The effects of tenascin C knockdown on trabecular meshwork outflow resistance.
ABSTRACT: Tenascin C (TNC) is a matricellular glycoprotein whose expression in adult tissue is indicative of tissue remodeling. The purpose of the current study was to determine the localization of TNC in trabecular meshwork (TM) tissue and to analyze the effects of TNC on intraocular pressure (IOP).Human TM frontal sections were immunostained with anti-TNC and imaged by confocal microscopy. TNC mRNA and protein levels were quantitated in anterior segments perfused at physiological and elevated pressure. Short, hairpin RNA (shRNA) silencing lentivirus targeting full-length TNC (shTNC) was applied to anterior segment perfusion organ cultures. The IOPs and central corneal thickness (CCT) of wild-type, TNC(-/-), and tenascin X (TNX(-/-)) knockout mice were measured.TNC was distributed in the juxtacanalicular (JCT) region of adult human TM, predominantly in the basement membrane underlying the inner wall of Schlemm's canal. Application of shTNC lentivirus to human and porcine anterior segments in perfusion culture did not significantly affect outflow rate. Although TNC was upregulated in response to pressure, there was no difference in outflow rate when shTNC-silenced anterior segments were subjected to elevated pressure. Furthermore, IOPs and CCTs were not significantly different between TNC(-/-) or TNX(-/-) and wild-type mice.TNC does not appear to contribute directly to outflow resistance. However, TNC immunolocalization in the JCT of adult human eyes suggests that certain areas of the TM are being continuously remodeled with or without an IOP increase.
Project description:Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the primary risk factor for glaucoma, and lowering IOP remains the only effective treatment for glaucoma. The trabecular meshwork (TM) in the anterior chamber of the eye regulates IOP by generating resistance to aqueous humor outflow. Aqueous humor outflow is segmental, but molecular differences between high and low outflow regions of the TM are poorly understood. In this study, flow regions of the TM were characterized using fluorescent tracers and PCR arrays. Anterior segments from human donor eyes were perfused at physiological pressure in an ex vivo organ culture system. Fluorescently-labeled microspheres of various sizes were perfused into anterior segments to label flow regions. Actively perfused microspheres were segmentally distributed, whereas microspheres soaked passively into anterior segments uniformly labeled the TM and surrounding tissues with no apparent segmentation. Cell-tracker quantum dots (20 nm) were localized to the outer uveal and corneoscleral TM, whereas larger, modified microspheres (200 nm) localized throughout the TM layers and Schlemm's canal. Distribution of fluorescent tracers demonstrated a variable labeling pattern on both a macro- and micro-scale. Quantitative PCR arrays allowed identification of a variety of extracellular matrix genes differentially expressed in high and low flow regions of the TM. Several collagen genes (COL16A1, COL4A2, COL6A1 and 2) and MMPs (1, 2, 3) were enriched in high, whereas COL15A1, and MMP16 were enriched in low flow regions. Matrix metalloproteinase activity was similar in high and low regions using a quantitative FRET peptide assay, whereas protein levels in tissues showed modest regional differences. These gene and protein differences across regions of the TM provide further evidence for a molecular basis of segmental flow routes within the aqueous outflow pathway. New insight into the molecular mechanisms of segmental aqueous outflow may aid in the design and delivery of improved treatments for glaucoma patients.
Project description:To determine the active site in the Heparin II (HepII) domain of fibronectin that regulates outflow facility in cultured anterior segments and disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in transformed human trabecular meshwork (TM-1) cells.Outflow facility was determined by two-level, constant-pressure perfusion in cultured anterior segments of rhesus and cynomolgus monkey eyes. One segment from each pair was exchanged with either the HepII domain or an integrin/syndecan binding peptide (IDAPS or PPRARI) from the HepII domain. To assay changes in the actin cytoskeleton, TM-1 cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without the HepII domain, PPRARI, or IDAPS. Changes were monitored with phase and immunofluorescence microscopy.HepII domain (100 microg/mL) and PPRARI (500 microg/mL) increased outflow facility by 31% +/- 13% (n = 9, P < 0.05) and 24% +/- 9% (n = 8, P < 0.05), respectively in cultured anterior segments after an overnight infusion. Perfusion with IDAPS (500 microg/mL) had no effect on outflow facility. In TM-1 cultures, 250 microg/mL of the HepII domain or 4 mg/mL of PPRARI disrupted the assembly of actin filaments. A lower concentration of PPRARI (2 mg/mL) disrupted the actin cytoskeleton when used in combination with a nondisrupting concentration of the HepII domain (30-60 microg/mL). In contrast, IDAPS did not disrupt the actin cytoskeleton under any condition tested.The active site in the HepII domain that regulates outflow facility in cultured anterior segments and disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in TM-1 cells is the syndecan/integrin binding sequence, PPRARI.
Project description:Background: Outflow regulation and phagocytosis are key functions of the trabecular meshwork (TM), but it is not clear how the two are related in secondary open angle glaucomas characterized by an increased particle load. We hypothesized that diminished TM phagocytosis is not the primary cause of early ocular hypertension and recreated pigment dispersion in a porcine ex vivo model. Methods: Sixteen porcine anterior chamber cultures received a continuous infusion of pigment granules (Pg), while 16 additional anterior chambers served as controls (C). Pressure transducers recorded the intraocular pressure (IOP). The phagocytic capacity of the trabecular meshwork was determined by fluorescent microspheres. Results: The baseline IOPs in Pg and C were similar ( P=0.82). A significant IOP elevation occurred in Pg at 48, 120, and 180 hours (all P<0.01, compared to baseline). The pigment did not cause a reduction in TM phagocytosis at 48 hours when the earliest IOP elevation occurred, but at 120 hours onward ( P=0.001 compared to C). This reduction did not result in an additional IOP increase at 120 or 180 hours compared to the first IOP elevation at 48 hours ( P>0.05). Conclusions: In this porcine model of pigmentary glaucoma, an IOP elevation occurs much earlier than when phagocytosis fails, suggesting that two separate mechanisms might be at work.
Project description:A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identified between caveolin-1 (CAV1) and caveolin-2 (CAV2) on chromosome 7 is associated with glaucoma. One function of CAVs is endocytosis and recycling of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Here, we generated CAV-silencing lentivirus to evaluate the effects on ECM turnover by trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and to measure the effect on outflow facility in anterior segment perfusion culture.Short hairpin CAV1 and CAV2 silencing and control lentivirus were generated, characterized, and applied to anterior segments in perfusion culture. Colocalization of CAVs with various ECM molecules in TM cells was investigated using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Western immunoblotting and fluorogenic-based enzyme activity assays were used to investigate ECM protein levels and degradation, respectively.Endogenous CAVs colocalized with cortactin at podosome- or invadopodia-like structures (PILS), which are areas of focal ECM degradation. In perfusion culture, outflow rates increased significantly in CAV1-silenced anterior segments, whereas outflow significantly decreased in CAV2-silenced anterior segments. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and MMP14, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-4 (ADAMTS4) colocalized with both CAVs in TM cells. Protein levels and enzyme activities of MMP/ADAMTS4, fibronectin protein levels, actin stress fibers, and ?-smooth muscle actin were all increased in CAV-silenced cells.Caveolin-mediated endocytosis is one mechanism by which TM cells can alter the physiological catabolism of ECM in order to change the composition of the outflow channels in the TM to regulate aqueous outflow resistance. Dysregulation of CAV function could contribute to the pathological changes in ECM that are observed in glaucoma.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate whether microsurgical excision of trabecular meshwork (TM) in an ex vivo pigmentary glaucoma model can normalize the hypertensive phenotype. METHODS:Eight eyes of a porcine pigmentary glaucoma model underwent 90° of microsurgical TM excision with an aspirating dual-blade (Goniotome (G)). 24 hours later, additional 90° of TM were removed. Anterior segments with sham surgeries served as the control (C). Outflow facility and intraocular pressure (IOP) were analyzed. Histology with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) was obtained. RESULTS:After the first 90° TM excision, IOP was significantly lower in G (10.2±2.4 mmHg, n = 7) than C (20.0±2.0mmHg, n = 8, P<0.01). Outflow facility in G (0.38±0.07 ?l/min/mmHg) was higher than C (0.16±0.02 ?l/min/mmHg, P<0.01). After the second 90° TM excision, IOP in G (6.46±0.81 mmHg, n = 7) was significantly lower than C (20.3±1.7 mmHg, n = 8, P<0.001), while the outflow facility in G (0.50±0.05 ?l/min/mmHg, n = 7) was higher than C (0.16±0.01 ?l/min/mmHg, n = 8, P<0.001). Compared to the first excision, excision of an additional 90° did not change of IOP (P = 0.20) or outflow facility (P = 0.17) further. CONCLUSIONS:Excision of 90° of TM in a pigmentary glaucoma model using an aspirating dual-blade decreased IOP and increased outflow facility.
Project description:Impaired drainage of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork (TM) culminating in increased intraocular pressure is a major risk factor for glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Regulation of aqueous humor drainage through the TM, however, is poorly understood. The role of RhoA GTPase-mediated contractile activity, cell adhesive interactions, and gene expression in regulation of aqueous humor outflow was investigated using adenoviral vector-driven expression of constitutively active RhoA (RhoAV14). Organ cultured anterior segments from porcine eyes expressing RhoAV14 exhibited significant reduction of aqueous humor outflow. Cultured TM cells expressing RhoAV14 revealed strong contractile cell morphology, increased actin stress fibers and focal adhesions, along with increased levels of phosphorylated myosin II, and collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin. cDNA microarray analysis of RNA extracted from RhoAV14 expressing human TM cells revealed a significant increase in the expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, cytokines, integrins, cytoskeletal proteins and signaling proteins. Conversely, various ECM proteins stimulated robust increases in phosphorylation of myosin II, paxillin and focal adhesion kinase, and activated Rho GTPase and actin stress fiber formation in TM cells, indicating a potential regulatory feedback interaction between ECM-induced mechanical strain and Rho GTPase-induced isometric tension in TM cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that sustained activation of Rho GTPase signaling in the aqueous humor outflow pathway increases resistance to aqueous humor outflow through the trabecular pathway by influencing the contractile force, cell adhesive interactions, and the expression of ECM proteins and cytokines in TM cells. Keywords: Gene Expression Overall design: Two condition experiment: Human trabecular mesh work cells infected with Adenivirus expressing GFP Vs Adenovirus expressing GFP and constitutively active RhoAV14
Project description:Ocular corticosteroids are commonly used clinically. Unfortunately, their administration frequently leads to ocular hypertension, i.e., elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which, in turn, can progress to a form of glaucoma known as steroid-induced glaucoma. The pathophysiology of this condition is poorly understood yet shares similarities with the most common form of glaucoma. Using nanotechnology, we created a mouse model of corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension. This model functionally and morphologically resembles human ocular hypertension, having titratable, robust, and sustained IOPs caused by increased resistance to aqueous humor outflow. Using this model, we then interrogated the biomechanical properties of the trabecular meshwork (TM), including the inner wall of Schlemm's canal (SC), tissues known to strongly influence IOP and to be altered in other forms of glaucoma. Specifically, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography, we observed that SC in corticosteroid-treated mice was more resistant to collapse at elevated IOPs, reflecting increased TM stiffness determined by inverse finite element modeling. Our noninvasive approach to monitoring TM stiffness in vivo is applicable to other forms of glaucoma and has significant potential to monitor TM function and thus positively affect the clinical care of glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide.
Project description:Ocular hypertension in glaucoma develops due to age-related cellular dysfunction in the conventional outflow tract, resulting in increased resistance to aqueous humor outflow. Two cell types, trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal (SC) endothelia, interact in the juxtacanalicular tissue (JCT) region of the conventional outflow tract to regulate outflow resistance. Unlike endothelial cells lining the systemic vasculature, endothelial cells lining the inner wall of SC support a transcellular pressure gradient in the basal to apical direction, thus acting to push the cells off their basal lamina. The resulting biomechanical strain in SC cells is quite large and is likely to be an important determinant of endothelial barrier function, outflow resistance and intraocular pressure. This review summarizes recent work demonstrating how biomechanical properties of SC cells impact glaucoma. SC cells are highly contractile, and such contraction greatly increases cell stiffness. Elevated cell stiffness in glaucoma may reduce the strain experienced by SC cells, decrease the propensity of SC cells to form pores, and thus impair the egress of aqueous humor from the eye. Furthermore, SC cells are sensitive to the stiffness of their local mechanical microenvironment, altering their own cell stiffness and modulating gene expression in response. Significantly, glaucomatous SC cells appear to be hyper-responsive to substrate stiffness. Thus, evidence suggests that targeting the material properties of SC cells will have therapeutic benefits for lowering intraocular pressure in glaucoma.
Project description:Purpose:The actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in outflow regulation through the trabecular meshwork (TM). Although actin stress fibers are a target of glaucoma therapies, the role of other actin cellular structures is unclear. Myosin-X (Myo10) is an actin-binding protein that is involved in tunneling nanotube (TNT) and filopodia formation. Here, we inhibited Myo10 pharmacologically or by gene silencing to investigate the role of filopodia/TNTs in the TM. Methods:Short hairpin RNA interference (RNAi) silencing lentivirus targeting myosin-X (shMyo10) was generated. Human anterior segments were perfused with shMyo10 or CK-666, an Arp2/3 inhibitor. Confocal microscopy investigated the colocalization of Myo10 with matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs). Western immunoblotting investigated the protein levels of MMPs and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. MMP activity and phagocytosis assays were performed. Results:CK-666 and shMyo10-silencing lentivirus caused a significant reduction in outflow rates in anterior segment perfusion culture, an ex vivo method to study intraocular pressure regulation. In human TM cells, Myo10 colocalized with MMP2, MMP14, and cortactin in podosome-like structures, which function as regions of focal ECM degradation. Furthermore, MMP activity, thrombospondin-1 and SPARC protein levels were significantly reduced in the media of CK-666-treated and shMyo10-silenced TM cells. However, neither Myo10 silencing or CK-666 treatment significantly affected phagocytic uptake. Conclusions:Inhibiting filopodia/TNTs caused opposite effects on outflow compared with inhibiting stress fibers. Moreover, Myo10 may also play a role in focal ECM degradation in TM cells. Our results provide additional insight into the function of actin supramolecular assemblies and actin-binding proteins in outflow regulation.
Project description:Impaired drainage of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork (TM) culminating in increased intraocular pressure is a major risk factor for glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Regulation of aqueous humor drainage through the TM, however, is poorly understood. The role of RhoA GTPase-mediated actomyosin organization, cell adhesive interactions, and gene expression in regulation of aqueous humor outflow was investigated using adenoviral vector-driven expression of constitutively active mutant of RhoA (RhoAV14). Organ-cultured anterior segments from porcine eyes expressing RhoAV14 exhibited significant reduction of aqueous humor outflow. Cultured TM cells expressing RhoAV14 exhibited a pronounced contractile morphology, increased actin stress fibers, and focal adhesions and increased levels of phosphorylated myosin light chain (MLC), collagen IV, fibronectin, and laminin. cDNA microarray analysis of RNA extracted from RhoAV14-expressing human TM cells revealed a significant increase in the expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, cytokines, integrins, cytoskeletal proteins, and signaling proteins. Conversely, various ECM proteins stimulated robust increases in phosphorylation of MLC, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase and activated Rho GTPase and actin stress fiber formation in TM cells, indicating a potential regulatory feedback interaction between ECM-induced mechanical strain and Rho GTPase-induced isometric tension in TM cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that sustained activation of Rho GTPase signaling in the aqueous humor outflow pathway increases resistance to aqueous humor outflow through the trabecular pathway by influencing the actomyosin assembly, cell adhesive interactions, and the expression of ECM proteins and cytokines in TM cells.