Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 mediates the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance by glucocorticoids.
ABSTRACT: The phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is essential to prevent chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The phosphatidylserine-binding protein milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a major opsonin for apoptotic cells, and MFG-E8(-/-) mice spontaneously develop a lupus-like disease. Similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the murine disease is associated with an impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. SLE is routinely treated with glucocorticoids (GCs), whose anti-inflammatory effects are consentaneously attributed to the transrepression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that the GC-mediated transactivation of MFG-E8 expression and the concomitantly enhanced elimination of apoptotic cells constitute a novel aspect in this context. Patients with chronic inflammation receiving high-dose prednisone therapy displayed substantially increased MFG-E8 mRNA levels in circulating monocytes. MFG-E8 induction was dependent on the GC receptor and several GC response elements within the MFG-E8 promoter. Most intriguingly, the inhibition of MFG-E8 induction by RNA interference or genetic knockout strongly reduced or completely abolished the phagocytosis-enhancing effect of GCs in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MFG-E8-dependent promotion of apoptotic cell clearance is a novel anti-inflammatory facet of GC treatment and renders MFG-E8 a prospective target for future therapeutic interventions in SLE.
Project description:Abnormal features of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-derived neutrophils, promoted aberrant immune response, have inspired new studies of the induction of autoimmunity and the development of organ damage in SLE. In this study, we explore the effect of milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) on the aberrant nitrification features in pristane-induced lupus. SLE patients and mice with pristane-induced lupus develop autoantibodies associated with MFG-E8 overproduction. However, the deletion of MFG-E8 leads to uncontrolled early pulmonary and peritoneal inflammation and tissue damage in mice with pristane-induced lupus. Consistent with these findings, MFG-E8-deficient mice that are exposed to pristane show enhanced neutrophil accumulation and increased neutrophil death, including apoptosis, necrosis and NETosis, as well as impaired phagocytosis of macrophages. The consequences are the expansion of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage, increased anti-nuclear antibody, anti-dsDNA antibody and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody levels, and enhanced immune complexes deposition and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation in the lung and kidney tissues of MFG-E8-deficient mice exposed to pristane. In patients with SLE and mice with pristane-induced lupus, neutrophil accumulation is elevated, which depends on higher expression of the surface receptor CXCR2. After pretreatment with recombinant MFG-E8, the surface expression of CXCR2 on neutrophil is downregulated, and the MFG-E8 deletion increase CXCR2 expression by ~40%. These studies indicate that MFG-E8 reduces neutrophil migration and NETosis via downregulating surface CXCR2 expression in parallel with its role in the phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils, suggesting that MFG-E8 may serve as a therapeutic agent for attenuating the early inflammatory responses of SLE and protect patients from lupus-related damage.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common inflammatory diseases resulting from habitual smoking. Impaired clearance of apoptotic cell by airway macrophages contributes to lung inflammation. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8), as a link between apoptotic cells and phagocytes, facilitates clearance of apoptotic cells and attenuates inflammation. We sought to investigate altered expression and potential role of MFG-E8 in COPD. In this study, apoptosis was increased and the level of MFG-E8 was decreased while HMGB1 expression was increased in lung tissues of CS-exposed mice. Compared with CS-exposed WT mice, more apoptotic cells were accumulated in lung tissues of CS-exposed MFG-E8 deficiency mice. Exposure of a range of macrophages to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) resulted in decreased MFG-E8 expression. Administration of rmMFG-E8 ameliorated phagocytic ability of RAW264.7 cells and suppressed inflammatory response induced by CS-exposure. 10% CSE stimulation suppressed Rac1 membrane localization in RAW264.7 cells which was restored by administration of rmMFG-E8. MFG-E8 deficiency diminished uptake of apoptotic thymocytes by peritoneal macrophages upon CSE exposure. Overall, the findings in current work provide a novel target for diagnosing and treating COPD.
Project description:Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a protein that binds to apoptotic cells by recognizing phosphatidylserine and enhances the engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages. Many apoptotic cells are left unengulfed in the germinal centers of the spleen in the MFG-E8-deficient (MFG-E8(-/-)) mice, and these mice develop an autoimmune disease resembling human systemic lupus erythematosus. We found that the MFG-E8 deficiency was accompanied by the increased production of immunoglobulins. Further Western blot and ELISA analyses validated the increase in the IgM levels in the MFG-E8(-/-) mice. It was also revealed that the sera from the MFG-E8(-/-) mice cross-reacted with oxidation-specific epitopes generated upon incubation of serum albumin with the peroxidized lipids. Among the modified proteins with several unsaturated aldehydes of chain lengths varying from three to nine carbons, the MFG-E8(-/-) mice sera exclusively cross-reacted with the protein-bound 4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE), a highly reactive aldehyde originating from the peroxidation of ?6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, the IgM monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that selectively cross-reacted with the ONE-modified proteins were generated from the MFG-E8(-/-) mice. A subset of the ONE-specific IgM mAbs significantly recognized the late apoptotic and necrotic cells and enhanced the phagocytosis by macrophages. These data demonstrate that the impairment of the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells through MFG-E8 can lead to the generation of natural antibodies, which may play a critical role in removing multiple damage-associated molecules, including oxidation-specific epitopes and late apoptotic/necrotic cells.
Project description:Apoptotic cells must be rapidly cleared, as defects in this process can lead to autoimmunity. Milk fat globule EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) binds to apoptotic cells and facilitates their removal through interaction with phagocytes. Mice deficient in MFG-E8 develop lupus-like autoimmunity associated with accumulation of apoptotic cells in vivo. Here, we have shown that MFG-E8 controls phagocytic ingestion of cell fragments as well as their intracellular processing into MHC-antigen complexes. Older Mfge8-/- mice spontaneously developed dermatitis associated with CD8+ T cell infiltration and striking activation of effector memory CD8+ T cells. CD8+ T cell responses to both exogenous and endogenous apoptotic cell-associated antigens were enhanced in Mfge8-/- mice. MFG-E8 deficiency accelerated the onset of disease in a mouse model of autoimmune diabetes. Enhanced CD8+ T cell responses were attributed to increased cross-presentation by DCs along with increased detection of antigen-MHCI complexes. Intracellular trafficking analysis revealed that intact apoptotic cells ingested by wild-type DCs rapidly fused with lysosomes, whereas smaller fragments persisted in Mfge8-/- DC endosomal compartments for 24 hours. These observations suggest that MFG-E8 deficiency promotes immune responses to self antigens not only by delaying the clearance of dying cells but also by altering intracellular processing, leading to enhanced self-antigen presentation.
Project description:Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a peripheral glycoprotein that acts as a bridging molecule between the macrophage and apoptotic cells, thus executing a pivotal role in the scavenging of apoptotic cells from affected tissue. We have previously reported that apoptotic cell clearance activity or efferocytosis is compromised in diabetic wound macrophages. In this work, we test the hypothesis that MFG-E8 helps resolve inflammation, supports angiogenesis, and accelerates wound closure. MFG-E8(-/-) mice displayed impaired efferocytosis associated with exaggerated inflammatory response, poor angiogenesis, and wound closure. Wound macrophage-derived MFG-E8 was recognized as a critical driver of wound angiogenesis. Transplantation of MFG-E8(-/-) bone marrow to MFG-E8(+/+) mice resulted in impaired wound closure and compromised wound vascularization. In contrast, MFG-E8(-/-) mice that received wild-type bone marrow showed improved wound closure and improved wound vascularization. Hyperglycemia and exposure to advanced glycated end products inactivated MFG-E8, recognizing a key mechanism that complicates diabetic wound healing. Diabetic db/db mice suffered from impaired efferocytosis accompanied with persistent inflammation and slow wound closure. Topical recombinant MFG-E8 induced resolution of wound inflammation, improvements in angiogenesis, and acceleration of closure, upholding the potential of MFG-E8-directed therapeutics in diabetic wound care.
Project description:Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury causes acute renal failure, and the hallmarks of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury are inflammation, apoptosis, necrosis, and capillary dysfunction. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8), a membrane-associated secretory glycoprotein, is produced by immune cells and reported to participate in multiple physiologic processes associated with tissue remodeling. We have recently shown that MFG-E8 treatment attenuates organ injury, inflammatory responses, and survival after sepsis through the enhancement of phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether administration of MFG-E8 attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.Prospective, controlled, and randomized animal study.: A research institute laboratory.Male C57BL/6J mice (20-25 g).: Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury with bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 45 mins, followed by reperfusion. A recombinant murine MFG-E8 (0.4 ?g/20 g) was given intraperitoneally at the beginning of reperfusion.MFG-E8 levels, organ injury variables, inflammatory responses, histology, apoptosis, and capillary functions were assessed at 1.5 and 20 hrs after reperfusion. A 60-hr survival study was conducted in MFG-E8 and recombinant murine MFG-E8-treated wild-type mice. After renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, MFG-E8 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in the kidneys and spleen. Treatment with recombinant murine MFG-E8 recovered renal dysfunction, significantly suppressed inflammatory responses, apoptosis, necrosis, and improved capillary functions in the kidneys. In the survival study, MFG-E8 mice showed a significant deterioration and, in contrast, recombinant murine MFG-E8-treated wild-type mice showed a significant improvement of survival compared with vehicle-treated wild-type mice.MFG-E8 can be developed as novel treatment for renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. This protective effect appears to be mediated through the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance and improvement of capillary functions in the kidneys.
Project description:A prolonged increase in proinflammatory cytokines is associated with osteoporotic and autoimmune bone loss and, conversely, anti-inflammatory pathways are associated with protection against bone loss. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor (MFG-E)-8 is a glycoprotein that is proresolving, regulates apoptotic cell clearance, and has been linked to autoimmune disease and skeletal homeostasis. The role of MFG-E8 in the young vs. adult skeleton was determined in mice deficient in MFG-E8 (KO). In vivo, trabecular bone was similar in MFG-E8KO and wild-type (WT) mice at 6 and 16 wk, whereas 22 wk adult MFG-E8KO mice displayed significantly reduced trabecular BV/TV. The number of osteoclasts per bone surface was increased in 22-wk MFG-E8 KO vs. WT mice, and recombinant murine MFG-E8 decreased the number and size of osteoclasts in vitro. Adult MFG-E8KO spleen weight:body weight was increased compared with WT, and flow cytometric analysis showed significantly increased myeloid-derived suppressor cells (CD11bhiGR-1+) and neutrophils (CD11bhiLy6G+) in MFG-E8KO bone marrow, suggesting an inflammatory phenotype. PTH-treated MFG-E8KO mice showed a greater anabolic response (+124% BV/TV) than observed in PTH-treated WT mice (+64% BV/TV). These data give insight into the role of MFG-E8 in the adult skeleton and suggest that anabolic PTH may be a valuable therapeutic approach for autoimmune-associated skeletal disease.-Michalski, M. N., Seydel, A. L., Siismets, E. M., Zweifler, L. E., Koh, A. J., Sinder, B. P., Aguirre, J. I., Atabai, K., Roca, H., McCauley, L. K. Inflammatory bone loss associated with MFG-E8 deficiency is rescued by teriparatide.
Project description:Insufficient clearance of apoptotic cells leads to increased inflammation and exaggerated organ injury. The opsonizing protein, milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8), upregulates apoptotic cell clearance. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of apoptotic cell clearance, and whether inflammation, organ injury, and survival are improved after treatment with recombinant human MFG-E8 (rhMFG-E8) after hemorrhagic shock.Male mice underwent a pressure-controlled (25 mm Hg ± 5 mm Hg) model of hemorrhagic shock for 90 minutes. They were resuscitated with normal saline with or without recombinant human MFG-E8 (rhMFG-E8) over 30 minutes. At 3.5-hour postresuscitation, blood and tissue were collected. MFG-E8 levels in the plasma, lungs, and spleen were measured. Apoptotic cell clearance was measured by cleaved caspase-3 levels and TUNEL staining. Neutrophil infiltration was assessed using myeloperoxidase activity in the lungs and spleen. Plasma and tissue levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?) were measured by ELISA. Finally, a seven-day survival study was also conducted.MFG-E8 levels in the plasma, lungs, and spleen significantly decreased by 33%, 44%, and 55%, respectively, at 3.5 hour after hemorrhage and resuscitation with rhMFG-E8. Treatment with rhMFG-E8 significantly improved apoptosis, by reducing TUNEL+ cells after treatment and restoring cleaved caspase-3 expression back to baseline. Neutrophil infiltration was blunted by 29% and 41% in the lungs and spleen, respectively. Cytokine expression was also reduced significantly, by 64% to 73% in plasma, 24% to 58% in the lungs, and 49% to 76% in the spleen. Finally, animals demonstrated a superior survival rate over 7 days after treatment with rhMFG-E8.The administration of rhMFG-E8 is a potent treatment in animals after hemorrhagic shock.
Project description:During the involution of mammary glands, epithelial cells undergo apoptosis and are cleared for the next cycle of lactation. The clearance of apoptotic epithelial cells is mediated by neighboring epithelial cells and by macrophages that migrate into the mammary glands. Here, we report that milk fat globule EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8), a secreted glycoprotein that binds to apoptotic cells by recognizing phosphatidylserine, was expressed by epithelial cells and macrophages in mammary glands and was involved in engulfment of apoptotic cells. A deficiency of MFG-E8 caused the accumulation of a large number of milk fat globules (MFGs) in the mammary ducts during involution, indicating that the excess MFGs were cleared by an MFG-E8-dependent mechanism. The MFG-E8(-/-) mice developed mammary duct ectasia with periductal mastitis, and the redevelopment of the mammary gland for their second litter was impaired. These results demonstrate that MFG-E8-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic epithelial cells and MFGs is important for efficient involution of mammary glands.
Project description:Tumor cells secrete factors that modulate macrophage activation and polarization into M2 type tumor-associated macrophages, which promote tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. The mechanisms that mediate this polarization are not clear. Macrophages are phagocytic cells that participate in the clearance of apoptotic cells, a process known as efferocytosis. Milk fat globule- EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a bridge protein that facilitates efferocytosis and is associated with suppression of proinflammatory responses. This study investigated the hypothesis that MFG-E8-mediated efferocytosis promotes M2 polarization. Tissue and serum exosomes from prostate cancer patients presented higher levels of MFG-E8 compared with controls, a novel finding in human prostate cancer. Coculture of macrophages with apoptotic cancer cells increased efferocytosis, elevated MFG-E8 protein expression levels, and induced macrophage polarization into an alternatively activated M2 phenotype. Administration of antibody against MFG-E8 significantly attenuated the increase in M2 polarization. Inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation using the inhibitor Stattic decreased efferocytosis and M2 macrophage polarization in vitro, with a correlating increase in SOCS3 protein expression. Moreover, MFG-E8 knockdown tumor cells cultured with wild-type or MFG-E8-deficient macrophages resulted in increased SOCS3 expression with decreased STAT3 activation. This suggests that SOCS3 and phospho-STAT3 act in an inversely dependent manner when stimulated by MFG-E8 and efferocytosis. These results uncover a unique role of efferocytosis via MFG-E8 as a mechanism for macrophage polarization into tumor-promoting M2 cells.