Missed opportunities to prevent mother-to-child-transmission: systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: To determine magnitude and reasons of loss to program and poor antiretroviral prophylaxis coverage in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs in sub-Saharan Africa.Systematic review and meta-analysis.We searched PubMed and Embase databases for PMTCT studies in sub-Saharan Africa published between January 2002 and March 2012. Outcomes were the percentage of pregnant women tested for HIV, initiating antiretroviral prophylaxis, having a CD4 cell count measured, and initiating antiretroviral combination therapy (cART) if eligible. In children outcomes were early infant diagnosis for HIV, and cART initiation. We combined data using random-effects meta-analysis and identified predictors of uptake of interventions.Forty-four studies from 15 countries including 75,172 HIV-infected pregnant women were analyzed. HIV-testing uptake at antenatal care services was 94% [95% confidence intervals (CIs) 92-95%] for opt-out and 58% (95% CI 40-75%) for opt-in testing. Coverage with any antiretroviral prophylaxis was 70% (95% CI 64-76%) and 62% (95% CI 50-73%) of pregnant women eligible for cART received treatment. Sixty-four percent (95% CI 48-81%) of HIV exposed infants had early diagnosis performed and 55% (95% CI 36-74%) were tested between 12 and 18 months. Uptake of PMTCT interventions was improved if cART was provided at the antenatal clinic and if the male partner was involved.In sub-Saharan Africa, uptake of PMTCT interventions and early infant diagnosis is unsatisfactory. An integrated family-centered approach seems to improve retention.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>India's national AIDS Control Organization implemented World Health Organization's option B+ HIV prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines in 2013. However, scalable strategies to improve uptake of new PMTCT guidelines to reduce new infection rates are needed. This study assessed impact of Mobile Health-Facilitated Behavioral Intervention on the uptake of PMTCT services.<h4>Methods</h4>A cluster-randomized trial of a mobile health (mHealth)-supported behavioural training intervention targeting outreach workers (ORWs) was conducted in four districts of Maharashtra, India. Clusters (one Integrated Counselling and Testing Center (ICTC, n = 119), all affiliated ORWs (n = 116) and their assigned HIV-positive pregnant/postpartum clients (n = 1191)) were randomized to standard-of-care (SOC) ORW training vs. the COMmunity home Based INDia (COMBIND) intervention - specialized behavioural training plus a tablet-based mHealth application to support ORW-patient communication and patient engagement in HIV care. Impact on uptake of maternal antiretroviral therapy at delivery, exclusive breastfeeding at six months, infant nevirapine prophylaxis, and early infant diagnosis at six months was assessed using multi-level random-effects logistic regression models.<h4>Results</h4>Of 1191 HIV-positive pregnant/postpartum women, 884 were eligible for primary outcome assessment; 487 were randomized to COMBIND. Multivariable analyses identified no statistically significant differences in any primary outcome by study arm. COMBIND was associated with higher uptake of exclusive breastfeeding at two months (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR), 2.10; 95% CI 1.06 to 4.15) and early infant diagnosis at six weeks (aOR, 2.19; 95% CI 1.05 to 3.98) than SOC.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The COMBIND intervention was easily integrated into India's existing PMTCT programme and improved early uptake of two PMTCT components that require self-motivated health-seeking behaviour, thus providing preliminary evidence to support COMBIND as a potentially scalable PMTCT strategy. Further study would identify modifications needed to optimize other PMTCT outcomes.
Project description:The success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) is dependent upon high retention of mother-infant pairs within these programmes. This is a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions that aim to improve PMTCT service delivery and promote retention throughout the PMTCT steps.Selected databases were searched for studies published in English (up to September 2015). Outcomes of interest included antiretroviral (ARV) drugs or antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among HIV-positive pregnant and/or breastfeeding women and their infants, retention into PMTCT programs, the uptake of early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV and infant HIV status. Risk ratios and random-effect meta-analysis were used in the analysis.Interventions assessed in the 34 identified studies included male partner involvement in PMTCT, peer mentoring, the use of community health workers (CHWs), mobile phone-based reminders, conditional cash transfer, training of midwives, integration of PMTCT services and enhanced referral. Five studies (two randomized) that evaluated mobile phone-based interventions showed a statistically significant increase (pooled RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.32, I(2)=83%) in uptake of EID of HIV at around six weeks postpartum. Male partner involvement in PMTCT was associated with reductions in infant HIV transmission (pooled RR 0.61; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.94, I(2)=0%) in four studies (one randomized). Four studies (three randomized) that were grounded on psychological interventions reported non-significant results (pooled RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.09, I(2)=69%) in increasing ARV/ART uptake among HIV-positive pregnant and/or breastfeeding women and infant HIV testing (pooled RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.07, I(2)=45%). The effect of the other interventions on the effectiveness of improving PMTCT uptake was unclear. Heterogeneity of interventions limits these findings.Our findings indicate that mobile phone-based reminders may increase the uptake of EID of HIV. Studies on male partner involvement in PMTCT reported reductions in infant HIV transmission. Stronger evidence is needed and future studies should determine the long-term effects of these interventions in improving retention throughout the PMTCT steps.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To identify the approaches that are used in improving on male partner involvement in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and their impact on the uptake maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SETTING:This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies carried out in SSA at all levels of healthcare (primary, secondary, tertiary and community). PARTICIPANTS:The participants of the studies included were HIV-positive pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers with their male partners. Studies were included if they were conducted in SSA and mentioned an approach used in improving male partner involvement with data on the impact on the uptake of maternal ART uptake. OUTCOMES:In the protocol, maternal ART uptake, infant prophylaxis, safe infant feeding options, condom use and family planning were envisaged. However, only maternal ART has been reported here due to limitations on the word count. RESULTS:From an initial 2316 non-duplicate articles, 17 articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. In the combined model, the ORs for complex community interventions, enhanced psychosocial interventions, verbal encouragement and invitation letters were 4.22 (95% CI 2.27 to 7.77), 2.29 (95% CI 1.42 to 7.69), 2.39 (95% CI 1.26 to 4.53) and 1.21 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.63), respectively, whereas in the model using adjusted ORs, enhanced psychosocial interventions had a higher effect than any other intervention. The heterogeneity was moderate using adjusted ORs. CONCLUSION:Enhanced psychosocial interventions and complex community interventions increase male partner involvement and the uptake of PMTCT services more than any other intervention. Invitation letters had no effect. More randomised trials and observational studies (that have adjusted for potential confounders) are needed in the future. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:42016032673.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) amended their 2010 guidelines for women receiving limited duration, triple-antiretroviral drug regimens during pregnancy and breastfeeding for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (tARV-PMTCT) (Option B) to include the option to continue lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (Option B+). We evaluated clinical and CD4 outcomes in women who had received antiretrovirals for prevention of mother-to-child transmission and then discontinued antiretrovirals 6-months postpartum. METHODS AND FINDINGS:The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, 2003-2009, was a prospective, non-randomized, open-label clinical trial of tARV-PMTCT in ARV-naïve, Kenyan women. Women received tARV-PMTCT from 34 weeks' gestation until 6-months postpartum when women were instructed to discontinue breastfeeding. Women with CD4 count (CD4) <250cells/mm3 or WHO stage III/IV prior to 6-months postpartum continued cART indefinitely. We estimated the change in CD4 after discontinuing tARV-PMTCT and the adjusted relative risk [aRR] for factors associated with declines in maternal CD4. We compared maternal and infant outcomes following weaning-when tARV-PMTCT discontinued-by maternal ARV status through 24-months postpartum. Compared with women who continued cART, discontinuing antiretrovirals was associated with infant HIV transmission and death (10.1% vs. 2.4%; P?=?0.03). Among women who discontinued antiretrovirals, CD4<500 cells/mm3 at either initiation (21.8% vs. 1.5%; P?=?0.002; aRR: 9.8; 95%-confidence interval [CI]: 2.4-40.6) or discontinuation (36.9% vs. 8.3%; P<0.0001; aRR: 4.4; 95%-CI: 1.9-5.0) were each associated with increased risk of women requiring cART for their own health within 6 months after discontinuing. CONCLUSIONS:Considering the serious health risks to the woman's infant and the brief reprieve from cART gained by stopping, every country should evaluate the need for and feasibility to implement WHO Option B+ for PMTCT. Evaluating CD4 at antiretroviral initiation or 6-months postpartum can identify pregnant women who would most benefit from continuing cART in settings unable to implement WHO Option B+.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The Chinese government has invested US$140 million annually on prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. This study evaluates the programme by examining the improvements in programme coverage HIV testing and provision of antiviral drugs along the PMTCT cascade. METHODS:Data for PMTCT cascade indicators were collected through a comprehensive systematic review of published peer-reviewed English and Chinese literature during 2003-2011. Meta-analysis was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RESULTS:This study included 113 publications. HIV prevalence among pregnant women in China who accessed antenatal care (ANC) remained below 0.1% during the past decade. HIV testing coverage in pregnant women attending ANC and in HIV-exposed infants at 18?months significantly increased from 62.4% (95% CI 4.7% to 98.2%) and 22.1% (16.3% to 32.3%) in 2003 to 90.3% (88.4% to 91.8%) and 82.8% (66.9% to 99.5%) in 2011 respectively, whereas antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis uptake increased from 35.2% (12.2% to 47.3%) and 26.9% (24.3% to 28.9%) to 86.2% (53.2% to 97.2%) and 90.3% (85.5% to 93.7%). HIV vertical transmission rate substantially decreased from 31.8% (25.7% to 38.6%) prior to the programme to 2.3% (1.4% to 3.8%) in 2011. During 2003-2011, among 25,312 (23,995-26,644) infants born to HIV-positive mothers who received ARV prophylaxis, 975 (564-1395) were diagnosed with HIV, corresponding to an average transmission rate of 3.9% (3.2% to 4.6%). However, while including transmissions among HIV-positive pregnant women who were lost along the cascade, the average transmission rate during 2003-2011 was 17.4% (15.8% to 19.0%). CONCLUSIONS:PMTCT programmes have reduced HIV mother-to-child transmission in China. Further improvements in the continuum of care remain essential in realising the full potential of the programme.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Following the introduction of option B+ in 2013, and with the perspective of eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV by 2025, Cambodia has implemented an integrated active case management (IACM) approach since 2014 to improve the notification and follow-up of all HIV-infected cases including pregnant women, and to ensure access to and use of the full prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) service package by HIV-infected pregnant women and their HIV-exposed infants. This study aimed to analyse PMTCT cascade data in 15 operational districts (ODs) implementing the IACM approach in Cambodia. METHODS:We analysed PMTCT cohort data from 15 ODs implementing IACM approach between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2016. We measured key indicators along the PMTCT cascade and compared them to available (cross-sectional) PMTCT indicators during the 2011 to 2013 period. RESULTS:During the period 2014 to 2016, among 938 identified HIV-infected pregnant women, 308 (32.8%) were tested HIV positive during their pregnancy, 9 (1.0%) during labour, while the remaining 621 (66.2%) were women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) who became pregnant. During the study period, 867 (92.4%) of the 938 women received ART during pregnancy and labour. Subsequently, 456 (85.6%) of the 533 HEI born and alive during the study period received 6-week antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis, 390 (76.6%) and 396 (77.8%) of the 509 infants aged six weeks or older received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and HIV-DNA PCR test respectively. Among the 396 HEI who received HIV-DNA PCR test, 7 (1.8%) were found HIV positive. The comparison with cross-sectional PMTCT indicator obtained during the previous 2011 to 2013 period in the same 15 ODs, showed a significant increase in ARV uptake among HIV-infected pregnant women (from 72.3% to 92.4%), in cotrimoxazole uptake (from 41.6% to 73.2%), and in HIV-DNA PCR testing coverage among HEI (from 41.2% to 74.3%). CONCLUSIONS:The implementation of option B+ and IACM may have contributed to the improvement of the PMTCT cascade in Cambodia. However, some gaps in accessing PMTCT services along the HIV cascade persist and need to be addressed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The objective of this review was to assess the uptake of WHO recommended integrated perinatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV interventions in low- and middle-income countries.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>We searched 21 databases for observational studies presenting uptake of integrated PMTCT programs in low- and middle-income countries. Forty-one studies on programs implemented between 1997 and 2006, met inclusion criteria. The proportion of women attending antenatal care who were counseled and who were tested was high; 96% (range 30-100%) and 81% (range 26-100%), respectively. However, the overall median proportion of HIV positive women provided with antiretroviral prophylaxis in antenatal care and attending labor ward was 55% (range 22-99%) and 60% (range 19-100%), respectively. The proportion of women with unknown HIV status, tested for HIV at labor ward was 70%. Overall, 79% (range 44-100%) of infants were tested for HIV and 11% (range 3-18%) of them were HIV positive. We designed two PMTCT cascades using studies with outcomes for all perinatal PMTCT interventions which showed that an estimated 22% of all HIV positive women attending antenatal care and 11% of all HIV positive women delivering at labor ward were not notified about their HIV status and did not participate in PMTCT program. Only 17% of HIV positive antenatal care attendees and their infants are known to have taken antiretroviral prophylaxis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The existing evidence provides information only about the initial PMTCT programs which were based on the old WHO PMTCT guidelines. The uptake of counseling and HIV testing among pregnant women attending antenatal care was high, but their retention in PMTCT programs was low. The majority of women in the included studies did not receive ARV prophylaxis in antenatal care; nor did they attend labor ward. More studies evaluating the uptake in current PMTCT programs are urgently needed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>No systematic review of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) in China has been performed. We aimed to estimate the uptake of PMTCT programs services in China.<h4>Methods</h4>We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and Wanfang (Chinese) to identify research studies. Only descriptive epidemiological studies were eligible for this study.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 57 eligible cross-section studies were finally included. We estimated that the mean HIV-positive rate of exposed infants was 4.4% (95% CI = 3.2-5.5), and more than 33% of exposed infants had not undergone HIV diagnostic testing. The percentage of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-positive women was 71.0% (95% CI = 66.3-75.8), and that for initiating antiretroviral prophylaxis (ARP) in exposed infants was 78.3% (95% CI = 74.9-81.8); also, 31.3% (95% CI = 15.5-47.0) of women with HIV and < 1% of exposed infants received the combination of three antiretroviral drugs. There were bigger gap of uptake of PMTCT programs between income levels, and cities with a low income level had a higher percentage of initiating ART in HIV-positive women (80%) and ARP in exposed infants (85%) compared to cities with high-middle income (57% and 65%, respectively) (P<0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>This paper highlights the need to further scale up PMTCT services in China, especially in regions with the lowest coverage, so that more women can access and utilize them. However, some estimated outcome should be interpreted with caution due to the high level of heterogeneity and the small number of studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV-positive pregnant women can decrease vertical transmission to less than 5%. Programmatic barriers to early cART include decentralized care, disease-stage assessment delays, and loss to follow-up. INTERVENTION:Our intervention had 3 components: integrated HIV and antenatal services in 1 location with 1 provider, laboratory courier to expedite CD4 counts, and community-based follow-up of women-infant pairs to improve prevention of mother-to-child transmission attendance. Preintervention HIV-positive pregnant women were referred to HIV clinics for disease-stage assessment and cART initiation for advanced disease (CD4 count <350 cells/?L or WHO stage >2). METHODS:We used a quasi-experimental design with preintervention/postintervention evaluations at 6 government antenatal clinics (ANCs) in Southern Province, Zambia. Retrospective clinical data were collected from clinic registers during a 7-month baseline period. Postintervention data were collected from all antiretroviral therapy-naive, HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants presenting to ANC from December 2011 to June 2013. RESULTS:Data from 510 baseline women-infant pairs were analyzed and 624 pregnant women were enrolled during the intervention period. The proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving CD4 counts increased from 50.6% to 77.2% [relative risk (RR) = 1.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57 to 2.08; P < 0.01]. The proportion of cART-eligible pregnant women initiated on cART increased from 27.5% to 71.5% (RR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.78 to 2.83; P < 0.01). The proportion of eligible HIV-exposed infants with documented 6-week HIV PCR test increased from 41.9% to 55.8% (RR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.51; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Integration of HIV care into ANC and community-based support improved uptake of CD4 counts, proportion of cART-eligible women initiated on cART, and infants tested.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission (PMTCT) is still the most effective intervention in combating new HIV infections. In 2008, revised national PMTCT guidelines that incorporated new policies on HIV counselling and testing, antiretroviral prophylaxis regimen and infant HIV diagnosis came into effect in Ethiopia. In the present study we have examined trends in PMTCT service utilization and assessed the rate of MTCT in relation to policy changes in the national PMTCT programme.<h4>Methods</h4>Reports from February 2004 to August 2009 were reviewed in 10 sub-cities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The data was collected from May to October 2009.<h4>Results</h4>The proportion of women who received HIV counselling and testing among new antenatal care attendees increased from 50.7% (95% CI 50.2-51.2) in 2007 to 84.5% (95% CI 84.1-84.9) in 2009 following the shift to routine opt-out testing. Nevertheless, in 2009 only 53.7% of the positive women and 40.7% of their infants received antiretroviral prophylaxis. The HIV prevalence among antenatal attendees decreased significantly from 10.5% in 2004 to 4.6% in 2009 in parallel to the increased number of women being tested. The HIV positive women were over 18 times (RR 18.5, p < 0.0001) more likely to be referred for treatment, care and support in 2009 than in 2004. The proportion of partners tested for HIV decreased by 14% in 2009 compared to 2004, although the absolute number was increasing year by year. Only 10.6% (95% CI 9.9-11.2) of the HIV positive women completed their follow up to infant HIV testing. The cumulative probability of HIV infection among babies on single dose nevirapine regimen who were tested at >=18 months was 15.0% (95% CI 9.8-22.1) in 2007, whereas it was 8.2% (95% CI 5.55-11.97) among babies on Zidovudine regimen who were tested at >=45 days in 2009.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The paper demonstrates trends in PMTCT service utilization in relation to changing policy. There is marked improvement in HIV counselling and testing service utilization, especially after the policy shift to routine opt-out testing. However, despite policy changes, the ARV prophylaxis uptake, the loss to follow up and the partner testing have remained unchanged across the years. This should be a matter of immediate concern and a topic for further research.