Synthesis of apolipoprotein B lipoparticles to deliver hydrophobic/amphiphilic materials.
ABSTRACT: To develop a drug delivery system (DDS), it is critical to address challenging tasks such as the delivery of hydrophobic and amphiphilic compounds, cell uptake, and the metabolic fate of the drug delivery carrier. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been acknowledged as the human serum transporter of natively abundant lipoparticles such as cholesterol, triacylglycerides, and lipids. Apolipoprotein B (apo B) is the only protein contained in LDL, and possesses a binding moiety for the LDL receptor that can be internalized and degraded naturally by the cell. Therefore, synthetic/reconstituting apoB lipoparticle (rABL) could be an excellent delivery carrier for hydrophobic or amphiphilic materials. Here, we synthesized rABL in vitro, using full-length apoB through a five-step solvent exchange method, and addressed its potential as a DDS. Our rABL exhibited good biocompatibility when evaluated with cytotoxicity and cell metabolic response assays, and was stable during storage in phosphate-buffered saline at 4 °C for several months. Furthermore, hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONPs) and the anticancer drug M4N (tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid), used as an imaging enhancer and lipophilic drug model, respectively, were incorporated into the rABL, leading to the formation of SPIONPs- and M4N- containing rABL (SPIO@rABL and M4N@rABL, respectively). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that rABL has a similar composition to that of LDL, and successfully incorporated SPIONPs or M4N. SPIO@rABL presented significant hepatic contrast enhancement in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in BALB/c mice, suggesting its potential application as a medical imaging contrast agent. M4N@rABL could reduce the viability of the cancer cell line A549. Interestingly, we developed solution-phase high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to observe both LDL and SPIO@rABL in the liquid state. In summary, our LDL-based DDS, rABL, has significant potential as a novel DDS for hydrophobic and amphiphilic materials, with good cell internalization properties and metabolicity.
Project description:Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles have been extensively employed for theranostic applications due to their good biocompatibility and excellent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties. However, these particles typically require surface modification due to their hydrophobic surfaces caused by the oil-phase surfactants used in the fabrication and thus, the drug loading on their surface is usually limited. Here, we provided a novel and facile approach to conveniently perform surface modification of SPIO while simultaneously loading a large amount of drug. By synthesizing an amphiphilic irinotecan-based compound with a hydrophobic tail enabling insertion into the SPIO assembly, an excellent SPIO-based theranostic nanomedicine (SPIO@IR) was produced. SPIO@IR not only extensively improved the drug efficacy, but also allowed visualization by MRI in biological systems.
Project description:In this study, we have evaluated the interactions of zein microspheres with different class of drugs (hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and amphiphilic) using in vitro and in silico analysis. Zein microspheres loaded with aceclofenac, metformin, and promethazine has been developed by solvent evaporation technique and analyzed for its compatibility. The physical characterization depicted the proper encapsulation of hydrophobic drug in the microspheres. The in vitro release study revealed the sustaining ability of the microspheres in the following order: hydrophobic > hydrophilic > amphiphilic. In silico analysis also confirmed the better binding affinity and greater interactions of hydrophobic drug with zein. The above results revealed that zein is more suitable for hydrophobic drugs in the development of sustained drug delivery systems using solvent evaporation technique. The study therefore envisages a scope for identifying the most suitable polymer for a sustained drug delivery system in accordance with the nature of the drug.
Project description:BACKGROUND:During the past few decades, drug delivery system (DDS) has attracted many interests because it could enhance the therapeutic effects of drugs and reduce their side effects. The advent of nanotechnology has promoted the development of nanosized DDSs, which could promote drug cellular uptake as well as prolong the half-life in blood circulation. Novel polymer micelles formed by self-assembly of amphiphilic polymers in aqueous solution have emerged as meaningful nanosystems for controlled drug release due to the reversible destabilization of hydrophobic domains under different conditions. RESULTS:The amphiphilic polymers presented here were composed of cholesterol groups end capped and poly (poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (poly (OEGMA)) as tailed segments by the synthesis of cholesterol-based initiator, followed by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with OEGMA monomer. FT-IR and NMR confirmed the successfully synthesis of products including initiator and polymers as well as the Mw of the polymers were from 33,233 to 89,088 g/mol and their corresponding PDI were from 1.25 to 1.55 by GPC. The average diameter of assembled polymer micelles was in hundreds nanometers demonstrated by DLS, AFM and SEM. The behavior of the amphiphilic polymers as micelles was investigated using pyrene probing to explore their critical micelle concentration (CMC) ranging from 2.53?×?10-4 to 4.33?×?10-4 mg/ml, decided by the balance between cholesterol and poly (OEGMA). Besides, the CMC of amphiphilic polymers, the quercetin (QC) feeding ratio and polarity of solvents determined the QC loading ratio maximized reaching 29.2% certified by UV spectrum, together with the corresponding size and stability changes by DLS and Zeta potential, and thermodynamic changes by TGA and DSC. More significantly, cholesterol end-capped polymer micelles were used as nanosized systems for controlled drug release, not only alleviated the cytotoxicity of QC from 8.6 to 49.9% live cells and also achieved the QC release in control under different conditions, such as the presence of cyclodextrin (CD) and change of pH in aqueous solution. CONCLUSIONS:The results observed in this study offered a strong foundation for the design of favorable polymer micelles as nanosized systems for controlled drug release, and the molecular weight adjustable amphiphilic polymer micelles held potential for use as controlled drug release system in practical application.
Project description:In targeted drug delivery systems, it is desirable that the delivery of hydrophobic drugs to a cell or tissue is achieved with little to no side effects. To ensure that the drugs do not leak during circulation, encapsulation stability of the drug carrier in serum is critical. In this paper, we report on a modified FRET-based method to evaluate encapsulation stability of amphiphilic assemblies and cross-linked polymer assemblies in serum. Our results show that serum components can act as reservoirs for hydrophobic molecules. We also show that serum albumin is likely to be the primary determinant of this property. This work highlights the importance of assessing encapsulation stability in terms of dynamics of guest molecules, as it provides the critical distinction between hydrophobic molecules bound inside amphiphilic assemblies and the molecules that are bound to the hydrophobic pockets of serum albumin.
Project description:Background and purpose:Nanogels (NGs) are promising drug delivery tools but are typically limited to hydrophilic drugs. Many potential new drugs are hydrophobic. Our study systematically investigates amphiphilic NGs with varying hydrophobicity, but similar colloidal features to ensure comparability. The amphiphilic NGs used in this experiment consist of a hydrophilic polymer network with randomly distributed hydrophobic groups. For the synthesis we used a new synthetic platform approach. Their amphiphilic character allows the encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs. Importantly, the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance determines drug loading and biological interactions. In particular, protein adsorption to NG surfaces is dependent on hydrophobicity and critically determines circulation time. Our study investigates how network hydrophobicity influences protein binding, biocompatibility and cellular uptake. Methods:Biocompatibility of the NGs was examined by WST-1 assay in monocytic-like THP-1 cells. Serum protein corona formation was investigated using dynamic light scattering and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, cellular uptake was analyzed via flow cytometry. Results:All NGs were highly biocompatible. The protein binding patterns for the two most hydrophobic NGs were very similar to each other but clearly different from the hydrophilic ones. Overall, protein binding was increased with increasing hydrophobicity, resulting in increased cellular uptake. Conclusion:Our study supports the establishment of structure-property relationships and contributes to the accurate balance between maximum loading capacity with low protein binding, optimal biological half-life and good biocompatibility. This is an important step to derive design principles of amphiphilic NGs to be applied as drug delivery vehicles.
Project description:The accumulation of fluorescent hydroxyquinoline-affixed polyfluorene (PF-HQ) nanoparticles and their utility for multi-color bio-imaging and drug delivery for cancer treatment are reported. The formation of nanoparticles (PF-HQ) containing hydrophobic pockets via three-dimensional growth of a polymeric backbone in a higher water fraction (THF?:?H2O = 1?:?9) was observed. The nanoparticles showed incredible dual-state optical and fluorescence properties, which were further explored in multi-color cell imaging in both cancer and normal cells. The cell viability assay in various normal cells confirmed the biocompatible nature of PF-HQ, which was further supported by an ex vivo (chick chorioallantoic membrane assay) model. This encouraged us to fabricate PF-HQ-based new drug delivery systems (DDS: PF-HQ-DOX) upon conjugation with the FDA-approved anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) by filling the hydrophobic pockets of the polymer nanoparticles. The enhanced anti-cancer activity of the DDS (PF-HQ-DOX) compared with that of free DOX was observed in mouse melanoma cancer cells (B16F10) and a subcutaneous mouse (C57BL6/J) melanoma tumor model upon administration of PF-HQ-DOX. Ex vivo biodistribution studies using a fluorescence quantification method demonstrated the enhanced accumulation of DOX in tumor tissues in the PF-HQ-DOX-treated group compared to that of the free drug, signifying the drug delivery efficacy of the delivery system by a passive targeting manner. Based on the above biological data (in vitro and in the pre-clinical model), these robust and versatile fluorescent hydroxyquinoline-affixed polyfluorene (PF-HQ) nanoparticles could be effectively utilized for multifunctional biomedical applications (as they are biocompatible and can be used for bio-imaging and as a drug delivery vehicle).
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To describe the fabrication, evaluation, and preliminary in vivo safety of a new drug delivery system (DDS) for topical anti-TNF-<i>?</i> antibody administration.<h4>Methods</h4>A DDS was fabricated using inverse template fabrication of a hydrophobic three-dimensional porous scaffold (100-300 ?m in diameter porosity) loaded with 10% polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel carrying 5 mg/ml (weight/volume) of anti-TNF-<i>?</i> antibody. Drug-loaded DDS was sterilized with 25 kGy of gamma irradiation. Long-term in vitro antibody affinity and release was evaluated at room temperature or 37°C using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and protein fluorescence. In vivo clinical and histolopathological assessment was performed by subcutaneous implantation in BALB/c mice for 3 months.<h4>Results</h4>Gamma irradiation, repeated dry/wet cycles, and storage at room temperature for 1 year or 37°C for 1 month had no deleterious effects on antibody affinity. Anti-TNF-<i>?</i> release was high during the first minutes of aqueous exposure, followed by stabilization and gradual, low-dose, antibody release over the next 30 days. Histopathologic evaluation of explanted DDS showed a fibrous pseudocapsule and a myxoid acute/chronic inflammation without granuloma formation surrounding the implants.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Sustained local delivery of anti-TNF-<i>?</i> antibody is feasible using the described DDS, which provides stability of the enclosed antibody for up to 1 year of storage. Preliminary results show good in vivo tolerance following subcutaneous placement for 3 months. The proposed fabrication and sterilization process opens new possibilities for the delivery of biologic agents to the anterior surface of the eye.<h4>Translational relevance</h4>The described DDS will facilitate the treatment of ocular surface diseases amenable to biologic therapy.
Project description:Histamine functionalized block copolymers based on poly(allyl glycidyl ether)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PAGE-b-PEO) were prepared with different ratios of histamine and octyl or benzyl groups using UV-initiated thiol-ene click chemistry. At neutral pH, the histamine units are uncharged and hydrophobic, while in acidic environments, such as in the endosome, lysosomes, or extracellular sites of tumours, the histamine groups are positively charged and hydrophilic. pH responsible polymer drug delivery systems is a promising route to site specific delivery of drugs and offers the potential to avoid side effects of systemic treatment. Our detailed in vitro experiments of the efficacy of drug delivery and the intracellular localization characteristics of this library of NPs in 2D and 3D cultures of breast cancer revealed that the 50% histamine-modified polymer loaded with DOX exhibited rapid accumulation in the nucleus of free DOX within 2 h. Confocal studies showed enhanced mitochondrial localization and lysosomal escape when compared to controls. From these combined studies, it was shown that by accurately tuning the structure of the initial block copolymers, the resulting self-assembled NPs can be designed to exploit histamine as an endosomal escape trigger and the octyl/benzyl units give rise to a hydrophobic core resulting in highly efficacious drug delivery systems (DDS) with control over intracellular localization. Optimization and rational control of the intracellular localization of both DDS and the parent drug can give nanomedicines a substantial increase in efficacy and should be explored in future studies.
Project description:Usage of combination therapies to deliver multiple therapeutics to increase treatment efficacy has shown promising results in the clinic. In an effort to maximize the synergistic effect of co-delivery of a drug and siRNA, we have developed a time-dependent sequential drug delivery system (DDS) based on a disulfide-linked chitosan-based nanocarrier (CS-ss-SA) for the co-delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) and Bcl-2 specific siRNA (siBcl-2). This CS-ss-SA nanocarrier is able to transport both drug and siRNA by entrapment of PTX and adsorption of siRNA on the shell by electrostatic attraction. We show that this nanocarrier transports siRNA into tumor cells via its glycolipid-like spatial structure and releases a hydrophobic model drug, Nile Red 8-11 h later. Next, when siRNA and the hydrophobic drug PTX were co-delivered to tumor cells, a synergistic effect was observed in both cell cycle arrest and cell viability. Ultimately, the co-delivery of PTX and siBcl-2 by CS-ss-SA may prove to be more efficacious and may even help overcome drug resistance.
Project description:We developed a novel, pH-sensitive drug delivery microparticle based on N-palmitoyl chitosan (NPCS) to transport the superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). The characteristics of NPCS were characterized through nuclear magnetic resonance. Our results based on testing of volume swelling in multiple pH aqueous solutions revealed that the modified chitosan had a pH-sensitive property. The morphology and size of the DOX-SPIO/NPCS microparticles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The statistical result of microparticles had diameter of 185 ± 87 nm. Surface chemical moieties of DOX-SPIO/NPCS microparticles were confirmed using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and indicated the existence of mostly hydrophilic groups such as -OH, -C=O, and -C-O-C-. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the dark contrast of SPIO dots encapsulated in the NPCS matrix. Nuclear magnetic resonance T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging confirmed that the produced DOX-SPIO/NPCS microparticles still exhibited T2 relaxation durations as short as 37.68 ± 8.69 ms (under administration of 2.5 ?g/mL), which is comparable to the clinically required dosage. In the drug release profile, the DOX-SPIO/NPCS drug delivery microparticle was accelerated in an acidic environment (pH 6.5) compared with that in a basic environment. Microparticles in a cytotoxicity assay (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay) revealed that DOX-SPIO/NPCS microparticles had better antitumor ability than did free-form of DOX. Additionally, microparticles loaded with 0.5-5 ?g/mL DOX in an acidic environment (pH 6.5) demonstrated higher efficacy against Hep G2 cell growth, possibly because of the swelling effect of NPCS, resulting in volume expansion and easy drug release. Accordingly, these large DOX-SPIO/NPCS microparticles showed potential for application as a pH-sensitive drug delivery system and as chemoembolization particles for hepatic carcinoma therapy.