Persulfide reactivity in the detection of protein s-sulfhydration.
ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as a new member of the gaseous transmitter family of signaling molecules and appears to play a regulatory role in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Recent studies suggest that protein cysteine S-sulfhydration may function as a mechanism for transforming the H2S signal into a biological response. However, selective detection of S-sulfhydryl modifications is challenging since the persulfide group (RSSH) exhibits reactivity akin to other sulfur species, especially thiols. A modification of the biotin switch technique, using S-methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) as an alkylating reagent, was recently used to identify a large number of proteins that may undergo S-sulfhydration, but the underlying mechanism of chemical detection was not fully explored. To address this key issue, we have developed a protein persulfide model and analogue of MMTS, S-4-bromobenzyl methanethiosulfonate (BBMTS). Using these new reagents, we investigated the chemistry in the modified biotin switch method and examined the reactivity of protein persulfides toward different electrophile/nucleophile species. Together, our data affirm the nucleophilic properties of the persulfide sulfane sulfur and afford new insights into protein S-sulfhydryl chemistry, which may be exploited in future detection strategies.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as a signalling molecule capable of regulating several important physiological functions such as blood pressure, neurotransmission and inflammation. The mechanisms behind these effects are still largely elusive and oxidative posttranslational modification of cysteine residues (protein persulfidation or S-sulfhydration) has been proposed as the main pathway for H2S-induced biological and pharmacological effects. As a signalling mechanism, persulfidation has to be controlled. Using an improved tag-switch assay for persulfide detection we show here that protein persulfide levels are controlled by the thioredoxin system. Recombinant thioredoxin showed an almost 10-fold higher reactivity towards cysteine persulfide than towards cystine and readily cleaved protein persulfides as well. This reaction resulted in H2S release suggesting that thioredoxin could be an important regulator of H2S levels from persulfide pools. Inhibition of the thioredoxin system caused an increase in intracellular persulfides, highlighting thioredoxin as a major protein depersulfidase that controls H2S signalling. Finally, using plasma from HIV-1 patients that have higher circulatory levels of thioredoxin, we could prove depersulfidase role in vivo.
Project description:S-sulfhydration is a signalling pathway of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is suggested as an anti-atherogenic molecule that may protect against atherosclerosis. The identification of S-sulfhydrated proteins by proteomic approach could be a major step towards understanding the mechanisms of H2S in response to atherosclerosis. The present study studied targeted S-sulfhydrated proteins using the modified biotin switch method followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight tandem mass spectrometry identification. The results showed that H2S can protect against atherosclerosis by reducing body weight gain and alleviating aortic plaque formation. In addition, H2S treatment can increase aortic protein S-sulfhydration. Seventy targeted S-sulfhydrated aortic proteins were identified, mainly involved in metabolism, stimulus response and biological regulation, as determined by gene ontology database analysis. H2S also induced S-sulfhydration of glutathione peroxidase 1 and further reduced lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant defence in the aorta by prompting glutathione synthesis. Our data suggest that H2S is a cardiovascular-protective molecule that S-sulfhydrates a subset of proteins that are mainly responsible for lipid metabolism and exerts its cytoprotective effects to clear free radicals and inhibit oxidative stress through cysteine S-sulfhydration.
Project description:Persulfides (RSSH) have been hypothesized as critical components in sulfur-mediated redox cycles and as potential signaling compounds, similar to hydrogen sulfide (H2 S). Hindering the study of persulfides is a lack of persulfide-donor compounds with selective triggers that release discrete persulfide species. Reported here is the synthesis and characterization of a ROS-responsive (ROS=reactive oxygen species), self-immolative persulfide donor. The donor, termed BDP-NAC, showed selectivity towards H2 O2 over other potential oxidative or nucleophilic triggers, resulting in the sustained release of the persulfide of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) over the course of 2?h, as measured by LCMS. Exposure of H9C2 cardiomyocytes to H2 O2 revealed that BDP-NAC mitigated the effects of a highly oxidative environment in a dose-dependent manner over relevant controls and to a greater degree than common H2 S donors sodium sulfide (Na2 S) and GYY4137. BDP-NAC also rescued cells more effectively than a non-persulfide-releasing control compound in concert with common H2 S donors and thiols.
Project description:H2S is an important signalling molecule involved in diverse biological processes. It mediates the formation of cysteine persulfides (R-S-SH), which affect the activity of target proteins. Like thiols, persulfides show reactivity towards electrophiles and behave similarly to other cysteine modifications in a biotin switch assay. In this manuscript, we report on qPerS-SID a mass spectrometry-based method allowing the isolation of persulfide containing peptides in the mammalian proteome. With this method, we demonstrated that H2S donors differ in their efficacy to induce persulfides in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, data analysis revealed that persulfide formation affects all subcellular compartments and various cellular processes. Negatively charged amino acids appeared more frequently adjacent to cysteines forming persulfides. We confirmed our proteomic data using pyruvate kinase M2 as a model protein and showed that several cysteine residues are prone to persulfide formation finally leading to its inactivation. Taken together, the site-specific identification of persulfides on a proteome scale can help to identify target proteins involved in H2S signalling and enlightens the biology of H2S and its releasing agents.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been proposed to have various physiological functions, and it may function through reactive sulfane sulfur. Since the two sulfur forms often coexist, they are normally considered interchangeable. Here, we characterized the production of H2S and reactive sulfane sulfur in Escherichia coli MG1655 and found that they are not readily interchangeable. They are primarily produced from L-cysteine via different enzymes. L-Cysteine desulfhydrases consumed L-cysteine and directly generated H2S. The produced H2S was mainly lost through evaporation into the gas phase, as E. coli does not have enzymes that easily oxidize H2S to reactive sulfane sulfur. L-Cysteine desulfhydrases were also responsible for the degradation of exogenous L-cysteine, which is toxic at high levels. Conversely, L-cysteine aminotransferase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase sequentially metabolized endogenous L-cysteine to produce cellular reactive sulfane sulfur; however, it was not a major route of H2S production during normal growth or during the metabolism of exogenous L-cysteine by the resting cells. Noticeably, the 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase mutant contained less reactive sulfane sulfur and displayed a greater sensitivity to H2O2 than did the wild type. Thence, reactive sulfane sulfur is likely a common cellular component, involved in protein sulfhydration and protecting cells from oxidative stress.
Project description:Recent studies conducted in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling have revealed potential importance of persulfides (RSSH) in redox biology. The inherent instability of RSSH makes these species difficult to study and sometimes controversial results are reported. In this review article we summarize known knowledge about both small molecule persulfides and protein persulfides. Their fundamental physical and chemical properties such as preparation/formation and reactivity are discussed. The biological implications of persulfides and their detection methods are also discussed.
Project description:Using methodology developed herein, it is found that reactive persulfides and polysulfides are formed endogenously from both small molecule species and proteins in high amounts in mammalian cells and tissues. These reactive sulfur species were biosynthesized by two major sulfurtransferases: cystathionine ?-synthase and cystathionine ?-lyase. Quantitation of these species indicates that high concentrations of glutathione persulfide (perhydropersulfide >100 ?M) and other cysteine persulfide and polysulfide derivatives in peptides/proteins were endogenously produced and maintained in the plasma, cells, and tissues of mammals (rodent and human). It is expected that persulfides are especially nucleophilic and reducing. This view was found to be the case, because they quickly react with H2O2 and a recently described biologically generated electrophile 8-nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. These results indicate that persulfides are potentially important signaling/effector species, and because H2S can be generated from persulfide degradation, much of the reported biological activity associated with H2S may actually be that of persulfides. That is, H2S may act primarily as a marker for the biologically active of persulfide species.
Project description:Fast N-type inactivation of voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels is important in fine-tuning of cellular excitability. To serve diverse cellular needs, N-type inactivation is regulated by numerous mechanisms. Here, we address how reactive sulfur species-the gaseous messenger H2S and polysulfides-affect N-type inactivation of the mammalian Kv channels Kv1.4 and Kv3.4. In both channels, the H2S donor NaHS slowed down inactivation with varying potency depending on the "aging" of NaHS solution. Polysulfides were >?1000 times more effective than NaHS with the potency increasing with the number of sulfur atoms (Na2S2 <?Na2S3 <?Na2S4). In Kv1.4, C13 in the N-terminal ball domain mediates the slowing of inactivation. In recombinant protein exposed to NaHS or Na2S4, a sulfur atom is incorporated at C13 in the protein. In Kv3.4, the N terminus harbors two cysteine residues (C6, C24), and C6 is of primary importance for channel regulation by H2S and polysulfides, with a minor contribution from C24. To fully eliminate the dependence of N-type inactivation on sulfhydration, both cysteine residues must be removed (C6S:C24S). Sulfhydration of a single cysteine residue in the ball-and-chain domain modulates the speed of inactivation but does not remove it entirely. In both Kv1.4 and Kv3.4, polysulfides affected the N-terminal cysteine residues when assayed in the whole-cell configuration; on-cell recordings confirmed that polysulfides also modulate K+ channel inactivation with undisturbed cytosol. These findings have collectively identified reactive sulfur species as potent modulators of N-type inactivation in mammalian Kv channels.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is thought to protect bacteria from oxidative stress, but a comprehensive understanding of its function in bacteria is largely unexplored. In this study, we show that the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) harbors significant effector molecules of H2S signaling, reactive sulfur species (RSS), as low molecular weight persulfides of bacillithiol, coenzyme A, and cysteine, and significant inorganic polysulfide species. We find that proteome S-sulfhydration, a post-translational modification (PTM) in H2S signaling, is widespread in S. aureus. RSS levels modulate the expression of secreted virulence factors and the cytotoxicity of the secretome, consistent with an S-sulfhydration-dependent inhibition of DNA binding by MgrA, a global virulence regulator. Two previously uncharacterized thioredoxin-like proteins, denoted TrxP and TrxQ, are S-sulfhydrated in sulfide-stressed cells and are capable of reducing protein hydrodisulfides, suggesting that this PTM is potentially regulatory in S. aureus. In conclusion, our results reveal that S. aureus harbors a pool of proteome- and metabolite-derived RSS capable of impacting protein activities and gene regulation and that H2S signaling can be sensed by global regulators to affect the expression of virulence factors.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by the desulfuration of cysteine or homocysteine, functions as a signaling molecule in an array of physiological processes including regulation of vascular tone, the cellular stress response, apoptosis, and inflammation.The low steady-state levels of H2S in mammalian cells have been recently shown to reflect a balance between its synthesis and its clearance. The subversion of enzymes in the cytoplasmic trans-sulfuration pathway for producing H2S from cysteine and/or homocysteine versus producing cysteine from homocysteine, presents an interesting regulatory problem.It is not known under what conditions the enzymes operate in the canonical trans-sulfuration pathway and how their specificity is switched to catalyze the alternative H2S-producing reactions. Similarly, it is not known if and whether the mitochondrial enzymes, which oxidize sulfide and persulfide (or sulfane sulfur), are regulated to increase or decrease H2S or sulfane-sulfur pools.In this review, we focus on the enzymology of H2S homeostasis and discuss H2S-based signaling via persulfidation and thionitrous acid.