Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channel blockade as a potential tool in antipancreatitis therapy.
ABSTRACT: Alcohol-related acute pancreatitis can be mediated by a combination of alcohol and fatty acids (fatty acid ethyl esters) and is initiated by a sustained elevation of the Ca(2+) concentration inside pancreatic acinar cells ([Ca(2+)]i), due to excessive release of Ca(2+) stored inside the cells followed by Ca(2+) entry from the interstitial fluid. The sustained [Ca(2+)]i elevation activates intracellular digestive proenzymes resulting in necrosis and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that pharmacological blockade of store-operated or Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channels (CRAC) would prevent sustained elevation of [Ca(2+)]i and therefore protease activation and necrosis. In isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells, CRAC channels were activated by blocking Ca(2+) ATPase pumps in the endoplasmic reticulum with thapsigargin in the absence of external Ca(2+). Ca(2+) entry then occurred upon admission of Ca(2+) to the extracellular solution. The CRAC channel blocker developed by GlaxoSmithKline, GSK-7975A, inhibited store-operated Ca(2+) entry in a concentration-dependent manner within the range of 1 to 50 ?M (IC50 = 3.4 ?M), but had little or no effect on the physiological Ca(2+) spiking evoked by acetylcholine or cholecystokinin. Palmitoleic acid ethyl ester (100 ?M), an important mediator of alcohol-related pancreatitis, evoked a sustained elevation of [Ca(2+)]i, which was markedly reduced by CRAC blockade. Importantly, the palmitoleic acid ethyl ester-induced trypsin and protease activity as well as necrosis were almost abolished by blocking CRAC channels. There is currently no specific treatment of pancreatitis, but our data show that pharmacological CRAC blockade is highly effective against toxic [Ca(2+)]i elevation, necrosis, and trypsin/protease activity and therefore has potential to effectively treat pancreatitis.
Project description:Toxic alcohol effects on pancreatic acinar cells, causing the often fatal human disease acute pancreatitis, are principally mediated by fatty acid ethyl esters (non-oxidative products of alcohol and fatty acids), emptying internal stores of Ca(2+). This excessive Ca(2+) liberation induces Ca(2+)-dependent necrosis due to intracellular trypsin activation. Our aim was to identify the specific source of the Ca(2+) release linked to the fatal intracellular protease activation. In 2-photon permeabilized mouse pancreatic acinar cells, we monitored changes in the Ca(2+) concentration in the thapsigargin-sensitive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as in a bafilomycin-sensitive acid compartment, localized exclusively in the apical granular pole. We also assessed trypsin activity in the apical granular region. Palmitoleic acid ethyl ester (POAEE) elicited Ca(2+) release from both the ER as well as the acid pool, but trypsin activation depended predominantly on Ca(2+) release from the acid pool, that was mainly mediated by functional inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) of types 2 and 3. POAEE evoked very little Ca(2+) release and trypsin activation when IP(3)Rs of both types 2 and 3 were knocked out. Antibodies against IP(3)Rs of types 2 and 3, but not type 1, markedly inhibited POAEE-elicited Ca(2+) release and trypsin activation. We conclude that Ca(2+) release through IP(3)Rs of types 2 and 3 in the acid granular Ca(2+) store induces intracellular protease activation, and propose that this is a critical process in the initiation of alcohol-related acute pancreatitis.
Project description:Non-oxidative metabolism of ethanol (NOME) produces fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) via carboxylester lipase (CEL) and other enzyme action implicated in mitochondrial injury and acute pancreatitis (AP). This study investigated the relative importance of oxidative and non-oxidative pathways in mitochondrial dysfunction, pancreatic damage and development of alcoholic AP, and whether deleterious effects of NOME are preventable.Intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](C)), NAD(P)H, mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways were examined in isolated pancreatic acinar cells in response to ethanol and/or palmitoleic acid (POA) in the presence or absence of 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) to inhibit oxidative metabolism. A novel in vivo model of alcoholic AP induced by intraperitoneal administration of ethanol and POA was developed to assess the effects of manipulating alcohol metabolism.Inhibition of OME with 4-MP converted predominantly transient [Ca(2+)](C) rises induced by low ethanol/POA combination to sustained elevations, with concurrent mitochondrial depolarisation, fall of NAD(P)H and cellular necrosis in vitro. All effects were prevented by 3-benzyl-6-chloro-2-pyrone (3-BCP), a CEL inhibitor. 3-BCP also significantly inhibited rises of pancreatic FAEE in vivo and ameliorated acute pancreatic damage and inflammation induced by administration of ethanol and POA to mice.A combination of low ethanol and fatty acid that did not exert deleterious effects per se became toxic when oxidative metabolism was inhibited. The in vitro and in vivo damage was markedly inhibited by blockade of CEL, indicating the potential for development of specific therapy for treatment of alcoholic AP via inhibition of FAEE generation.
Project description:Aberrant immune responses to environmental allergens including insect allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches contribute to allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma in susceptible individuals. Airway epithelial cells (AECs) play a critical role in this process by sensing the proteolytic activity of allergens via protease-activated receptors (PAR2) to initiate inflammatory and immune responses in the airway. Elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) is an important signaling event in this process, yet the fundamental mechanism by which allergens induce Ca(2+) elevations in AECs remains poorly understood. Here we find that extracts from dust mite and cockroach induce sustained Ca(2+) elevations in AECs through the activation of Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels encoded by Orai1 and STIM1. CRAC channel activation occurs, at least in part, through allergen mediated stimulation of PAR2 receptors. The ensuing Ca(2+) entry then activates NFAT/calcineurin signaling to induce transcriptional production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. These findings highlight a key role for CRAC channels as regulators of allergen induced inflammatory responses in the airway.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibition is a promising approach to treat acute pancreatitis (AP). We sought to determine (i) the effects of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor 3,5-seco-4-nor-cholestan-5-one oxime-3-ol (TRO40303) on murine and human pancreatic acinar cell (PAC) injury induced by fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) or taurolithocholic acid-3-sulfate and (ii) TRO40303 pharmacokinetics and efficacy in experimental alcoholic AP (FAEE-AP). METHODS:Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), cytosolic Ca ([Ca]c), and cell fate were examined in freshly isolated murine or human PACs by confocal microscopy. TRO40303 pharmacokinetics were assessed in cerulein-induced AP and therapeutic efficacy in FAEE-AP induced with palmitoleic acid and ethanol. Severity of AP was assessed by standard biomarkers and blinded histopathology. RESULTS:TRO40303 prevented loss of ??m and necrosis induced by 100 ?M palmitoleic acid ethyl ester or 500 ?M taurolithocholic acid-3-sulfate in murine and human PACs. Pharmacokinetic analysis found TRO40303 accumulated in the pancreas. A single dose of 3 mg/kg TRO40303 significantly reduced serum amylase (P = 0.043), pancreatic trypsin (P = 0.018), and histopathology scores (P = 0.0058) in FAEE-AP. CONCLUSIONS:TRO40303 protects mitochondria and prevents necrotic cell death pathway activation in murine and human PACs, ameliorates the severity of FAEE-AP, and is a candidate drug for human AP.
Project description:Store-operated calcium (Ca(2+)) entry is the process by which molecules located on the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) respond to decreased luminal Ca(2+) levels by signaling Ca(2+) release activated Ca(2+) channels (CRAC) channels to open on the plasma membrane (PM). This activation of PM CRAC channels provides a sustained cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation associated with myriad physiological processes. The identities of the molecules which mediate SOCE include stromal interaction molecules (STIMs), functioning as the ER/SR luminal Ca(2+) sensors, and Orai proteins, forming the PM CRAC channels. This review examines the current available high-resolution structural information on these CRAC molecular components with particular focus on the solution structures of the luminal STIM Ca(2+) sensing domains, the crystal structures of cytosolic STIM fragments, a closed Orai hexameric crystal structure and a structure of an Orai1 N-terminal fragment in complex with calmodulin. The accessible structural data are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms of action and cohesiveness with functional observations.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a painful and distressing disorder of the exocrine pancreas with no specific treatment. Diosgenyl saponins extracted from from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright have been reported to protect against experimental models of AP. Diosgenin, or its derivatives are anti-inflammatory in various conditions. However, the effects of diosgenin and its spiroacetal ring opened analogue, dihydrodiosgenin (Dydio), on AP have not been determined. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Effects of diosgenin and Dydio on sodium taurocholate hydrate (Tauro)-induced necrosis were tested, using freshly isolated murine pancreatic acinar cells. Effects of Dydio on mitochondrial dysfunction in response to Tauro, cholecystokinin-8 and palmitoleic acid ethyl ester were also assessed. Dydio (5 or 10 mg·kg-1 ) was administered after the induction in vivo of Tauro-induced AP (Wistar rats), caerulein-induced AP and palmitoleic acid plus ethanol-induced AP (Balb/c mice). Pancreatitis was assessed biochemically and histologically. Activation of pancreatic PI3Kγ/Akt was measured by immunoblotting. KEY RESULTS:Dydio inhibited Tauro-induced activation of the necrotic cell death pathway and prevented pancreatitis stimuli-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Therapeutic administration of Dydio ameliorated biochemical and histopathological responses in all three models of AP through pancreatic mitochondrial protection and PI3Kγ/Akt inactivation. Moreover, Dydio improved pancreatitis-associated acute lung injury through preventing excessive inflammatory responses. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:These data provide in vitro and in vivo mechanistic evidence that the diosgenin analogue, Dydio could be potential treatment for AP. Further medicinal optimization of diosgenin and its analogue might be a useful strategy for identifying lead candidates for inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Emerging evidence demonstrates that the blockade of intracellular Ca(2+) signals may protect pancreatic acinar cells against Ca(2+) overload, intracellular protease activation, and necrosis. The activation of cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) prevents acinar cell pathogenesis in animal models of acute pancreatitis. However, whether CB2Rs modulate intracellular Ca(2+) signals in pancreatic acinar cells is largely unknown. We evaluated the roles of CB2R agonist, GW405833 (GW) in agonist-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in pancreatic acinar cells using multiple experimental approaches with acute dissociated pancreatic acinar cells prepared from wild type, CB1R-knockout (KO), and CB2R-KO mice. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed that CB2R protein was expressed in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Electrophysiological experiments showed that activation of CB2Rs by GW reduced acetylcholine (ACh)-, but not cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in a concentration-dependent manner; this inhibition was prevented by a selective CB2R antagonist, AM630, or was absent in CB2R-KO but not CB1R-KO mice. In addition, GW eliminated L-arginine-induced enhancement of Ca(2+) oscillations, pancreatic amylase, and pulmonary myeloperoxidase. Collectively, we provide novel evidence that activation of CB2Rs eliminates ACh-induced Ca(2+) oscillations and L-arginine-induced enhancement of Ca(2+) signaling in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, which suggests a potential cellular mechanism of CB2R-mediated protection in acute pancreatitis.
Project description:Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) due to activation of Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels leads to sustained elevation of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and activation of lymphocytes. CRAC channels consisting of four pore-forming Orai1 subunits are activated by STIM1, an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) sensor that senses intracellular store depletion and migrates to plasma membrane proximal regions to mediate SOCE. One of the fundamental properties of CRAC channels is their Ca(2+)-dependent fast inactivation. To identify the domains of Orai1 involved in fast inactivation, we have mutated residues in the Orai1 intracellular loop linking transmembrane segment II to III. Mutation of four residues, V(151)SNV(154), at the center of the loop (MutA) abrogated fast inactivation, leading to increased SOCE as well as higher CRAC currents. Point mutation analysis identified five key amino acids, N(153)VHNL(157), that increased SOCE in Orai1 null murine embryonic fibroblasts. Expression or direct application of a peptide comprising the entire intracellular loop or the sequence N(153)VHNL(157) blocked CRAC currents from both wild type (WT) and MutA Orai1. A peptide incorporating the MutA mutations had no blocking effect. Concatenated Orai1 constructs with four MutA monomers exhibited high CRAC currents lacking fast inactivation. Reintroduction of a single WT monomer (MutA-MutA-MutA-WT) was sufficient to fully restore fast inactivation, suggesting that only a single intracellular loop can block the channel. These data suggest that the intracellular loop of Orai1 acts as an inactivation particle, which is stabilized in the ion permeation pathway by the N(153)VHNL(157) residues. These results along with recent reports support a model in which the N terminus and the selectivity filter of Orai1 as well as STIM1 act in concert to regulate the movement of the intracellular loop and evoke fast inactivation.
Project description:Entry of lymphocytes into secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) involves intravascular arrest and intracellular calcium ion ([Ca(2+)]i) elevation. TCR activation triggers increased [Ca(2+)]i and can arrest T-cell motility in vitro. However, the requirement for [Ca(2+)]i elevation in arresting T cells in vivo has not been tested. Here, we have manipulated the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel pathway required for [Ca(2+)]i elevation in T cells through genetic deletion of stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1 or by expression of a dominant-negative ORAI1 channel subunit (ORAI1-DN). Interestingly, the absence of CRAC did not interfere with homing of naïve CD4(+) T cells to SLOs and only moderately reduced crawling speeds in vivo. T cells expressing ORAI1-DN lacked TCR activation induced [Ca(2+)]i elevation, yet arrested motility similar to control T cells in vitro. In contrast, antigen-specific ORAI1-DN T cells had a twofold delayed onset of arrest following injection of OVA peptide in vivo. CRAC channel function is not required for homing to SLOs, but enhances spatiotemporal coordination of TCR signaling and motility arrest.
Project description:CRAC (calcium release-activated Ca(2+)) channels attain an extremely high selectivity for Ca(2+) from the blockade of monovalent cation permeation by Ca(2+) within the pore. In this study we have exploited the blockade by Ca(2+) to examine the size of the CRAC channel pore, its unitary conductance for monovalent cations, and channel gating properties. The permeation of a series of methylammonium compounds under divalent cation-free conditions indicates a minimum pore diameter of 3.9 A. Extracellular Ca(2+) blocks monovalent flux in a manner consistent with a single intrapore site having an effective K(i) of 20 microM at -110 mV. Block increases with hyperpolarization, but declines below -100 mV, most likely due to permeation of Ca(2+). Analysis of monovalent current noise induced by increasing levels of block by extracellular Ca(2+) indicates an open probability (P(o)) of approximately 0.8. By extrapolating the variance/mean current ratio to the condition of full blockade (P(o) = 0), we estimate a unitary conductance of approximately 0.7 pS for Na(+), or three to fourfold higher than previous estimates. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+) causes the monovalent current to decline over tens of seconds, a process termed depotentiation. The declining current appears to result from a reduction in the number of active channels without a change in their high open probability. Similarly, low concentrations of 2-APB that enhance I(CRAC) increase the number of active channels while open probability remains constant. We conclude that the slow regulation of whole-cell CRAC current by store depletion, extracellular Ca(2+), and 2-APB involves the stepwise recruitment of silent channels to a high open-probability gating mode.