Allergen-induced dermatitis causes alterations in cutaneous retinoid-mediated signaling in mice.
ABSTRACT: Nuclear receptor-mediated signaling via RARs and PPAR? is involved in the regulation of skin homeostasis. Moreover, activation of both RAR and PPAR? was shown to alter skin inflammation. Endogenous all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can activate both receptors depending on specific transport proteins: Fabp5 initiates PPAR? signaling whereas Crabp2 promotes RAR signaling. Repetitive topical applications of ovalbumin (OVA) in combination with intraperitoneal injections of OVA or only intraperitoneal OVA applications were used to induce allergic dermatitis. In our mouse model, expression of IL-4, and Hbegf increased whereas expression of involucrin, Abca12 and Spink5 decreased in inflamed skin, demonstrating altered immune response and epidermal barrier homeostasis. Comprehensive gene expression analysis showed alterations of the cutaneous retinoid metabolism and retinoid-mediated signaling in allergic skin immune response. Notably, ATRA synthesis was increased as indicated by the elevated expression of retinaldehyde dehydrogenases and increased levels of ATRA. Consequently, the expression pattern of genes downstream to RAR was altered. Furthermore, the increased ratio of Fabp5 vs. Crabp2 may indicate an up-regulation of the PPAR? pathway in allergen-induced dermatitis in addition to the altered RAR signaling. Thus, our findings suggest that ATRA levels, RAR-mediated signaling and signaling involved in PPAR? pathways are mainly increased in allergen-induced dermatitis and may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of allergic skin diseases.
Project description:The transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) displays anticarcinogenic activities but the mechanism that underlies this activity is unknown. We show here that KLF2 is markedly downregulated in human breast cancers and that its expression positively correlates with breast cancer patient survival. We show further that KLF2 suppresses tumor development by controlling the transcriptional activity of the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA). RA regulates gene transcription by activating two types of nuclear receptors: RA receptors (RARs), which inhibit tumor development, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?), which promotes tumorigenesis. The partitioning of RA between these receptors is regulated by two carrier proteins: cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2), which delivers RA to RARs, and fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5), which shuttles ligands to PPAR?/?. We show that KLF2 induces the expression of CRABP2 and RAR? and inhibits the expression FABP5 and PPAR?/? thereby shifting RA signaling from the pro-carcinogenic FABP5/PPAR?/? to the growth-suppressing CRABP2/RAR path. The data thus reveal that KLF2 suppresses tumor growth by controlling the transcriptional activities of RA.
Project description:To identify a predictive molecular "signature" for sensitivity to retinoic acid in pancreatic cancer.Fourteen patient-derived, low-passage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) lines with varied expression of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) and cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2) were used to evaluate the response to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration/invasion assays were used to measure the in vitro response. Tumor growth was monitored in subcutaneous xenografts in athymic nude mice for 4 weeks.Response to ATRA was observed to be dependent upon differential expression of FABP5 versus CRABP2. Thus, elevated FABP5 expression was associated with minimal cytotoxicity and tumor growth inhibition and a paradoxical increase in migration and invasion. Conversely, CRABP2 expression in the absence of FABP5 was associated with significant tumor growth inhibition with ATRA, even in gemcitabine-resistant tumors. The ATRA-resistant phenotype of FABP5(high)CRABP2(null) cells could be circumvented by ectopic expression of CRABP2. Alternatively, reexpression of endogenous CRABP2 could be enabled in FABP5(high)CRABP2(null) PDAC lines by exposure to decitabine and trichostatin A, thereby relieving epigenetic silencing of the CRABP2 gene promoter. Immunohistochemical staining for FABP5 in archival human tissue microarrays identifies a subset of cases (13 of 63, ~20%) which are negative for FABP5 expression and might be candidates for ATRA therapy.The widely used agent ATRA deserves a "second look" in PDAC, but needs to be targeted to patient subsets with biopsy-proven FABP5-negative tumors, or be combined with a chromatin-modifying agent to reexpress endogenous CRABP2.
Project description:Endogenous retinoids like all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) play important roles in skin homeostasis and skin-based immune responses. Moreover, retinoid signaling was found to be dysregulated in various skin diseases. The present study used topical application of selective agonists and antagonists for retinoic acid receptors (RARs) ? and ? and retinoid-X receptors (RXRs) for two weeks on mouse skin in order to determine the role of retinoid receptor subtypes in the gene regulation in skin. We observed pronounced epidermal hyperproliferation upon application of ATRA and synthetic agonists for RAR? and RXR. ATRA and the RAR? agonist further increased retinoid target gene expression (Rbp1, Crabp2, Krt4, Cyp26a1, Cyp26b1) and the chemokines Ccl17 and Ccl22. In contrast, a RAR? agonist strongly decreased the expression of ATRA-synthesis enzymes, of retinoid target genes, markers of skin homeostasis, and various cytokines in the skin, thereby markedly resembling the expression profile induced by RXR and RAR antagonists. Our results indicate that RAR? and RAR? subtypes possess different roles in the skin and may be of relevance for the auto-regulation of endogenous retinoid signaling in skin. We suggest that dysregulated retinoid signaling in the skin mediated by RXR, RAR? and/or RAR? may promote skin-based inflammation and dysregulation of skin barrier properties.
Project description:Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a hereditary tumor syndrome characterized by an increased risk of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Chemotherapy of MPNST is still insufficient. In this study, we investigated whether human tumor Schwann cells derived from NF1 associated MPNST respond to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). We analyzed effects of ATRA and MEK inhibitor (MEKi) combination therapy.MPNST cell lines S462, T265, NSF1 were treated with ATRA and MEKi U0126 and PD0325901. We assessed cell viability, proliferation, migration, apoptosis and differentiation as well as mRNA expression of RAR and RXR subtypes and ATRA target genes such as CRABP2, CYP26A1, RARB and PDK1. We also analyzed CRABP2 methylation in cell lines and performed immunohistochemistry of human MPNST specimens.ATRA therapy reduced viability and proliferation in S462 and T265 cells, accompanied by differentiation, apoptosis and reduced migration. NSF1 cells which lacked RXRG expression did not respond to ATRA. We furthermore demonstrated that ATRA signaling was functional for common targets, and that mRNA expression of CRABP2 and its targets was raised by ATRA therapy, whereas alternative pathways via FABP5 were not induced. Finally, combination of ATRA and MEKi demonstrated additively reduced viability of T265 and S462 cells.We observed therapeutic effects in two of three MPNST cell lines pronounced by combination therapy. These data point to a potentially successful treatment of MPNST by combined application of ATRA and MEK inhibitors such as U0126 or PD0325901.
Project description:Upon breaching of the endometrial surface epithelium, the implanting embryo embeds in the decidualizing stroma. Retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A, is an important morphogen during embryonic and fetal development, although the role of the RA pathway in the surrounding decidual cells is not understood. Here we show that decidual transformation of human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) results in profound reprogramming of the RA signaling and metabolism pathways. Differentiating HESCs downregulate the intracellular carrier proteins CRABP2 and FABP5, responsible for transfer and binding of RA to the nuclear receptors RAR and PPAR?/?, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of RAR, the receptor that mediates the pro-apoptotic effects of RA, was also inhibited. By contrast, PPAR?/?, which transduces the differentiation responses of RA, was upregulated. Decidualization was also associated with increased expression of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and various enzymes involved in the metabolism of RA and its precursor, retinaldehyde (Rald), including CYP26A1, DHRS3, and RDH12. Exposure of differentiating HESCs to RA or Rald reversed the inhibition of the CRABP2-RAR pathway, perturbed the expression of decidual marker genes and triggered cell death. Taken together, the data demonstrate that decidualizing HESCs silence RA signaling by downregulating key cytoplasmic binding proteins and by increasing retinoid metabolism. However, excessive RA exposure is toxic for decidual cells and triggers a response that may lead to pregnancy failure.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease including synovitis and synovial hyperplasia that contribute to joint destruction. Pivotal pathogenic mechanisms in this process are the dysregulated proliferation and apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Unfortunately, the mechanisms of FLS dysregulation are not completely elucidated. Here, we explored a new hypothesis based in the potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of retinoids in some types of cancer. Specifically, we investigated the role of retinoids and of the retinoic acid binding proteins, CRABP2 and FABP5, on the proliferation and apoptosis of FLS from RA by adding all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or silencing CRABP2 and FABP5. We showed an unconventional behaviour of RA FLS, which were relatively insensitive to ATRA. In effect, ATRA increased the resistance to apoptosis despite the high CRABP2/FABP5 ratio of RA FLS; and CRABP2 suppression sensitized RA FLS to Fas-induced apoptosis. This latter effect was associated with changes in expression of kinases, ASK1 up-regulation and ERK down-regulation, and increased phosphorylation of JNK. In addition, the potentiation of FLS apoptosis by CRABP2 silencing persisted in the presence of pro-inflammatory mediators, TNF e IL1?. Therefore, the results point to CRABP2 as a potential target to decrease synovial hyperplasia in RA.
Project description:All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has a key role in dendritic cells (DCs) and affects T cell subtype specification and gut homing. However, the identity of the permissive cell types and the required steps of conversion of vitamin A to biologically active ATRA bringing about retinoic acid receptor-regulated signaling remains elusive. Here we present that only a subset of murine and human DCs express the necessary enzymes, including RDH10, RALDH2, and transporter cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP)2, to produce ATRA and efficient signaling. These permissive cell types include CD103(+) DCs, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-4-treated bone marrow-derived murine DCs and human monocyte-derived DCs (mo-DCs). Importantly, in addition to RDH10 and RALDH2, CRABP2 also appears to be regulated by the fatty acid-sensing nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and colocalize in human gut-associated lymphoid tissue DCs. In our model of human mo-DCs, all three proteins (RDH10, RALDH2, and CRABP2) appeared to be required for ATRA production induced by activation of PPAR? and therefore form a linear pathway. This now functionally validated PPAR?-regulated ATRA producing and signaling axis equips the cells with the capacity to convert precursors to active retinoids in response to receptor-activating fatty acids and is potentially amenable to intervention in diseases involving or affecting mucosal immunity.
Project description:Long chain fatty acids (LCFA) serve as energy sources, components of cell membranes and precursors for signalling molecules. Here we show that these biological compounds also regulate gene expression and that they do so by controlling the transcriptional activities of the retinoic acid (RA)-activated nuclear receptors RAR and PPAR?/?. The data indicate that these activities of LCFA are mediated by FABP5, which delivers ligands from the cytosol to nuclear PPAR?/?. Both saturated and unsaturated LCFA (SLCFA, ULCFA) bind to FABP5, thereby displacing RA and diverting it to RAR. However, while SLCFA inhibit, ULCFA activate the FABP5/PPAR?/? pathway. We show further that, by concomitantly promoting the activation of RAR and inhibiting the activation of PPAR?/?, SLCFA suppress the oncogenic properties of FABP5-expressing carcinoma cells in cultured cells and in vivo. The observations suggest that compounds that inhibit FABP5 may constitute a new class of drugs for therapy of certain types of cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis are skin disorders triggered by epicutaneous sensitization with protein antigens and contact sensitization with haptens, respectively. Skin is colonized with bacteria, which are a source of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligands. OBJECTIVE:We sought to examine the role of TLR2 in murine models of atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. METHODS:TLR2(-/-) mice and wild-type littermates were epicutaneously sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) or contact sensitized with oxazolone (OX). Skin histology was assessed by means of hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Ear swelling was measured with a micrometer. Cytokine mRNA expression was examined by means of quantitative RT-PCR. Antibody levels and splenocyte secretion of cytokines in response to OVA stimulation were measured by means of ELISA. Dendritic cells were examined for their ability to polarize T-cell receptor/OVA transgenic naive T cells to T(H)1 and T(H)2. RESULTS:In response to OVA sensitization, TLR2(-/-) mice experienced skin infiltration with eosinophils and CD4(+) cells, as well as upregulation of T(H)2 cytokine mRNAs that was comparable with that seen in wild-type littermates. In contrast, epidermal thickening, IFN-gamma expression in the skin, IFN-gamma production by splenocytes, and IgG2a anti-OVA antibody levels were impaired in TLR2(-/-) mice. After OX ear challenge, contact sensitized TLR2(-/-) mice exhibited defective ear swelling with impaired cellular infiltration, decreased epidermal thickening and local IFN-gamma expression, and impaired OX-specific IgG2a responses. Dendritic cells from TLR2(-/-) mice induced significantly lower production of IFN-gamma but normal IL-4 and IL-13 production in naive T cells. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that TLR2 promotes the IFN-gamma response to cutaneously introduced antigens.
Project description:Although dyslipidemia commonly occurs in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in response to anti-APL therapy, the underlying mechanism and the lipid statuses of patients with newly diagnosed APL remain to be addressed. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the lipid profiles of APL patients. PML-RAR? transgenic mice and APL cells-transplanted mice were used to assess the effects of APL cells on the blood/liver lipid levels. Subsequently, gene set enrichment analysis, western blot and dual luciferase reporter assay were performed to examine the role and mechanism of PML-RAR? and TRIB3 in lipid metabolism regulation in APL patients at pretreatment and after induction therapy. Results: APL patients exhibited a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia before anti-APL therapy based on a retrospective study. Furthermore, APL cells caused secretion of triglycerides, cholesterol, and PCSK9 from hepatocytes and degradation of low-density lipoprotein receptors in hepatocytes, which elevated the lipid levels in APL cell-transplanted mice and Pml-Rar? transgenic mice. Mechanistically, pseudokinase TRIB3 interacted with PML-RAR? to inhibit PPAR? activity by interfering with the interaction of PPAR? and RXR and promoting PPAR? degradation. Thus, reduced PPAR? activity in APL cells decreased leptin but increased resistin expression, causing lipid metabolism disorder in hepatocytes and subsequent dyslipidemia in mice. Although arsenic/ATRA therapy degraded PML-RAR? and restored PPAR? expression, it exacerbated dyslipidemia in APL patients. The elevated TRIB3 expression in response to arsenic/ATRA therapy suppressed PPAR? activity by disrupting the PPAR?/RXR dimer, which resulted in dyslipidemia in APL patients undergoing therapy. Indeed, the PPAR activator not only enhanced the anti-APL effects of arsenic/ATRA by suppressing TRIB3 expression but also reduced therapy-induced dyslipidemia in APL patients. Conclusion: Our work reveals the critical role of the PML-RAR?/PPAR?/TRIB3 axis in the development of dyslipidemia in APL patients, potentially conferring a rationale for combining ATRA/arsenic with the PPAR activator for APL treatment.