Increased Plin2 expression in human skeletal muscle is associated with sarcopenia and muscle weakness.
ABSTRACT: Human aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength and a concomitant fat accumulation in form of inter-muscular adipose tissue, causing skeletal muscle function decline and immobilization. Fat accumulation can also occur as intra-muscular triglycerides (IMTG) deposition in lipid droplets, which are associated with perilipin proteins, such as Perilipin2 (Plin2). It is not known whether Plin2 expression changes with age and if this has consequences on muscle mass and strength. We studied the expression of Plin2 in the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle of both healthy subjects and patients affected by lower limb mobility limitation of different age. We found that Plin2 expression increases with age, this phenomenon being particularly evident in patients. Moreover, Plin2 expression is inversely correlated with quadriceps strength and VL thickness. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon, we focused on IGF-1/p53 network/signalling pathway, involved in muscle physiology. We found that Plin2 expression strongly correlates with increased p53 activation and reduced IGF-1 expression. To confirm these observations made on humans, we studied mice overexpressing muscle-specific IGF-1, which are protected from sarcopenia. These mice resulted almost negative for the expression of Plin2 and p53 at two years of age. We conclude that fat deposition within skeletal muscle in form of Plin2-coated lipid droplets increases with age and is associated with decreased muscle strength and thickness, likely through an IGF-1- and p53-dependent mechanism. The data also suggest that excessive intramuscular fat accumulation could be the initial trigger for p53 activation and consequent loss of muscle mass and strength.
Project description:The surface of lipid droplets (LDs) in various cell types is coated with perilipin proteins encoded by the Plin genes. Perilipins regulate LD metabolism by selectively recruiting lipases and other proteins to LDs. We have studied the expression of perilipins in mouse muscle. The glycolytic fiber-enriched gastrocnemius muscle expresses predominantly Plin2-4. The oxidative fiber-enriched soleus muscle expresses Plin2-5. Expression of Plin2 and Plin4-5 is elevated in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from mice fed a high-fat diet. This effect is preserved in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?-deficient mice. Mouse muscle derived C2C12 cells differentiated into glycolytic fibers increase transcription of these Plins when exposed to various long chain fatty acids (FAs). To understand how FAs regulate Plin genes, we used specific activators and antagonists against PPARs, Plin promoter reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, siRNA, and animal models. Our analyses demonstrate that FAs require PPAR? to induce transcription of Plin4 and Plin5. We further identify a functional PPAR binding site in the Plin5 gene and establish Plin5 as a novel direct PPAR? target in muscle. Our study reveals that muscle cells respond to elevated FAs by increasing transcription of several perilipin LD-coating proteins. This induction renders the muscle better equipped to sequester incoming FAs into cytosolic LDs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The andropause is associated with declines in serum testosterone (T), loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia), and frailty. Two major interventions purported to offset sarcopenia are anabolic steroid therapies and resistance exercise training (RET). Nonetheless, the efficacy and physiological and molecular impacts of T therapy adjuvant to short-term RET remain poorly defined. METHODS:Eighteen non-hypogonadal healthy older men, 65-75 years, were assigned in a random double-blinded fashion to receive, biweekly, either placebo (P, saline, n = 9) or T (Sustanon 250 mg, n = 9) injections over 6 week whole-body RET (three sets of 8-10 repetitions at 80% one-repetition maximum). Subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, ultrasound of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture, and knee extensor isometric muscle force tests; VL muscle biopsies were taken to quantify myogenic/anabolic gene expression, anabolic signalling, muscle protein synthesis (D2 O), and breakdown (extrapolated). RESULTS:Testosterone adjuvant to RET augmented total fat-free mass (P=0.007), legs fat-free mass (P=0.02), and appendicular fat-free mass (P=0.001) gains while decreasing total fat mass (P=0.02). Augmentations in VL muscle thickness, fascicle length, and quadriceps cross-section area with RET occured to a greater extent in T (P < 0.05). Sum strength (P=0.0009) and maximal voluntary contract (e.g. knee extension at 70°) (P=0.002) increased significantly more in the T group. Mechanistically, both muscle protein synthesis rates (T: 2.13 ± 0.21%·day-1 vs. P: 1.34 ± 0.13%·day-1 , P=0.0009) and absolute breakdown rates (T: 140.2 ± 15.8 g·day-1 vs. P: 90.2 ± 11.7 g·day-1 , P=0.02) were elevated with T therapy, which led to higher net turnover and protein accretion in the T group (T: 8.3 ± 1.4 g·day-1 vs. P: 1.9 ± 1.2 g·day-1 , P=0.004). Increases in ribosomal biogenesis (RNA:DNA ratio); mRNA expression relating to T metabolism (androgen receptor: 1.4-fold; Srd5a1: 1.6-fold; AKR1C3: 2.1-fold; and HSD17?3: two-fold); insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signalling [IGF-1Ea (3.5-fold) and IGF-1Ec (three-fold)] and myogenic regulatory factors; and the activity of anabolic signalling (e.g. mTOR, AKT, and RPS6; P < 0.05) were all up-regulated with T therapy. Only T up-regulated mitochondrial citrate synthase activity (P=0.03) and transcription factor A (1.41 ± 0.2-fold, P=0.0002), in addition to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? co-activator 1-? mRNA (1.19 ± 0.21-fold, P=0.037). CONCLUSIONS:Administration of T adjuvant to RET enhanced skeletal muscle mass and performance, while up-regulating myogenic gene programming, myocellular translational efficiency and capacity, collectively resulting in higher protein turnover, and net protein accretion. T coupled with RET is an effective short-term intervention to improve muscle mass/function in older non-hypogonadal men.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Late-middle age HIV patients are prone to fatigue despite effective viral control by antiretroviral therapies. Rodent models to recapitulate this phenotype are still not available. HYPOTHESIS:Drug treatment may compromise muscle strength and physical performance more in older individuals with pre-existing metabolic disorders than normal young ones. METHODS:Kaletra was given to overweight male mice at late-middle age and normal young adults; both on a rodent diet containing 30% fat calorie. Body composition and grip strength were measured at baseline and after drug treatment. Rota-rod running, insulin and glucose tolerance were measured at the end of the experiment. Drug effect on metabolic activity and spontaneous movements were assessed using the metabolic cage system. Representative muscle and fat tissue were analyzed for protein and mRNA expression. Selected findings were tested using murine C2C12 myotubes. RESULTS:Kaletra reduced grip strength in both young and older mice but impaired rotarod performance only in the old. Spontaneous movements were also reduced in Kaletra-treated old mice. Kaletra reduced IGF-1 expression in all muscle groups tested for the old and in cultured myotubes but to a less extent in the muscle of young animals. Reduced IGF-1 expression correlated with increased expression of muscle-specific atrogene MAFbx and MuRF1. Kaletra also increased abdominal fat mass markedly in the old animals and to a less extend in the young. CONCLUSION:Long-term Kaletra intake aggravated abdominal obesity and impaired muscle strength. This effect was worse in older animals than in normal young adults.
Project description:Human studies of the influence of aging and other factors on intermuscular fat (INTMF) were reviewed. Intermuscular fat increased with weight loss, weight gain, or with no weight change with age in humans. An increase in INTMF represents a similar threat to type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance as does visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Studies of INTMF in animals covered topics such as quantitative deposition and genetic relationships with other fat depots. The relationship between leanness and higher proportions of INTMF fat in pigs was not observed in human studies and was not corroborated by other pig studies. In humans, changes in muscle mass, strength and quality are associated with INTMF accretion with aging. Gene expression profiling and intrinsic methylation differences in pigs demonstrated that INTMF and VAT are primarily associated with inflammatory and immune processes. It seems that in the pig and humans, INTMF and VAT share a similar pattern of distribution and a similar association of components dictating insulin sensitivity. Studies on intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in meat animals were reviewed. Gene expression analysis and genetic analysis have identified candidate genes involved in IM adipocyte development. Intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in human muscle is only seen during aging and some pathological circumstance. Several genetic links between human and meat animal adipogenesis have been identified. In pigs, the Lipin1 and Lipin 2 gene have strong genetic effects on IM accumulation. Lipin1 deficiency results in immature adipocyte development in human lipodystrophy. In humans, overexpression of Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) facilitates intramyocellular lipid accretion whereas in pigs PLIN2 gene expression is associated with IM deposition. Lipins and perilipins may influence intramuscular lipid regardless of species.
Project description:Cellular triglycerides (TG) are stored in cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs). Perilipins (PLIN) are a group of LD-proteins that play important roles in the assembly and transport of LDs and in TG metabolism. Two members of the PLIN family are found in insects (PLIN1 & 2 or Lsd1 & 2). We have cloned and expressed Manduca sexta PLIN2 (MsPLIN2), and studied developmental and nutritional changes in the expression of PLIN2. Nutritional changes induced fast alterations in PLIN2 mRNA and protein levels in fat body and midgut of the feeding larvae. The relationship observed between PLIN2 expression and TG synthesis in both larval fat body and midgut suggests that PLIN2 is needed when tissues are accumulating TG. However, when the fat body was storing TG at maximal capacity, MsPLIN2 levels declined. This unexpected finding suggests the occurrence of alternative mechanism/s to shield TG from the action of lipases in M. sexta LDs. In addition, it implies that the cellular level of lipid storage could be modulating MsPLIN2 expression and/or degradation. The study also confirmed that MsPLIN2 was most abundant in the adult fat body, which is characterized by a high rate of TG hydrolysis and lipid mobilization. Whether MsPLIN2 is directly involved in lipolysis and/or the secretion of lipids in the fat body of adult of M. sexta is unknown at this time. Nonetheless, the coexistence of high PLIN2 and lipolysis levels suggests a complex role for MsPLIN2. Altogether, we found that MsPLIN2 is needed when the synthesis of glycerides, DG and TG, is active even if the insect is accumulating or consuming TG.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the world's most common liver disease. The disease can develop liver fibrosis or even carcinomas from the initial hepatic steatosis, and this process is influenced by many factors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), as potent oxidants in cells, have been reported previously to play an important role in the development of NAFLD progression via promoting neutral lipid accumulation. Here, we found that ROS can promote lipid droplet formation in hepatocytes by promoting perilipin2 (PLIN2) expression. First, we used different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide to treat HepG2 cells and found that the number of lipid droplets in the cells increased, however also that this effect was dose-independent. Then, the mRNA level of several lipid droplet-associated genes was detected with hydrogen peroxide treatment and the expression of PLIN2, PLIN5, and FSP27 genes was significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05). We overexpressed PLIN2 in HepG2 cells and found that the lipid droplets in the cells were markedly increased. Interference with PLIN2 inhibits ROS-induced lipid droplet formation, revealing that PLIN2 is a critical factor in this process. We subsequently analyzed the regulatory pathway and protein interaction network that is involved in PLIN2 and found that PLIN2 can regulate intracellular lipid metabolism through the PPARα/RXRA and CREB/CREBBP signaling pathways. The majority of the data indicated the correlation between hydrogen peroxide-induced PLIN2 and lipid droplet upregulation. In conclusion, ROS up-regulates the expression of PLIN2 in hepatocytes, whereas PLIN2 promotes the formation of lipid droplets resulting in lipid accumulation in liver tissues.
Project description:Volume load (VL) is suggested to influence the adaptation of muscle to resistance exercise (RE). We sought to examine the independent association between total VL and hypertrophy and strength following a progressive RE protocol of equated sets and intensity. Total VL was calculated in 83 subjects (n = 43 males, n = 40 females; age = 25.12 ± 5.5 years) who participated in unilateral arm RE for 12 weeks. Subjects were tested for biceps muscle volume (MRI of the upper arm), isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and dynamic biceps strength (1RM), at baseline and following RE. Linear regression analysis revealed that sex was a significant predictor of hypertrophy (? = 0.06; p = 0.01) and strength (? = 0.14; p = 0.04), and that males had greater increases. Total VL was independently associated with hypertrophy only among females (? = 0.12; p < 0.01). For males, only baseline strength was (inversely) related to hypertrophy (? = -0.12; p = 0.04). VL was strongly associated with changes in 1RM strength improvement for both males (? = 0.66; p < 0.01) and females (? = 0.26; p = 0.02), but only related to MVC among females (? = 0.20; p = 0.02). Findings reveal that VL was independently associated with hypertrophy only among females. For males baseline strength was independently and inversely related to changes in muscle mass. Conversely, VL was found to be strongly associated with changes in 1RM for both males and females, controlling for age, body mass, and baseline strength.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes is characterized by excessive lipid storage in skeletal muscle. Excessive intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) storage exceeds intracellular needs and induces lipotoxic events, ultimately contributing to the development of insulin resistance. Lipid droplet (LD)-coating proteins may control proper lipid storage in skeletal muscle. Perilipin 2 (PLIN2/adipose differentiation-related protein [ADRP]) is one of the most abundantly expressed LD-coating proteins in skeletal muscle. Here we examined the role of PLIN2 in myocellular lipid handling and insulin sensitivity by investigating the effects of in vitro PLIN2 knockdown and in vitro and in vivo overexpression. PLIN2 knockdown decreased LD formation and triacylglycerol (TAG) storage, marginally increased fatty-acid (FA) oxidation, and increased incorporation of palmitate into diacylglycerols and phospholipids. PLIN2 overexpression in vitro increased intramyocellular TAG storage paralleled with improved insulin sensitivity. In vivo muscle-specific PLIN2 overexpression resulted in increased LD accumulation and blunted the high-fat diet-induced increase in protein content of the subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) chain. Diacylglycerol levels were unchanged, whereas ceramide levels were increased. Despite the increased IMCL accumulation, PLIN2 overexpression improved skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. We conclude that PLIN2 is essential for lipid storage in skeletal muscle by enhancing the partitioning of excess FAs toward TAG storage in LDs, thereby blunting lipotoxicity-associated insulin resistance.
Project description:PLIN2 (Perilipin-2) is a protein that can anchor on the membrane of lipid droplets (LDs), playing a vital role in the early formation of LDs and in the regulation of LD metabolism in many types of cells. However, little research has been conducted in cattle adipocytes. In the present study, we found that the expression of PLIN2 mRNA peaks at Day 2 during cattle adipocyte differentiation (p < 0.01), but PLIN2 protein levels maintain high abundance until Day 4 and then decrease sharply. We first built an interaction model using PyMOL. The results of a pull-down assay indicated that bovine PLIN2 and CGI-58 (ABHD5, α/β hydrolase domain-containing protein 5) had an interaction relationship. Furthermore, Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation-Flow Cytometry (BiFC-FC) was used to explore the function of the PLIN2-CGI-58 interaction. Interestingly, we found that different combined models had different levels of fluorescence intensity; specifically, PLIN2-VN173+CGI-58-VC155 expressed in bovine adipocytes exhibited the highest level of fluorescence intensity. Our findings elucidate the PLIN2 expression pattern in cattle adipocytes, the protein structure and the function of protein?protein interactions (PPI) as well as highlight the characteristics of bovine PLIN2 during the early formation and accumulation of lipid droplets.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Perilipin2 (Plin2) belongs to a family of five highly conserved proteins, known for their role in lipid storage. Recent data indicate that Plin2 has an important function in cell metabolism and is involved in several human pathologies, including liver steatosis and Type II diabetes. An association between Plin2 and lower muscle mass and strength has been found in elderly and inactive people, but its function in skeletal muscle is still unclear. Here, we addressed the role of Plin2 in adult muscle by gain and loss of function experiments. METHODS:By mean of in vivo Plin2 down-regulation (shPlin2) and overexpression (overPlin2) in murine tibialis anterior muscle, we analysed the effects of Plin2 genetic manipulations on myofiber size and lipid composition. An analysis of skeletal muscle lipid composition was also performed in vastus lateralis samples from young and old patients undergoing hip surgery. RESULTS:We found that Plin2 down-regulation was sufficient to induce a 30% increase of myofiber cross-sectional area, independently of mTOR pathway. Alterations of lipid content and modulation of genes involved in lipid synthesis occurred in hypertrophic muscles. In particular, we showed a decrease of triglycerides, ceramides, and phosphatidylcoline:phosphatidylethanolamine ratio, a condition known to impact negatively on muscle function. Plin2 overexpression did not change fibre size; however, lipid composition was strongly affected in a way that is similar to that observed in human samples from old patients. CONCLUSIONS:Altogether these data indicate that Plin2 is a critical mediator for the control of muscle mass, likely, but maybe not exclusively, through its critical role in the regulation of intracellular lipid content and composition.