Selection of Phototransduction Genes in Homo sapiens.
ABSTRACT: We investigated the evidence of recent positive selection in the human phototransduction system at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and gene level.SNP genotyping data from the International HapMap Project for European, Eastern Asian, and African populations was used to discover differences in haplotype length and allele frequency between these populations. Numeric selection metrics were computed for each SNP and aggregated into gene-level metrics to measure evidence of recent positive selection. The level of recent positive selection in phototransduction genes was evaluated and compared to a set of genes shown previously to be under recent selection, and a set of highly conserved genes as positive and negative controls, respectively.Six of 20 phototransduction genes evaluated had gene-level selection metrics above the 90th percentile: RGS9, GNB1, RHO, PDE6G, GNAT1, and SLC24A1. The selection signal across these genes was found to be of similar magnitude to the positive control genes and much greater than the negative control genes.There is evidence for selective pressure in the genes involved in retinal phototransduction, and traces of this selective pressure can be demonstrated using SNP-level and gene-level metrics of allelic variation. We hypothesize that the selective pressure on these genes was related to their role in low light vision and retinal adaptation to ambient light changes. Uncovering the underlying genetics of evolutionary adaptations in phototransduction not only allows greater understanding of vision and visual diseases, but also the development of patient-specific diagnostic and intervention strategies.
Project description:Consistent patterns of positive selection in functionally similar genes can suggest a common selective pressure across a group of species. We use alignments of orthologous protein-coding genes from 39 species of birds to estimate parameters related to positive selection for 11,000 genes conserved across birds. We show that functional pathways related to the immune system, recombination, lipid metabolism, and phototransduction are enriched for positively selected genes. By comparing our results with mammalian data, we find a significant enrichment for positively selected genes shared between taxa, and that these shared selected genes are enriched for viral immune pathways. Using pathogen-challenge transcriptome data, we show that genes up-regulated in response to pathogens are also enriched for positively selected genes. Together, our results suggest that pathogens, particularly viruses, consistently target the same genes across divergent clades, and that these genes are hotspots of host-pathogen conflict over deep evolutionary time.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Visual perception is initiated in the photoreceptor cells of the retina via the phototransduction system. This system has shown marked evolution during mammalian divergence in such complex attributes as activation time and recovery time. We have performed a molecular evolutionary analysis of proteins involved in mammalian phototransduction in order to unravel how the action of natural selection has been distributed throughout the system to evolve such traits. RESULTS: We found selective pressures to be non-randomly distributed according to both a simple protein classification scheme and a protein-interaction network representation of the signaling pathway. Proteins which are topologically central in the signaling pathway, such as the G proteins, as well as retinoid cycle chaperones and proteins involved in photoreceptor cell-type determination, were found to be more constrained in their evolution. Proteins peripheral to the pathway, such as ion channels and exchangers, as well as the retinoid cycle enzymes, have experienced a relaxation of selective pressures. Furthermore, signals of positive selection were detected in two genes: the short-wave (blue) opsin (OPN1SW) in hominids and the rod-specific Na+/ Ca2+, K+ ion exchanger (SLC24A1) in rodents. CONCLUSIONS: The functions of the proteins involved in phototransduction and the topology of the interactions between them have imposed non-random constraints on their evolution. Thus, in shaping or conserving system-level phototransduction traits, natural selection has targeted the underlying proteins in a concerted manner.
Project description:Antimalarial drugs impose strong selective pressure on Plasmodium falciparum parasites and leave signatures of selection in the parasite genome; screening for genes under selection may suggest potential drug or immune targets. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of parasite traits have been hampered by the lack of high-throughput genotyping methods, inadequate knowledge of parasite population history and time-consuming adaptations of parasites to in vitro culture. Here we report the first Plasmodium GWAS, which included 189 culture-adapted P. falciparum parasites genotyped using a custom-built Affymetrix molecular inversion probe 3K malaria panel array with a coverage of approximately 1 SNP per 7 kb. Population structure, variation in recombination rate and loci under recent positive selection were detected. Parasite half-maximum inhibitory concentrations for seven antimalarial drugs were obtained and used in GWAS to identify genes associated with drug responses. This study provides valuable tools and insight into the P. falciparum genome.
Project description:Continued ability to digest lactose after weaning provides a possible selective advantage to individuals who have access to milk as a food source. The lactase persistence (LP) phenotype exists at varying frequencies in different populations and SNPs that modulate the regulation of the LCT gene have been identified in many of these populations. Very strong positive selection for LP has been illustrated for a single SNP (rs4988235) in northwestern European populations, which has become a textbook example of the effect of recent selective sweeps on genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium. In this study, we employed two different methods to detect signatures of positive selection in an East African pastoralist population in the HapMap collection, the Maasai from Kenya, and compared results with other HapMap populations. We found that signatures of recent selection coinciding with the LCT gene are the strongest across the genome in the Maasai population. Furthermore, the genome-wide signal of recent positive selection on haplotypic variation and population differentiation around the LCT gene is greater in the Maasai than in the CEU population (northwestern European descent), possibly due to stronger selection pressure, but it could also be an indication of more recent selection in Maasai compared with the Central European group or more efficient selection in the Maasai due to less genetic drift for their larger effective population size. This signal of recent selection is driven by a putative East African LP haplotype that is different from the haplotype that contributes to the LP phenotype in northwestern Europe.
Project description:The goal of this work was to use laboratory evolution assays and whole-genome sequencing to develop and test the safety of a probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum, with high-level of resistance to gentamicin. The evolution of L. plantarum was evaluated under the selective pressure from gentamicin and subsequently when the selective pressure was removed. After 30 days of selective pressure from gentamicin, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of L. plantarum to gentamicin increased from 4 to 512 μg/mL and remained stable at this level. After removing the selective pressure, the resistance of L. plantarum to gentamicin decreased to 64 μg/mL after 20 days, and remained stable thereafter. Although the MIC declined it was still higher than the cut-off value recommended by EFSA, indicating that the acquisition of gentamicin-resistance was an irreversible process. Using whole-genome sequencing, gene mutations were identified in the strains that had undergone selection pressure from gentamicin as well as in the strains where the selection pressure was subsequently removed. Specifically, four non-synonymous mutations were detected including one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), one insertion, and two structural variants (SVs), of which the mutations in genes encoding the drug resistance MFS transporter and transcriptional regulator of AraC family were only detected in the strains under selective pressure from gentamicin. The results indicate that these mutations play an important role in increasing the resistant levels of L. plantarum to gentamicin. The mobility analysis of mutant genes confirmed that they were not located on mobile elements of the genome of highly resistant L. plantarum, indicating that horizontal gene transfer was not possible.
Project description:Host-pathogen interactions may result in either directional selection or in pressure for the maintenance of polymorphism at the molecular level. Hence signatures of both positive and balancing selection are expected in immune genes. Because both overall selective pressure and specific targets may differ between species, large-scale population genomic studies are useful in detecting functionally important immune genes and comparing selective landscapes between taxa. Such studies are of particular interest in amphibians, a group threatened worldwide by emerging infectious diseases. Here, we present an analysis of polymorphism and divergence of 634 immune genes in two lineages of Lissotriton newts: L. montandoni and L. vulgaris graecus Variation in newt immune genes has been shaped predominantly by widespread purifying selection and strong evolutionary constraint, implying long-term importance of these genes for functioning of the immune system. The two evolutionary lineages differ in the overall strength of purifying selection which can partially be explained by demographic history but may also signal differences in long-term pathogen pressure. The prevalent constraint notwithstanding, 23 putative targets of positive selection and 11 putative targets of balancing selection were identified. The latter were detected by composite tests involving the demographic model and further validated in independent population samples. Putative targets of balancing selection encode proteins which may interact closely with pathogens but include also regulators of immune response. The identified candidates will be useful for testing whether genes affected by balancing selection are more prone to interspecific introgression than other genes in the genome.
Project description:Hanwoo have been subjected over the last seventy years to intensive artificial selection with the aim of improving meat production traits such as marbling and carcass weight. In this study, we performed a signature of selection analysis to identify recent positive selected regions driven by a long-term artificial selection process called a breeding program using whole genome SNP data. In order to investigate homozygous regions across the genome, we estimated iES (integrated Extended Haplotype Homozygosity SNP) for the each SNPs. As a result, we identified two highly homozygous regions that seem to be strong and/or recent positive selection. Five genes (DPH5, OLFM3, S1PR1, LRRN1 and CRBN) were included in this region. To go further in the interpretation of the observed signatures of selection, we subsequently concentrated on the annotation of differentiated genes defined according to the iES value of SNPs localized close or within them. We also described the detection of the adaptive evolution at the molecular level for the genes of interest. As a result, this analysis also led to the identification of OLFM3 as having a strong signal of selection in bovine lineage. The results of this study indicate that artificial selection which might have targeted most of these genes was mainly oriented towards improvement of meat production.
Project description:Evolutionary changes in enhancers are widely associated with variation in human traits and diseases. However, studies comprehensively quantifying levels of selection on enhancers at multiple evolutionary periods during recent human evolution and how enhancer evolution varies across human tissues are lacking. To address these questions, we integrated a dataset of 41,561 transcribed enhancers active in 41 different human tissues (FANTOM Consortium) with whole genome sequences of 1,668 individuals from the African, Asian, and European populations (1000 Genomes Project). Our analyses based on four different metrics (Tajima's D, F ST, H12, nS L) showed that ?5.90% of enhancers showed evidence of recent positive selection and that genes associated with enhancers under very recent positive selection are enriched for diverse immune-related functions. The distributions of these metrics for brain and testis enhancers were often statistically significantly different and in the direction suggestive of less positive selection compared to those of other tissues; the same was true for brain and testis enhancers that are tissue-specific compared to those that are tissue-broad and for testis enhancers associated with tissue-enriched and non-tissue-enriched genes. These differences varied considerably across metrics and tissues and were generally in the form of changes in distributions' shapes rather than shifts in their values. Collectively, these results suggest that many human enhancers experienced recent positive selection throughout multiple time periods in human evolutionary history, that this selection occurred in a tissue-dependent and immune-related functional context, and that much like the evolution of their protein-coding gene counterparts, the evolution of brain and testis enhancers has been markedly different from that of enhancers in other tissues.
Project description:Detecting signatures of selection can provide a new insight into the mechanism of contemporary breeding and artificial selection and further reveal the causal genes associated to the phenotypic variation. However, the signatures of selection on genes entailing for profitable traits between Chinese commercial and indigenous goats have been poorly interpreted. We noticed footprints of positive selection at MC1R gene containing SNPs genotyped in five Chinese native goat breeds. An experimental distribution of FST was built based on approximations of FST for each SNP across five breeds. We identified selection using the high FST outlier method and found that MC1R candidate gene show evidence of positive selection. Furthermore, adaptive selection pressure on specific codons was determined using different codon based on maximum-likelihood methods; signature of positive selection in mammalian MC1R was explored in individual codons. Evolutionary analyses were inferred under maximum likelihood models, the HyPhy package implemented in the DATAMONKEY Web Server. The results of codon selection displayed positive diversifying selection at the sites were mainly involved in development of genetic variations in coat color in various mammalian species. Positive diversifying selection inferred with recent evolutionary changes in domesticated goat MC1R provides new insights that the gene evolution may have been modulated by domestication events in goats.
Project description:The study of local adaptation processes is a very important research topic in the field of population genomics. There is a particular interest in the study of human populations because they underwent a process of rapid spatial expansion and faced important environmental changes that translated into changes in selective pressures. New mutations may have been selected for in the new environment and previously existing genetic variants may have become detrimental. Immune related genes may have been released from the selective pressure exerted by pathogens in the ancestral environment and new variants may have been positively selected due to pathogens present in the newly colonized habitat. Also, variants that had a selective advantage in past environments may have become deleterious in the modern world due to external stimuli including climatic, dietary and behavioral changes, which could explain the high prevalence of some polygenic diseases such as diabetes and obesity.We performed an enrichment analysis to identify gene sets enriched for signals of positive selection in humans. We used two genome scan methods, XPCLR and iHS to detect selection using a dense coverage of SNP markers combined with two gene set enrichment approaches. We identified immune related gene sets that could be involved in the protection against pathogens especially in the African population. We also identified the glycolysis & gluconeogenesis gene set, related to metabolism, which supports the thrifty genotype hypothesis invoked to explain the current high prevalence of diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Extending our analysis to the gene level, we found signals for 23 candidate genes linked to metabolic syndrome, 13 of which are new candidates for positive selection.Our study provides a list of genes and gene sets associated with immunity and metabolic syndrome that are enriched for signals of positive selection in three human populations (Europeans, Africans and Asians). Our results highlight differences in the relative importance of pathogens as drivers of local adaptation in different continents and provide new insights into the evolution and high incidence of metabolic syndrome in modern human populations.