Design, synthesis and biological activity of sphingosine kinase 2 selective inhibitors.
ABSTRACT: Sphingosine kinase (SphK) has emerged as an attractive target for cancer therapeutics due to its role in cell survival. SphK phosphorylates sphingosine to form sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which has been implicated in cancer growth and survival. SphK exists as two different isotypes, namely SphK1 and SphK2, which play different roles inside the cell. In this report, we describe SphK inhibitors based on the immunomodulatory drug, FTY720, which is phosphorylated by SphK2 to generate a S1P mimic. Structural modification of FTY720 provided a template for synthesizing new inhibitors. A diversity-oriented synthesis generated a library of SphK inhibitors with a novel scaffold and headgroup. We have discovered subtype selective inhibitors with K(i)'s in the low micromolar range. This is the first report describing quaternary ammonium salts as SphK inhibitors.
Project description:Sphingosine kinase (SphK1 & SphK2) is the sole source of the pleiotropic lipid mediator, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). S1P has been implicated in a variety of diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, sickle cell disease and fibrosis and thus the biosynthetic route to S1P is a logical target for drug discovery. Areas covered: In this review, the authors consider the SphK inhibitor patent literature from 2006-2016 Q1 with the emphasis on composition of matter utility patents. The Espacenet database was queried with the search term 'sphingosine AND kinase' to identify relevant literature. Expert opinion: Early inhibitor discovery focused on SphK1 with a bias towards oncology indications. Structurally, the reported inhibitors occupy the sphingosine 'J-shaped' binding pocket. The lack of cytotoxicity with improved SphK1 inhibitors raises doubt about the enzyme as an oncology target. SphK2 inhibitors are featured in more recent patent applications. Interestingly, both SphK1 and SphK2 inhibition and gene 'knockout' share opposing effects on circulating S1P levels: SphK1 inhibition/gene ablation decreases, while SphK2 inhibition/gene ablation increases, blood S1P. As understanding of S1P's physiological roles increases and more drug-like SphK inhibitors emerge, inhibiting one or both SphK isotypes could provide unique strategies for treating disease.
Project description:The conversion of sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate is catalyzed by sphingosine kinase (SphK), which has been implicated in disease states such as cancer and fibrosis. Because SphK exists as two different isoforms, SphK1 and SphK2, understanding the physiological function of each isoenzyme is important. Of the two isoenzymes, SphK2 is significantly less understood, which is evident by the lack of selective small molecule inhibitors. Building on our initial work that focused on the structure-activity relationship study on an FTY720-derived cylohexylamine scaffold, we report that varying the alkyl chain length on the hydrophobic tail can impart selectivity toward SphK2 over SphK1.
Project description:Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a pleiotropic signaling molecule that interacts with its five G-protein coupled receptors (S1P1-5) to regulate cell growth and survival and has been implicated in a variety of diseases including cancer and sickle cell disease. As the key mediators in the synthesis of S1P, sphingosine kinase (SphK) isoforms 1 and 2 have attracted attention as viable targets for pharmaceutical inhibition. In this article, we describe the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of aminothiazole-based guanidine inhibitors of SphK. Surprisingly, combining features of reported SphK1 inhibitors generated SphK1/2 dual inhibitor 20l (SLC4011540) (hSphK1 Ki = 120 nM, hSphK2 Ki = 90 nM) and SphK2 inhibitor 20dd (SLC4101431) (Ki = 90 nM, 100-fold SphK2 selectivity). These compounds effectively decrease S1P levels in vitro. In vivo administration of 20dd validated that inhibition of SphK2 increases blood S1P levels.
Project description:The transfer of the gamma phosphate from ATP to sphingosine (Sph) to generate a small signaling molecule, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), is catalyzed by sphingosine kinases (SphK), which exist as two isoforms, SphK1 and SphK2. SphK is a key regulator of S1P and the S1P:Sph/ceramide ratio. Increases in S1P levels have been linked to diseases including sickle cell disease, cancer, and fibrosis. Therefore, SphKs are potential targets for drug discovery. However, the current chemical biology toolkit needed to validate these enzymes as drug targets is inadequate. With this review, we survey in vivo active SphK inhibitors and highlight the need for developing more potent and selective inhibitors.
Project description:Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that has been identified as an accelerant of cancer progression. The sphingosine kinases (SphKs) are the sole producers of S1P, and thus, SphK inhibitors may prove effective in cancer mitigation and chemosensitization. Of the two SphKs, SphK1 overexpression has been observed in a myriad of cancer cell lines and tissues and has been recognized as the presumptive target over that of the poorly characterized SphK2. Herein, we present the design and synthesis of amidine-based nanomolar SphK1 subtype-selective inhibitors. A homology model of SphK1, trained with this library of amidine inhibitors, was then used to predict the activity of additional, more potent, inhibitors. Lastly, select amidine inhibitors were validated in human leukemia U937 cells, where they significantly reduced endogenous S1P levels at nanomolar concentrations.
Project description:Sphingosine kinase (SphK)/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor (S1PR) signaling pathway has been implicated in a variety of pathological processes of ovarian cancer. However, the function of this axis in ovarian cancer angiogenesis remains incompletely defined. Here we provided the first evidence that SphK1/S1P/S1PR1/3 pathway played key roles in ovarian cancer angiogenesis. The expression level of SphK1, but not SphK2, was closely correlated with the microvascular density (MVD) of ovarian cancer tissue. In vitro, the angiogenic potential and angiogenic factor secretion of ovarian cancer cells could be attenuated by SphK1, but not SphK2, blockage and were restored by the addition of S1P. Moreover, in these cells, we found S1P stimulation induced the angiogenic factor secretion via S1PR1 and S1PR3, but not S1PR2. Furthermore, inhibition of S1PR1/3, but not S1PR2, attenuated the angiogenic potential and angiogenic factor secretion of the cells. in vivo, blockage of SphK or S1PR1/3 could attenuate ovarian cancer angiogenesis and inhibit angiogenic factor expression in mouse models. Collectively, the current study showed a novel role of SphK1/S1P/S1PR1/3 axis within the ovarian cancer, suggesting a new target to block ovarian cancer angiogenesis.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive interstitial lung disease, wherein transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) contribute to the pathogenesis of fibrosis. However, the in vivo contribution of sphingosine kinase (SphK) in fibrotic processes has not been documented. Microarray analysis of blood mononuclear cells from patients with IPF and SphK1- or SphK2-knockdown mice and SphK inhibitor were used to assess the role of SphKs in fibrogenesis. The expression of SphK1/2 negatively correlated with lung function and survival in patients with IPF. Also, the expression of SphK1 was increased in lung tissues from patients with IPF and bleomycin-challenged mice. Knockdown of SphK1, but not SphK2, increased survival and resistance to pulmonary fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice. Administration of SphK inhibitor reduced bleomycin-induced mortality and pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Knockdown of SphK1 or treatment with SphK inhibitor attenuated S1P generation and TGF-? secretion in a bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis mouse model that was accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of Smad2 and MAPKs in lung tissue. In vitro, bleomycin-induced expression of SphK1 in lung fibroblast was found to be TGF-? dependent. Taken together, these data indicate that SphK1 plays a critical role in the pathology of lung fibrosis and is a novel therapeutic target.
Project description:The two isoforms of sphingosine kinase (SphK1 and SphK2) are the only enzymes that phosphorylate sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is a pleiotropic lipid mediator involved in a broad range of cellular processes including migration, proliferation, and inflammation. SphKs are targets for various diseases such as cancer, fibrosis, and Alzheimer's and sickle cell disease. Herein, we disclose the structure-activity profile of naphthalene-containing SphK inhibitors and molecular modeling studies that reveal a key molecular switch that controls SphK selectivity.
Project description:Phosphatidic acid (PA) and phytosphingosine 1-phosphate (phyto-S1P) both are lipid messengers involved in plant response to abscisic acid (ABA). Our previous data indicate that PA binds to sphingosine kinase (SPHK) and increases its phyto-S1P-producing activity. To understand the cellular and physiological functions of the PA-SPHK interaction, we isolated Arabidopsis thaliana SPHK mutants sphk1-1 and sphk2-1 and characterized them, together with phospholipase D?1 knock-out, pld?1, in plant response to ABA. Compared with wild-type (WT) plants, the SPHK mutants and pld?1 all displayed decreased sensitivity to ABA-promoted stomatal closure. Phyto-S1P promoted stomatal closure in sphk1-1 and sphk2-1, but not in pld?1, whereas PA promoted stomatal closure in sphk1-1, sphk2-1, and pld?1. The ABA activation of PLD?1 in leaves and protoplasts was attenuated in the SPHK mutants, and the ABA activation of SPHK was reduced in pld?1. In response to ABA, the accumulation of long-chain base phosphates was decreased in pld?1, whereas PA production was decreased in SPHK mutants, compared with WT. Collectively, these results indicate that SPHK and PLD?1 act together in ABA response and that SPHK and phyto-S1P act upstream of PLD?1 and PA in mediating the ABA response. PA is involved in the activation of SPHK, and activation of PLD?1 requires SPHK activity. The data suggest that SPHK/phyto-S1P and PLD?1A are co-dependent in amplification of response to ABA, mediating stomatal closure in Arabidopsis.
Project description:In the search for bioactive sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor ligands, a series of 2-amino-2-heterocyclic-propanols were synthesized. These molecules were discovered to be substrates of human-sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SPHK1 and SPHK2). When phosphorylated, the resultant phosphates showed varied activities at the five sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors (S1P(1-5)). Agonism at S1P(1) was displayed in vivo by induction of lymphopenia. A stereochemical preference of the quaternary carbon was crucial for phosphorylation by the kinases and alters binding affinities at the S1P receptors. Oxazole and oxadiazole compounds are superior kinase substrates to FTY720, the prototypical prodrug immunomodulator, fingolimod (FTY720). The oxazole-derived structure was the most active for human SPHK2. Imidazole analogues were less active substrates for SPHKs, but more potent and selective agonists of the S1P(1) receptor; additionally, the imidazole class of compounds rendered mice lymphopenic.