Characterization of Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium clusters in the human axillary region.
ABSTRACT: The skin microbial community is regarded as essential for human health and well-being, but likewise plays an important role in the formation of body odor in, for instance, the axillae. Few molecular-based research was done on the axillary microbiome. This study typified the axillary microbiome of a group of 53 healthy subjects. A profound view was obtained of the interpersonal, intrapersonal and temporal diversity of the human axillary microbiota. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and next generation sequencing on 16S rRNA gene region were combined and used as extent to each other. Two important clusters were characterized, where Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium species were the abundant species. Females predominantly clustered within the Staphylococcus cluster (87%, n?=?17), whereas males clustered more in the Corynebacterium cluster (39%, n?=?36). The axillary microbiota was unique to each individual. Left-right asymmetry occurred in about half of the human population. For the first time, an elaborate study was performed on the dynamics of the axillary microbiome. A relatively stable axillary microbiome was noticed, although a few subjects evolved towards another stable community. The deodorant usage had a proportional linear influence on the species diversity of the axillary microbiome.
Project description:An ever expanding body of research investigates the human microbiome in general and the skin microbiome in particular. Microbiomes vary greatly from individual to individual. Understanding the factors that account for this variation, however, has proven challenging, with many studies able to account statistically for just a small proportion of the inter-individual variation in the abundance, species richness or composition of bacteria. The human armpit has long been noted to host a high biomass bacterial community, and recent studies have highlighted substantial inter-individual variation in armpit bacteria, even relative to variation among individuals for other body habitats. One obvious potential explanation for this variation has to do with the use of personal hygiene products, particularly deodorants and antiperspirants. Here we experimentally manipulate product use to examine the abundance, species richness, and composition of bacterial communities that recolonize the armpits of people with different product use habits. In doing so, we find that when deodorant and antiperspirant use were stopped, culturable bacterial density increased and approached that found on individuals who regularly do not use any product. In addition, when antiperspirants were subsequently applied, bacterial density dramatically declined. These culture-based results are in line with sequence-based comparisons of the effects of long-term product use on bacterial species richness and composition. Sequence-based analyses suggested that individuals who habitually use antiperspirant tended to have a greater richness of bacterial OTUs in their armpits than those who use deodorant. In addition, individuals who used antiperspirants or deodorants long-term, but who stopped using product for two or more days as part of this study, had armpit communities dominated by Staphylococcaceae, whereas those of individuals in our study who habitually used no products were dominated by Corynebacterium. Collectively these results suggest a strong effect of product use on the bacterial composition of armpits. Although stopping the use of deodorant and antiperspirant similarly favors presence of Staphylococcaceae over Corynebacterium, their differential modes of action exert strikingly different effects on the richness of other bacteria living in armpit communities.
Project description:This study offers a novel description of the sinonasal microbiome, through an unsupervised machine learning approach combining dimensionality reduction and clustering. We apply our method to the International Sinonasal Microbiome Study (ISMS) dataset of 410 sinus swab samples. We propose three main sinonasal "microbiotypes" or "states": the first is Corynebacterium-dominated, the second is Staphylococcus-dominated, and the third dominated by the other core genera of the sinonasal microbiome (Streptococcus, Haemophilus, Moraxella, and Pseudomonas). The prevalence of the three microbiotypes studied did not differ between healthy and diseased sinuses, but differences in their distribution were evident based on geography. We also describe a potential reciprocal relationship between Corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus aureus, suggesting that a certain microbial equilibrium between various players is reached in the sinuses. We validate our approach by applying it to a separate 16S rRNA gene sequence dataset of 97 sinus swabs from a different patient cohort. Sinonasal microbiotyping may prove useful in reducing the complexity of describing sinonasal microbiota. It may drive future studies aimed at modeling microbial interactions in the sinuses and in doing so may facilitate the development of a tailored patient-specific approach to the treatment of sinus disease in the future.
Project description:Host-microbe interactions may play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disorder characterized by universal colonization with Staphylococcus species. To examine the relationship between epidermal barrier function and the cutaneous microbiota in atopic dermatitis, this study used a spontaneous model of canine atopic dermatitis. In a cohort of 14 dogs with canine atopic dermatitis, the skin microbiota were longitudinally evaluated with parallel assessment of skin barrier function at disease flare, during antimicrobial therapy, and post-therapy. Sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene showed decreased bacterial diversity and increased proportions of Staphylococcus (S. pseudintermedius in particular) and Corynebacterium species compared with a cohort of healthy control dogs (n = 16). Treatment restored bacterial diversity with decreased proportions of Staphylococcus species, concurrent with decreased canine atopic dermatitis severity. Skin barrier function, as measured by corneometry, pH, and transepidermal water loss also normalized with treatment. Bacterial diversity correlated with transepidermal water loss and pH level but not with corneometry results. These findings provide insights into the relationship between the cutaneous microbiome and skin barrier function in atopic dermatitis, show the impact of antimicrobial therapy on the skin microbiome, and highlight the utility of canine atopic dermatitis as a spontaneous nonrodent model of atopic dermatitis.
Project description:Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is a key contributor to unpleasant odors emanating from the axillae, feet, and head regions. To investigate the mechanism of diacetyl generation on human skin, resident skin bacteria were tested for the ability to produce diacetyl via metabolism of the main organic acids contained in human sweat. L-lactate metabolism by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis produced the highest amounts of diacetyl, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract (GGR) and ?-tocopheryl-L-ascorbate-2-O-phosphate diester potassium salt (EPC-K1), a phosphate diester of ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, effectively inhibited diacetyl formation without bactericidal effects. Moreover, a metabolic flux analysis revealed that GGR and EPC-K1 suppressed diacetyl formation by inhibiting extracellular bacterial conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate or by altering intracellular metabolic flow into the citrate cycle, respectively, highlighting fundamentally distinct mechanisms by GGR and EPC-K1 to suppress diacetyl formation. These results provide new insight into diacetyl metabolism by human skin bacteria and identify a regulatory mechanism of diacetyl formation that can facilitate the development of effective deodorant agents.
Project description:Earwax type and axillary odor are genetically determined by rs17822931, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the ABCC11 gene. The literature has been concerned with the Mendelian trait of earwax, although axillary odor is also Mendelian. Ethnic diversity in rs17822931 exists, with higher frequency of allele A in east Asians. Influence on deodorant usage has not been investigated. In this work, we present a detailed analysis of the rs17822931 effect on deodorant usage in a large (N∼17,000 individuals) population cohort (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)). We found strong evidence (P=3.7 × 10(-20)) indicating differential deodorant usage according to the rs17822931 genotype. AA homozygotes were almost 5-fold overrepresented in categories of never using deodorant or using it infrequently. However, 77.8% of white European genotypically nonodorous individuals still used deodorant, and 4.7% genotypically odorous individuals did not. We provide evidence of a behavioral effect associated with rs17822931. This effect has a biological basis that can result in a change in the family's environment if an aerosol deodorant is used. It also indicates potential cost saving to the nonodorous and scope for personalized genetics usage in personal hygiene choices, with consequent reduction of inappropriate chemical exposures for some.
Project description:Persistent mucosal inflammation and microbial infection are characteristic of Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS). Though mucosal microbiota dysbiosis is a characteristic feature of other chronic inflammatory diseases, the relationship between sinus microbiota composition and CRS is unknown. Here we demonstrate, using comparative microbiome profiling of a cohort of CRS patients and healthy subjects, that the sinus microbiota of CRS patients exhibit significantly reduced bacterial diversity. Characteristic of this community collapse is the depletion of multiple, phylogenetically distinct, Lactic Acid Bacteria and the concomitant increase in relative abundance of a single species, Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum. Recapitulating the conditions observed in our human cohort in a murine model confirmed the pathogenic potential of C. tuberculostearicum and the critical necessity for a replete mucosal microbiota to protect against this species. Moreover, we provide evidence that Lactobacillus sakei, identified from our comparative microbiome analyses as a potentially protective species, affords defense against C. tuberculostearicum sinus infection, even in the context of a depleted sinus bacterial community. These studies demonstrate that sinus mucosal health is highly dependent on the composition of the resident microbiota, and identifies a new sino-pathogen and a strong bacterial candidate for therapeutic intervention. A total of 14 samples were profiled for microbiome composition: 7 from non-sinusitis patients, and 7 from patients with clinically diagnosed chronic sinusitis.
Project description:UNLABELLED:The influence of the skin microbiota on host susceptibility to infectious agents is largely unexplored. The skin harbors diverse bacterial species that may promote or antagonize the growth of an invading pathogen. We developed a human infection model for Haemophilus ducreyi in which human volunteers are inoculated on the upper arm. After inoculation, papules form and either spontaneously resolve or progress to pustules. To examine the role of the skin microbiota in the outcome of H. ducreyi infection, we analyzed the microbiomes of four dose-matched pairs of "resolvers" and "pustule formers" whose inoculation sites were swabbed at multiple time points. Bacteria present on the skin were identified by amplification and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity between the preinfection microbiomes of infected sites showed that sites from the same volunteer clustered together and that pustule formers segregated from resolvers (P = 0.001, permutational multivariate analysis of variance [PERMANOVA]), suggesting that the preinfection microbiomes were associated with outcome. NMDS using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity of the endpoint samples showed that the pustule sites clustered together and were significantly different than the resolved sites (P = 0.001, PERMANOVA), suggesting that the microbiomes at the endpoint differed between the two groups. In addition to H. ducreyi, pustule-forming sites had a greater abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Paracoccus, and Staphylococcus species, whereas resolved sites had higher levels of Actinobacteria and Propionibacterium species. These results suggest that at baseline, resolvers and pustule formers have distinct skin bacterial communities which change in response to infection and the resultant immune response. IMPORTANCE:Human skin is home to a diverse community of microorganisms, collectively known as the skin microbiome. Some resident bacteria are thought to protect the skin from infection by outcompeting pathogens for resources or by priming the immune system's response to invaders. However, the influence of the skin microbiome on the susceptibility to or protection from infection has not been prospectively evaluated in humans. We characterized the skin microbiome before, during, and after experimental inoculation of the arm with Haemophilus ducreyi in matched volunteers who subsequently resolved the infection or formed abscesses. Our results suggest that the preinfection microbiomes of pustule formers and resolvers have distinct community structures which change in response to the progression of H. ducreyi infection to abscess formation.
Project description:The sinonasal microbiota in human upper airway may play an important role in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Thus, this study aimed to investigate the human upper airway microbiome in patients with unilateral CRS, and compare the sinonasal microbiome of the unilateral diseased site with that of a contralateral healthy site. Thirty samples, 15 each from the diseased and healthy sites, were collected from the middle meatus and/or anterior ethmoid region of 15 patients with unilateral CRS during endoscopic sinus surgery. DNA extraction and bacterial microbiome analysis via 16S rRNA gene sequencing were then performed. <i>Corynebacterium</i> showed the highest relative abundance, followed by <i>Staphylococcus</i> in samples from both the diseased and healthy sites. Further, the relative abundances of <i>Staphylococcus</i> and <i>Pseudomonas</i> were significantly lower in samples from diseased sites than in those from healthy sites. Conversely, anaerobes, including <i>Fusobacterium</i>, <i>Bacteroides</i>, and <i>Propionibacterium</i>, were abundantly present in samples from both sites, more so in samples from diseased sites. However, the sites showed no significant difference with respect to richness or diversity (<i>p</i> > 0.05). Our results indicate that CRS might be a polymicrobial infection, and also suggest that <i>Corynebacterium</i> and <i>Staphylococcus</i> may exist as commensals on the sinus mucosal surface in the upper respiratory tract.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In infants, distinct nasopharyngeal bacterial microbiotas differentially associate with the incidence and severity of acute respiratory tract infection and childhood asthma development. OBJECTIVE:We hypothesized that distinct nasal airway microbiota structures also exist in children with asthma and relate to clinical outcomes. METHODS:Nasal secretion samples (n = 3122) collected after randomization during the fall season from children with asthma (6-17 years, n = 413) enrolled in a trial of omalizumab (anti-IgE) underwent 16S rRNA profiling. Statistical analyses with exacerbation as the primary outcome and rhinovirus infection and respiratory illnesses as secondary outcomes were performed. Using A549 epithelial cells, we assessed nasal isolates of Moraxella, Staphylococcus, and Corynebacterium species for their capacity to induce epithelial damage and inflammatory responses. RESULTS:Six nasal airway microbiota assemblages, each dominated by Moraxella, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, Alloiococcus, or Haemophilus species, were observed. Moraxella and Staphylococcus species-dominated microbiotas were most frequently detected and exhibited temporal stability. Nasal microbiotas dominated by Moraxella species were associated with increased exacerbation risk and eosinophil activation. Staphylococcus or Corynebacterium species-dominated microbiotas were associated with reduced respiratory illness and exacerbation events, whereas Streptococcus species-dominated assemblages increased the risk of rhinovirus infection. Nasal microbiota composition remained relatively stable despite viral infection or exacerbation; only a few taxa belonging to the dominant genera exhibited relative abundance fluctuations during these events. In vitro, Moraxella catarrhalis induced significantly greater epithelial damage and inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-33 and IL-8) compared with other dominant nasal bacterial isolates tested. CONCLUSION:Distinct nasal airway microbiotas of children with asthma relate to the likelihood of exacerbation, rhinovirus infection, and respiratory illnesses during the fall season.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Influenza A virus (IAV) has had the highest morbidity globally over the past decade. A growing number of studies indicate that the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiota plays a key role for respiratory health and that a dysfunctional respiratory microbiota is associated with disease; but the impact of microbiota during influenza is understudied.<h4>Methods</h4>We recruited 180 children, including 121 IAV patients and 59 age-matched healthy children. Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected to conduct 16S rDNA sequencing and compare microbiota structures in different individuals.<h4>Results</h4>Both NP and OP microbiota in IAV patients differed from those in healthy individuals. The NP dominated genera in IVA patients, such as <i>Moraxella</i>, <i>Staphylococcus</i>, <i>Corynebacterium</i>, and <i>Dolosigranulum</i>, showed lower abundance than in healthy children. The <i>Streptococcus</i> significantly enriched in patients' NP and <i>Phyllobacterium</i> could be generally detected in patients' NP microbiota. The most abundant genera in OP microbiota showed a decline tendency in patients, including <i>Streptococcus, Neisseria</i>, and <i>Haemophilus.</i> The URT's bacterial concurrence network changed dramatically in patients. NP and OP samples were clustered into subgroups by different dominant genera; and NP and OP microbiota provided the precise indicators to distinguish IAV patients from healthy children.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This is the first respiratory microbiome analysis on pediatric IAV infection which reveals distinct NP and OP microbiota in influenza patients. It provides a new insight into IAV research from the microecology aspect and promotes the understanding of IAV pathogenesis.