Antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi derived from three seagrass species: Cymodocea serrulata, Halophila ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii.
ABSTRACT: Endophytic fungi from three commonly found seagrasses in southern Thailand were explored for their ability to produce antimicrobial metabolites. One hundred and sixty endophytic fungi derived from Cymodoceaserrulata (Family Cymodoceaceae), Halophilaovalis and Thalassiahemprichii (Family Hydrocharitaceae) were screened for production of antimicrobial compounds by a colorimetric broth microdilution test against ten human pathogenic microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 90028 and NCPF 3153, Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 90112 and ATCC 90113 and clinical isolates of Microsporumgypseum and Penicilliummarneffei. Sixty-nine percent of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one test strain. Antifungal activity was more pronounced than antibacterial activity. Among the active fungi, seven isolates including Hypocreales sp. PSU-ES26 from C. serrulata, Trichoderma spp. PSU-ES8 and PSU-ES38 from H. ovalis, and Penicillium sp. PSU-ES43, Fusarium sp. PSU-ES73, Stephanonectria sp. PSU-ES172 and an unidentified endophyte PSU-ES190 from T. hemprichii exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against human pathogens with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of less than 10 µg/ml. The inhibitory extracts at concentrations of 4 times their MIC destroyed the targeted cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy. These results showed the antimicrobial potential of extracts from endophytic fungi from seagrasses.
Project description:Twenty distinct endophytic fungi were isolated from the surface-sterilized plant parts of Nymphaea nouchali and were identified using morphological and molecular techniques. At 300 µg/disc concentration, eight of the 20 fungal extracts exhibited antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778) while two within the eight showed activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218). Furthermore, investigation of the crude extract of Chaetomium globosum resulted in the isolation of two known cytochalasans, chaetoglobosin A and C, and their structures were elucidated and confirmed by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC and tROESY) spectral data. Chaetoglobosin A showed antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis (MIC 16 µg mL-1), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 32 µg mL-1) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, MIC 32 µg mL-1). This is the first study to report the isolation, identification and antimicrobial properties of endophytic fungi of N. nouchali in Sri Lanka.
Project description:Endophytic and rhizosphere fungi are understood to be aiding the host plant to overcome a range of biotic and abiotic stresses (nutrition depletion, droughts, etc.) hence, they remain to be reservoirs of plethora of natural products with immense use. Consequently, this investigation of endophytic and rhizosphere fungi isolated from Mikania cordata (a perennial vine that is well established in Sri Lanka) for their antimicrobial properties was performed with the aim of future derivation of potential beneficial pharmaceutical products. Leaves, twigs, and roots of M. cordata were utilized to isolate a total of 9 endophytic fungi out of which the highest amount (44%) accounted was from the twigs. A sample of the immediate layer of soil adhering to the root of M. cordata was utilized to isolate 15 rhizosphere fungi. Fusarium equiseti and Phoma medicaginis were endophytes that were identified based on colony and molecular characteristics. The broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity depicted by F. equiseti (MK517551) was found to be significantly greater (p ? 0.05, inhibitory against Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25853) than P. medicaginis (MK517550) (inhibitory against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25853) as assessed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma asperellum were rhizospere fungi that exhibited remarkable antimicrobial properties against the test pathogens chosen for the study. T. asperellum indicated significantly greater bioactivity against all four bacterial pathogens and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 under study. The ranges of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the fungi depicting antimicrobial properties were determined. The results obtained suggest that F. equiseti, P. medicaginis, T. asperellum, and T. virens of M. cordata harness bioprospective values as natural drug candidates. This is the first report on isolation and evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of endophytic and rhizosphere fungi of Mikania cordata.
Project description:Endophytic fungi reside in the intercellular space of plant nourished by the plant. In return, they provide bioactive molecules which can play critical roles on plant defense system. Fifty six endophytes were isolated from the leaves, root, bark and fruits of Sonneratia apetala, a pioneer mangrove plant in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. A total of 56 isolates were obtained and 12 different species within 8 genera were identified using morphological and molecular characteristics. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and methanolic (MeOH) extracts of these 12 different species were analyzed by resazurin assay and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined. The fungal extracts showed antimicrobial activities against more than one tested bacterium or fungus among 5 human pathogenic microbes, i.e. Escherichia coli NCTC 12241, Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 12981, Micrococcus lutus NCTC 7508, Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCTC 7508 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. Overall, methanolic extracts showed greater activity than that of ethyl acetate extracts. Of the isolates identified, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium equiseti were the most active isolates and showed activity against microorganisms under investigation. Methanolic extracts of C. gloeosporioides and A. niger showed the lowest MIC (0.0024 mg/mL) against P. aeruginosa. The study indicates that endophytic fungi isolated from S. apetala species possess potential antimicrobial properties, which could be further investigated.
Project description:Securinega suffruticosa (Pall.) Rehd is an excellent natural secondary shrub in the Shell Islands of Yellow River Delta. The roots of S. suffruticosa have high medicinal value and are used to treat diseases, such as neurasthenia and infant malnutrition. Any organism that is isolated from this species is of immense interest due to its potential novel bioactive compounds. In this research, the distribution and diversity of culturable endophytic fungi in S. suffruticosa were studied, and the endophytic fungi with antimicrobial activity were screened. A total of 420 endophytic fungi isolates were obtained from the S. suffruticosa grown in Shell Islands, from which 20 genera and 35 species were identified through morphological and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses. Chaetomium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, and Ceratobasidium were the dominant genera. The high species richness S (42), Margalef index D' (5.6289), Shannon-Wiener index H' (3.1000), Simpson diversity index Ds (0.9459), PIE index (0.8670), and evenness Pielou index J (0.8719) and a low dominant index ? (0.0541) indicated the high diversity of endophytic fungi in S. suffruticosa, the various species of endophytic fungi with obvious tissue specificity. The inhibition percentages of the 12 species of such endophytic fungi against Colletotrichum siamense were 3.6%-26.3%. C. globosum, Fusarium sp.3, and C. ramotenellum had a high antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were between 0.5 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL. Alkaloid content detection indicated that endophytic fungi had a high alkaloid content, whereas the alkaloid contents of C. globosum and Fusarium sp.3 reached 0.231% and 0.170%, respectively. Members belonging to the endophytic fungal community in the S. suffruticosa of Shell Islands that may be used as antagonists and antibacterial agents for future biotechnology applications were identified for the first time.
Project description:A highly potent secondary metabolite producing endophytic strain, Streptomyces sp. HUST012 was isolated from the stems of the medicinal plant Dracaena cochinchinensis Lour. Strain HUST012 showed antimicrobial and antitumor activities which were significantly much higher than those of dragon's blood extracted from D. cochinchinensis Lour. On further analysis, the strain was found to produce two metabolites, SPE-B11.8 (elucidated to be a novel metabolite (Z)-tridec-7-ene-1,2,13-tricarboxylic acid) and SPE-B5.4 (elucidated as Actinomycin-D). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration values of SPE-B11.8 against a set of test bacterial organisms (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermis ATCC 35984, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883) ranged between 15.63 and 62.5 ?g/ml while that for SPE-B5.4 ranged between 0.04 and 2.24 ?g/ml. The compound SPE-B11.8 showed cytotoxic effect at 41.63 and 29.54 ?g/ml IC 50-values against Hep G2 and MCF-7, respectively, while the compound SPE-B5.4 exhibited stronger activities against them at 0.23 and 0.18 ?g/ml IC 50-values.
Project description:The antimicrobial activity of 2-naphtholic and phenolic azo compounds was determined against seven microbial species, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus pyrogenes (clinical), and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Salmonella typhi (clinical), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Escherichia coli (ATCC 251922), and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), using the high-throughput spot culture growth inhibition assay (HT-SPOTi). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for the active azo dyes. All the azo compounds (A1-B4) were screened for anthelmintic activity against adult Ghanaian earthworms, Hyperiodrilus spp. As part of the systematic investigation for biological activity, all the azo compounds exhibited good antimicrobial activity against the seven human pathogenic microorganisms. All the compounds exhibited anthelminthic activity against adult Ghanaian earthworms, Hyperiodrilus spp.
Project description:In this study, we report the isolation and identification of an endophytic strain of <i>Burkholderia cepacia</i> (COPS strain) associated with <i>Polygala paniculata</i> roots. <i>Polygala</i> plants are rich sources of promising microbiomes, of which the literature reports several pharmacological effects, such as trypanocidal, antinociceptive, anesthetic, anxiolytics, and anticonvulsant activities. <i>B. cepacia</i> COPS belongs to a new sequence type (ST 1870) and harbors a genome estimated in 8.3?Mbp which exhibits the aminoglycosides and beta-lactams resistance genes <i>aph</i>(3')-IIa and <i>bla</i> <sub>TEM-116</sub>, respectively. Analysis performed using MLST, average nucleotide identity, and digital DNA-DNA hybridization support its species-level identification and reveals its novel housekeeping genes alleles <i>gyr</i>B, <i>lep</i>A, and <i>pha</i>C. The root endophyte <i>B. cepacia</i> COPS drew our attention from a group of 14 bacterial isolates during the primary screening for being potentially active against <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> ATCC 29213, <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i> ATCC 29212, <i>Micrococcus luteus</i> ATCC 9341, <i>Escherichia coli</i> ATCC 25922, and <i>Candida albicans</i> ATCC 10231 and exhibited the broad-spectrum activity against phytopathogenic fungi. In addition, COPS strain showed production of protease, lipase, and esterase in solid media, and its natural product extract showed potent inhibition against fungal plant pathogens, such as <i>Moniliophthora perniciosa</i>, whose antagonism index (89.32%) exceeded the positive control (74.17%), whereas <i>Sclerotinia sclerotiorum</i> and <i>Ceratocystis paradoxa</i> showed high percentages of inhibition (85.53% and 82.69%, respectively). COPS crude extract also significantly inhibited <i>S. epidermidis</i> ATCC 35984, <i>E. faecium</i> ATCC 700221 (MIC values of 32?<i>?</i>g/mL for both), <i>E. faecalis</i> ATCC 29212 (64?<i>?</i>g/mL), and <i>S. aureus</i> ATCC 25923 (128?<i>?</i>g/mL). We observed moderate antagonistic activity against <i>A. baumannii</i> ATCC 19606 and <i>E. coli</i> ATCC 25922 (both at 512?<i>?</i>g/mL), as well as potent cytotoxic effects on <i>Leishmania infantum</i> and <i>Leishmania major</i> promastigote forms with 78.25% and 57.30% inhibition. In conclusion, this study presents for the first time the isolation of an endophytic <i>B. cepacia</i> strain associated with <i>P. paniculata</i> and enough evidence that these plants may be considered a rich source of microbes for the fight against neglected diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The endophytes of medicinal plants, such as Justicia adhatoda L., represent a promising and largely underexplored domain that is considered as a repository of biologically active compounds. OBJECTIVES:The aim of present study was isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant for the production of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant were isolated from healthy plant parts and taxonomically characterized through morphological, microscopic, and 18S rDNA sequencing methods. The screening for bioactive metabolite production was achieved using ethyl acetate extracts, followed by the optimization of different parameters for maximum production of bioactive metabolites. Crude and partially purified extracts were used to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potential. RESULTS:Out of six endophytic fungal isolates, Chaetomium sp. NF15 showed the most promising biological activity and was selected for detailed study. The crude ethyl acetate extract of NF15 isolate after cultivation under optimized culture conditions showed promising antimicrobial activity, with significant inhibition of the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (87%, n=42), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (> 85%, n = 41), and Candida albicans (62%, n = 24). CONCLUSIONS:The present study confirms the notion of selecting endophytic fungi of medicinal plant Justicia for the bioassay-guided isolation of its bioactive compounds, and demonstrates that endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. NF15 could be a potential source of bioactive metabolites.
Project description:The phylogenetic diversity of fungi isolated from the Odontotermes formosanus was investigated by dilution-plate method, combined with morphological characteristics and 5.8S rDNA sequencing. Thirty-nine fungi were isolated and purified from O. formosanus, which were belonging to two phyla and four classes (Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Agaricomycetes). Furthermore, nine bacterial 16S rRNA sequences were obtained from total fungal genomic DNA. All bacterial symbionts were segmented into four genera: Bacillus, Methylobacterium, Paenibacillus, and Trabulsiella. The antimicrobial activities of all endophytic fungi extracts were tested by using the filter paper method against Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), and Canidia albicans (ATCC 10231). The results exhibited that 25 extracts (64%) exhibited antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested bacterial strains. Furthermore, the secondary metabolites 1 [5-hydroxyramulosin (1a):biatriosporin M (1b) = 2:1] from the Pleosporales sp. BYCDW4 exhibited potent antimicrobial activities against E. coli, C. albicans, B. subtilis, and S. aureus with the inhibition zone diameter (IZD) of 13.67, 14.33, 12.17, and 11.33 mm, respectively, which were comparable with those of the positive control. 1-(2,5-Dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxybutan-1-one (2) from the Microdiplodia sp. BYCDW8 showed medium inhibitory activities against B. subtilis and S. aureus, with the IZD range of 8.32-9.13 mm. In conclusion, the study showed the diversity of insect symbionts could be expected to develop the resource of new species and antibiotics.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance is one of the major clinical concerns, making the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs desirable. Moringin (MOR), the major isothiocyanate produced from Moringa oleifera seeds, could represent an alternative therapeutic strategy to commonly used antibiotics. The aim of our study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of MOR conjugated with ?-cyclodextrin (MOR/?-CD), a complex with an improved solubility and stability in aqueous solutions. Our data demonstrated that MOR/?-CD was able to exert antimicrobial activity against the S. aureus reference strains (ATCC 25923, ATCC 6538, and ATCC BAA-977). Moreover, MOR/?-CD showed bacteriostatic effects (MIC = minimum inhibitory concentration = 0.5 mg/mL) and bactericidal properties (MBC = minimum bactericidal concentration = 1 mg/mL) against the overall assessed strains. In addition, MOR/?-CD showed bactericidal activity against the S. aureus strain ATCC BAA-977 after treatment with erythromycin (Ery), which induced clindamycin-resistance on the erm (A) gene. This evidence led us to assume that MOR/?-CD could be a promising antimicrobial agent against strains with the clindamycin-resistant phenotype (CC-resistant).