Differential modulation of functional dynamics and allosteric interactions in the Hsp90-cochaperone complexes with p23 and Aha1: a computational study.
ABSTRACT: Allosteric interactions of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 with a large cohort of cochaperones and client proteins allow for molecular communication and event coupling in signal transduction networks. The integration of cochaperones into the Hsp90 system is driven by the regulatory mechanisms that modulate the progression of the ATPase cycle and control the recruitment of the Hsp90 clientele. In this work, we report the results of computational modeling of allosteric regulation in the Hsp90 complexes with the cochaperones p23 and Aha1. By integrating protein docking, biophysical simulations, modeling of allosteric communications, protein structure network analysis and the energy landscape theory we have investigated dynamics and stability of the Hsp90-p23 and Hsp90-Aha1 interactions in direct comparison with the extensive body of structural and functional experiments. The results have revealed that functional dynamics and allosteric interactions of Hsp90 can be selectively modulated by these cochaperones via specific targeting of the regulatory hinge regions that could restrict collective motions and stabilize specific chaperone conformations. The protein structure network parameters have quantified the effects of cochaperones on conformational stability of the Hsp90 complexes and identified dynamically stable communities of residues that can contribute to the strengthening of allosteric interactions. According to our results, p23-mediated changes in the Hsp90 interactions may provide "molecular brakes" that could slow down an efficient transmission of the inter-domain allosteric signals, consistent with the functional role of p23 in partially inhibiting the ATPase cycle. Unlike p23, Aha1-mediated acceleration of the Hsp90-ATPase cycle may be achieved via modulation of the equilibrium motions that facilitate allosteric changes favoring a closed dimerized form of Hsp90. The results of our study have shown that Aha1 and p23 can modulate the Hsp90-ATPase activity and direct the chaperone cycle by exerting the precise control over structural stability, global movements and allosteric communications in Hsp90.
Project description:Argonaute proteins and small RNAs together form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), the central effector of RNA interference (RNAi). The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for the critical step of loading small RNAs onto Argonaute proteins. Here we show that the Hsp90 cochaperones Cdc37, Aha1, FKBP4, and p23 are required for efficient RNAi. Whereas FKBP4 and p23 form a stable complex with hAgo2, the function of Cdc37 in RNAi appears to be indirect and may indicate that two or more Hsp90 complexes are involved. Our data also suggest that p23 and FKBP4 interact with hAgo2 before small RNA loading and that RISC loading takes place in the cytoplasm rather than in association with RNA granules. Given the requirement for p23 and FKBP4 for efficient RNAi and that these cochaperones bind to hAgo2, we predict that loading of hAgo2 is analogous to Hsp90-mediated steroid hormone receptor activation. To this end, we outline a model in which FKBP4, p23, and Aha1 cooperatively regulate the progression of hAgo2 through the chaperone cycle. Finally, we propose that hAgo2 and RNAi can serve as a robust model system for continued investigation into the Hsp90 chaperone cycle.
Project description:Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential molecular chaperone whose activity is regulated not only by cochaperones but also by distinct posttranslational modifications. We report here that casein kinase 2 phosphorylates a conserved threonine residue (T22) in ? helix-1 of the yeast Hsp90 N-domain both in vitro and in vivo. This ? helix participates in a hydrophobic interaction with the catalytic loop in Hsp90's middle domain, helping to stabilize the chaperone's ATPase-competent state. Phosphomimetic mutation of this residue alters Hsp90 ATPase activity and chaperone function and impacts interaction with the cochaperones Aha1 and Cdc37. Overexpression of Aha1 stimulates the ATPase activity, restores cochaperone interactions, and compensates for the functional defects of these Hsp90 mutants.
Project description:Many critical protein kinases rely on the Hsp90 chaperone machinery for stability and function. After initially forming a ternary complex with kinase client and the cochaperone p50(Cdc37), Hsp90 proceeds through a cycle of conformational changes facilitated by ATP binding and hydrolysis. Progression through the chaperone cycle requires release of p50(Cdc37) and recruitment of the ATPase activating cochaperone AHA1, but the molecular regulation of this complex process at the cellular level is poorly understood. We demonstrate that a series of tyrosine phosphorylation events, involving both p50(Cdc37) and Hsp90, are minimally sufficient to provide directionality to the chaperone cycle. p50(Cdc37) phosphorylation on Y4 and Y298 disrupts client-p50(Cdc37) association, while Hsp90 phosphorylation on Y197 dissociates p50(Cdc37) from Hsp90. Hsp90 phosphorylation on Y313 promotes recruitment of AHA1, which stimulates Hsp90 ATPase activity, furthering the chaperoning process. Finally, at completion of the chaperone cycle, Hsp90 Y627 phosphorylation induces dissociation of the client and remaining cochaperones.
Project description:Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is essential for tumor progression in humans and drug resistance in fungi. However, the roles of its many co-chaperones in antifungal resistance are unknown. In this study, by susceptibility test of Neurospora crassa mutants lacking each of 18 Hsp90/Calcineurin system member genes (including 8 Hsp90 co-chaperone genes) to antifungal drugs and other stresses, we demonstrate that the Hsp90 co-chaperones Sti1 (Hop1 in yeast), Aha1, and P23 (Sba1 in yeast) were required for the basal resistance to antifungal azoles and heat stress. Deletion of any of them resulted in hypersensitivity to azoles and heat. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that the toxic sterols eburicol and 14?-methyl-3,6-diol were significantly accumulated in the sti1 and p23 deletion mutants after ketoconazole treatment, which has been shown before to led to cell membrane stress. At the transcriptional level, Aha1, Sti1, and P23 positively regulate responses to ketoconazole stress by erg11 and erg6, key genes in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. Aha1, Sti1, and P23 are highly conserved in fungi, and sti1 and p23 deletion also increased the susceptibility to azoles in Fusarium verticillioides. These results indicate that Hsp90-cochaperones Aha1, Sti1, and P23 are critical for the basal azole resistance and could be potential targets for developing new antifungal agents.
Project description:Hsp90 is an essential chaperone that requires large allosteric changes to determine its ATPase activity and client binding. The co-chaperone Aha1, which is the major ATPase stimulator in eukaryotes, is important for regulation of Hsp90's allosteric timing. Little is known, however, about the structure of the Hsp90/Aha1 complex. Here, we characterize the solution structure of unmodified human Hsp90/Aha1 complex using NMR spectroscopy. We show that the 214-kDa complex forms by a two-step binding mechanism and adopts multiple conformations in the absence of nucleotide. Aha1 induces structural changes near Hsp90's nucleotide-binding site, providing a basis for its ATPase-enhancing activity. Our data reveal important aspects of this pivotal chaperone/co-chaperone interaction and emphasize the relevance of characterizing dynamic chaperone structures in solution.
Project description:The Hsp90 molecular chaperone is essential for protein homeostasis and in the maturation of proteins involved with cell-cycle control. The low ATPase activity of Hsp90 is critical to drive its functional cycle, which is dependent on the Hsp90 cochaperones. The Activator of Hsp90 ATPase-1 (Aha1) is a protein formed by two domains, N- and C-terminal, that stimulates the Hsp90 ATPase activity by several folds. Although the relevance of Aha1 for Hsp90 functions has been proved, as well as its involvement in the desensitization to inhibitors of the Hsp90, the knowledge on its overall structure and behavior in solution is limited. In this work we present the functional and structural characterization of Leishmania braziliensis Aha1 (LbAha1). This protozoan is the causative agent of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease. The recombinant LbAha1 behaves as an elongated monomer and is organized into two folded domains interconnected by a flexible linker. Functional experiments showed that LbAha1 interacts with L. braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) with micromolar dissociation constant in a stoichiometry of 2 LbAha1 to 1 LbHsp90 dimer and stimulates 10-fold the LbHsp90 ATPase activity showing positive cooperativity. Furthermore, the LbHsp90::LbAha1 complex is directed by enthalphy and opposed by entropy, probably due to the spatial freedom restrictions imposed by the proteins' interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering data allowed the reconstruction of low resolution models and rigid body simulations of LbAha1, indicating its mode of action on LbHsp90. Western blot experiments allowed Aha1 identification (as well as Hsp90) in three Leishmania species at two temperatures, suggesting that Aha1 is a cognate protein. All these data shed light on the LbAha1 mechanism of action, showing that it has structural dimensions and flexibility that allow interacting with both N-terminal and middle domains of the LbHsp90.
Project description:Mitochondrial preproteins that are imported via the translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (Tom)70 receptor are complexed with cytosolic chaperones before targeting to the mitochondrial outer membrane. The adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) follows this pathway, and its purified mature form is identical to the preprotein. Purified ANT was reconstituted with chaperones in reticulocyte lysate, and bound proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. In addition to 70-kDa heat-shock cognate protein (Hsc70) and 90-kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90), a specific subset of cochaperones were found, but no mitochondria-specific targeting factors were found. Interestingly, three different Hsp40-related J-domain proteins were identified: DJA1, DJA2, and DJA4. The DJAs bound preproteins to different extents through their C-terminal regions. DJA dominant-negative mutants lacking the N-terminal J-domains impaired mitochondrial import. The mutants blocked the binding of Hsc70 to preprotein, but with varying efficiency. The DJAs also showed significant differences in activation of the Hsc70 ATPase and Hsc70-dependent protein refolding. In HeLa cells, the DJAs increased new protein folding and mitochondrial import, although to different extents. No single DJA was superior to the others in all aspects, but each had a profile of partial specialization. The Hsp90 cochaperones p23 and Aha1 also regulated Hsp90-preprotein interactions. We suggest that multiple cochaperones with similar yet partially specialized properties cooperate in optimal chaperone-preprotein complexes.
Project description:The molecular chaperone and heat-shock protein Hsp90 has become a central target in anti-cancer therapy. Nevertheless, the effect of Hsp90 inhibition is still not understood at the molecular level, preventing a truly rational drug design. Here we report on the effect of the most prominent drug candidates, namely, radicicol, geldanamycin, derivatives of purine, and novobiocin, on Hsp90's characteristic conformational dynamics and the binding of three interaction partners. Unexpectedly, the global opening and closing transitions are hardly affected by Hsp90 inhibitors. Moreover, we find no significant changes in the binding of the cochaperones Aha1 and p23 nor of the model substrate ?131?. This holds true for competitive and allosteric inhibitors. Therefore, direct inhibition mechanisms affecting only one molecular interaction are unlikely. We suggest that the inhibitory action observed in?vivo is caused by a combination of subtle effects, which can be used in the search for novel Hsp90 inhibition mechanisms.
Project description:The ATP-dependent molecular chaperone Hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90) is essential for the maturation of hormone receptors and protein kinases. During the process of client protein activation, Hsp90 co-operates with cofactors/co-chaperones of unique sequence, e.g. Aha1 (activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1), p23 or p50, and with cofactors containing TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains, e.g. Hop, immunophilins or cyclophilins. Although the binding sites for these different types of cofactors are distributed along the three domains of Hsp90, sterical overlap and competition for binding sites restrict the combinations of cofactors that can bind to Hsp90 at the same time. The recently discovered cofactor Aha1 associates with the middle domain of Hsp90, but its relationship to other cofactors of the molecular chaperone is poorly understood. Therefore we analysed whether complexes of Aha1, p23, p50, Hop and a cyclophilin with Hsp90 are disrupted by the other four cofactors by gel permeation chromatography using purified proteins. It turned out that Aha1 competes with the early cofactors Hop and p50, but can bind to Hsp90 in the presence of cyclophilins, suggesting that Aha1 acts as a late cofactor of Hsp90. In contrast with p50, which can bind to Hop, Aha1 does not interact directly with any of the other four cofactors. In vivo studies in yeast and in mammalian cells revealed that Aha1 is not specific for kinase activation, but also contributes to maturation of hormone receptors, proposing a general role for this cofactor in the activation of Hsp90-dependent client proteins.
Project description:Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) facilitates the maturation of many newly synthesized and unfolded proteins (clients) via the Hsp90 chaperone cycle, in which Hsp90 forms a heteroprotein complex and relies upon cochaperones, immunophilins, etc., for assistance in client folding. Hsp90 inhibition has emerged as a strategy for anticancer therapies due to the involvement of clients in many oncogenic pathways. Inhibition of chaperone function results in client ubiquitinylation and degradation via the proteasome, ultimately leading to tumor digression. Small molecule inhibitors perturb ATPase activity at the N-terminus and include derivatives of the natural product geldanamycin. However, N-terminal inhibition also leads to induction of the pro-survival heat shock response (HSR), in which displacement of the Hsp90-bound transcription factor, heat shock factor-1, translocates to the nucleus and induces transcription of heat shock proteins, including Hsp90. An alternative strategy for Hsp90 inhibition is disruption of the Hsp90 heteroprotein complex. Disruption of the Hsp90 heteroprotein complex is an effective strategy to prevent client maturation without induction of the HSR. Cucurbitacin D, isolated from Cucurbita texana, and 3-epi-isocucurbitacin D prevented client maturation without induction of the HSR. Cucurbitacin D also disrupted interactions between Hsp90 and two cochaperones, Cdc37 and p23.