, 16, 28 and 56. All analyses were conducted on subjects who had complete weight and CoEQ measurements at baseline and week 56, and had completed 56 weeks of NB (n=1310) or placebo (n=736). A latent growth curve model was used to examine whether early changes in the CoEQ subscales were associated with decreases in weight loss over time. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine the psychometric properties of the CoEQ. RESULTS:The factor structure of the CoEQ was consistent with previous findings with a four-factor solution being confirmed: Craving Control, Positive Mood, Craving for Sweet and Craving for Savoury with good internal consistency (Cronbach's ?=0.72-0.92). Subjects with the greatest improvement in Craving Control at week 8 exhibited a greater weight loss at week 56. CONCLUSIONS:These findings highlight the importance of the experience of food cravings in the treatment of obesity and support the use of the CoEQ as a psychometric tool for the measurement of food cravings in research and the pharmacological management of obesity.
Project description:Introduction:The objective of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to investigate the combined effect of a Mediterranean diet and naltrexone/bupropion treatment on body weight, metabolic parameters, and quality of life in overweight or obese breast cancer survivors. Methods:Forty-four breast cancer survivors were randomly assigned to receive the Mediterranean diet plus naltrexone/bupropion medication (breast cancer survivor MeDiet+NB group) or the Mediterranean diet alone (breast cancer survivor MeDiet-only group). Twenty-eight age-matched non-cancer patients were instructed to consume the Mediterranean diet plus naltrexone/bupropion medication (non-cancer MeDiet+NB group). After the 8-week intervention, changes in body weight, metabolic parameters, nutrient intake, and quality of life of the three groups were assessed. Results:Significant weight loss of 2.8 kg was noted for the breast cancer survivor MeDiet+NB group, 1.8 kg for the breast cancer survivor MeDiet-only group, and 2.5 kg for the non-cancer MeDiet+NB group after 8 weeks (P < 0.05 versus baseline by Wilcoxon's signed-rank test). All three groups also exhibited significantly lower fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels (P < 0.05). Quality of life as assessed by self-reported questionnaires showed improvement in all participants (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences of changes in body weights, metabolic parameters, and quality of life among the three groups or between the MeDiet+NB and MeDiet-only groups. Conclusion:We found that the Mediterranean diet, with or without naltrexone/bupropion treatment, facilitates weight loss, improves metabolic parameters, and increases quality of life. The combination of the Mediterranean diet with naltrexone/bupropion treatment did not produce superior changes when compared to the Mediterranean diet alone. Trial Registration:This trial was retrospectively registered on 10 July 2018 as NCT03581630 at ClinicalTrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03581630).
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Prolonged-release (PR) naltrexone 32?mg/bupropion 360?mg (NB) is approved for chronic weight management as an adjunct to reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity. Central nervous system-active medications have the potential to affect mood; therefore, post hoc analysis of clinical trial data was conducted to evaluate psychiatric adverse events (PAEs) and effects on mood of NB therapy versus placebo. SUBJECTS/METHODS:Data were pooled from 5 prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials (duration range, 24-56 weeks) of NB in subjects with overweight or obesity. PAEs were collected via AE preferred terms, organized into major subtopics (e.g., anxiety, depression, sleep disorders), and divided into category terms (e.g., anxiety, potential anxiety symptoms). Additionally, the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self Report (IDS-SR; score range 0-84) and the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (C-CASA) evaluated treatment-emergent depressive/anxiety symptoms and suicidal behavior/ideation, respectively. RESULTS:Baseline characteristics and comorbidities were comparable for placebo (n?=?1515) and NB (n?=?2545). Most common PAEs in the NB group (using category grouping; NB vs placebo) were sleep disorders (12.7 vs 7.9%, P?<?0.001), anxiety (5.4 vs 3.3%, P?=?0.029), and depression (1.8 vs 2.7%, P?=?0.014); PAEs were more frequent during dose escalation and generally mild or moderate. Mean (SD) changes in IDS-SR total score from baseline to endpoint were small in both groups: 0.13 (5.83) for NB and -0.45 (5.65) for placebo. Retrospective AE categorization via C-CASA confirmed no completed suicides, suicide attempts, or preparatory acts toward imminent suicidal behavior. CONCLUSIONS:This large pooled analysis of 5 clinical trials provides additional safety information about the NB PAE profile. Anxiety and sleep disorder-related PAEs were more frequent with NB versus placebo but were mostly mild to moderate and generally occurred early. Depression-related PAEs were less common with NB than placebo, and NB was not associated with suicidal ideation or behavior in this patient population.
Project description:Objective. The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of bupropion plus naltrexone for weight loss were reviewed. Data Sources. A MEDLINE search (1970 to November 2015) was conducted for English-language articles using specific MESH terms. Study Selection and Data Extraction. Published Phase 3 clinical trials with primary endpoints related to weight loss were included and critiqued in this review. Study Selection and Data Extraction. Five trials were retrieved and reviewed regarding the efficacy and safety of bupropion plus naltrexone among obese and overweight patients. Data Synthesis. Bupropion is a dopamine/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist. The combination of these agents has led to increased weight loss, compared to placebo, among overweight and obese patients with a body mass index (BMI) at or above 30 or BMI at or above 27 with a comorbid condition. The combination of bupropion and naltrexone can produce an average placebo-subtracted weight loss of 4.25% over 56 weeks. Gastrointestinal (ie, nausea, vomiting, constipation) and central nervous system adverse events (ie, headache, dizziness) were commonly reported, and there was a high dropout rate among participants. Conclusions. Bupropion plus naltrexone has demonstrated effective weight loss, in conjunction with lifestyle modifications, among overweight and obese patients with and without comorbidities. Bupropion plus naltrexone has not been studied among special patient populations, such as those with sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, or extreme BMIs. Additional clinical trials and postmarketing data will provide a better understanding of this medication for weight loss.
Project description:In March 2010, Orexigen(R) Therapeutics submitted a new drug application (NDA) for approval of naltrexone sustained release (SR)/bupropion SR (Contrave(R)) for the treatment of obesity in the US. The tablet contains naltrexone SR 32 mg and bupropion SR 360 mg. The drug has been tested in four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trials and the co-primary endpoints were met in each case. This review discusses the key development milestones and clinical trial program to date.
Project description:Objective: The rates of obesity and cigarette smoking are much higher in patients with schizophrenia compared to the general population. This study was to examine whether naltrexone and bupropion combination treatment can help weight loss and smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Obese male schizophrenia patients with current cigarette smoking were randomized to receive adjunctive naltrexone (25 mg/day) and bupropion (300 mg/day) combination or placebo for 24 weeks. Twenty-two patients were enrolled in the study, and 21 patients completed the study (11 in the treatment group, and 10 in the placebo group). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting lipids, smoking urge, expired carbon monoxide (CO) level and cigarettes smoked per week were measured at baseline and week 24. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups in changes in weight, BMI, fasting lipids, or cigarette smoking measures (p's > 0.05) Conclusion: Naltrexone and bupropion combination treatment didn't show weight loss or smoking cessation effect in patients with schizophrenia in this pilot study.Implications for future studies were discussed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02736474.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD). Naltrexone extended-release (ER)/bupropion ER (NB) is approved as an adjunct to diet and physical activity for chronic weight management. In a prospectively designed 24-week open-label, single-arm, single-site trial of 25 women with MDD and overweight/obesity, NB reduced weight and depressive symptoms. METHODS:This post hoc analysis investigated the relationship between change in self-reported binge eating behavior (evaluated with the Binge Eating Scale [BES]) and changes in weight, control of eating, and depressive symptoms. RESULTS:At baseline, 91% of subjects had moderate or severe BES scores, suggesting BED. BES scores were significantly improved from week 4, and by week 24, 83% reported "little or no problem." Improvement in BES scores correlated with improvement in depressive symptoms and control of eating. CONCLUSION:NB may be effective in reducing binge eating symptoms associated with MDD and overweight/obesity. Evaluation of NB in BED appears warranted. FUNDING:Orexigen Therapeutics, Inc.
Project description:This multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label trial examined weight-related quality of life, control over eating behaviour and sexual function after 26 weeks of treatment with either 32 mg naltrexone sustained release (SR)/360 mg bupropion SR plus a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program (NB + CLI, N = 153) or usual care (UC, N = 89), which included minimal lifestyle intervention.Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite, Binge Eating Scale and Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale were assessed at baseline (BL) and weeks 16 and 26.NB + CLI and UC participants lost 9.46 and 0.94% respectively of initial body weight at week 26 (P < 0.0001). NB + CLI participants had greater improvements in Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite total score than UC participants (P < 0.0001). In participants with moderate/severe Binge Eating Scale scores at BL, 91% of NB + CLI and 18% of UC participants experienced categorical improvements. In participants with Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale-defined sexual dysfunction at BL, 58% of NB + CLI and 19% of UC participants no longer met dysfunction criteria at week 26. The most frequent adverse events leading to discontinuation before week 26 in NB + CLI included nausea (10.5%); anxiety (3.3%); and headache, hypertension, insomnia and palpitations (1.3% each).Compared with UC, participants treated with NB + CLI experienced greater improvements in weight-related quality of life, control over eating behaviour, and sexual function.