Exploring nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses in Tara Oceans microbial metagenomes.
ABSTRACT: Nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) constitute a group of eukaryotic viruses that can have crucial ecological roles in the sea by accelerating the turnover of their unicellular hosts or by causing diseases in animals. To better characterize the diversity, abundance and biogeography of marine NCLDVs, we analyzed 17 metagenomes derived from microbial samples (0.2-1.6??m size range) collected during the Tara Oceans Expedition. The sample set includes ecosystems under-represented in previous studies, such as the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) and Indian Ocean lagoons. By combining computationally derived relative abundance and direct prokaryote cell counts, the abundance of NCLDVs was found to be in the order of 10(4)-10(5) genomes?ml(-1) for the samples from the photic zone and 10(2)-10(3) genomes?ml(-1) for the OMZ. The Megaviridae and Phycodnaviridae dominated the NCLDV populations in the metagenomes, although most of the reads classified in these families showed large divergence from known viral genomes. Our taxon co-occurrence analysis revealed a potential association between viruses of the Megaviridae family and eukaryotes related to oomycetes. In support of this predicted association, we identified six cases of lateral gene transfer between Megaviridae and oomycetes. Our results suggest that marine NCLDVs probably outnumber eukaryotic organisms in the photic layer (per given water mass) and that metagenomic sequence analyses promise to shed new light on the biodiversity of marine viruses and their interactions with potential hosts.
Project description:Viruses modulate microbial communities and alter ecosystem functions. However, due to cultivation bottlenecks, specific virus-host interaction dynamics remain cryptic. In this study, we examined 127 single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) from uncultivated SUP05 bacteria isolated from a model marine oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) to identify 69 viral contigs representing five new genera within dsDNA Caudovirales and ssDNA Microviridae. Infection frequencies suggest that ?1/3 of SUP05 bacteria is viral-infected, with higher infection frequency where oxygen-deficiency was most severe. Observed Microviridae clonality suggests recovery of bloom-terminating viruses, while systematic co-infection between dsDNA and ssDNA viruses posits previously unrecognized cooperation modes. Analyses of 186 microbial and viral metagenomes revealed that SUP05 viruses persisted for years, but remained endemic to the OMZ. Finally, identification of virus-encoded dissimilatory sulfite reductase suggests SUP05 viruses reprogram their host's energy metabolism. Together, these results demonstrate closely coupled SUP05 virus-host co-evolutionary dynamics with the potential to modulate biogeochemical cycling in climate-critical and expanding OMZs.
Project description:Marine Euryarchaeota remain among the least understood major components of marine microbial communities. Marine group II Euryarchaeota (MG-II) are more abundant in surface waters (4-20% of the total prokaryotic community), whereas marine group III Euryarchaeota (MG-III) are generally considered low-abundance members of deep mesopelagic and bathypelagic communities. Using genome assembly from direct metagenome reads and metagenomic fosmid clones, we have identified six novel MG-III genome sequence bins from the photic zone (Epi1-6) and two novel bins from deep-sea samples (Bathy1-2). Genome completeness in those genome bins varies from 44% to 85%. Photic-zone MG-III bins corresponded to novel groups with no similarity, and significantly lower GC content, when compared with previously described deep-MG-III genome bins. As found in many other epipelagic microorganisms, photic-zone MG-III bins contained numerous photolyase and rhodopsin genes, as well as genes for peptide and lipid uptake and degradation, suggesting a photoheterotrophic lifestyle. Phylogenetic analysis of these photolyases and rhodopsins as well as their genomic context suggests that these genes are of bacterial origin, supporting the hypothesis of an MG-III ancestor that lived in the dark ocean. Epipelagic MG-III occur sporadically and in relatively small proportions in marine plankton, representing only up to 0.6% of the total microbial community reads in metagenomes. None of the reconstructed epipelagic MG-III genomes were present in metagenomes from aphotic zone depths or from high latitude regions. Most low-GC bins were highly enriched at the deep chlorophyll maximum zones, with the exception of Epi1, which appeared evenly distributed throughout the photic zone worldwide.
Project description:Marine viruses are key drivers of host diversity, population dynamics and biogeochemical cycling and contribute to the daily flux of billions of tons of organic matter. Despite recent advancements in metagenomics, much of their biodiversity remains uncharacterized. Here we report a data set of 27,346 marine virome contigs that includes 44 complete genomes. These outnumber all currently known phage genomes in marine habitats and include members of previously uncharacterized lineages. We designed a new method for host prediction based on co-occurrence associations that reveals these viruses infect dominant members of the marine microbiome such as Prochlorococcus and Pelagibacter. A negative association between host abundance and the virus-to-host ratio supports the recently proposed Piggyback-the-Winner model of reduced phage lysis at higher host densities. An analysis of the abundance patterns of viruses throughout the oceans revealed how marine viral communities adapt to various seasonal, temperature and photic regimes according to targeted hosts and the diversity of auxiliary metabolic genes.
Project description:Giant viruses of 'Megaviridae' have the ability to widely disperse around the globe. We herein examined 'Megaviridae' communities in four distinct aquatic environments (coastal and offshore seawater, brackish water, and hot spring freshwater), which are distantly located from each other (between 74 and 1,765 km), using a meta-barcoding method. We identified between 593 and 3,627 OTUs in each sample. Some OTUs were detected in all five samples tested as well as in many of the Tara Oceans metagenomes, suggesting the existence of viruses of this family in a wide range of habitats and the ability to circulate on the planet.
Project description:Since the discovery of the giant mimivirus, evolutionarily related viruses have been isolated or identified from various environments. Phylogenetic analyses of this group of viruses, tentatively referred to as the family "Megaviridae", suggest that it has an ancient origin that may predate the emergence of major eukaryotic lineages. Environmental genomics has since revealed that Megaviridae represents one of the most abundant and diverse groups of viruses in the ocean. In the present study, we compared the taxon richness and phylogenetic diversity of Megaviridae, Bacteria, and Archaea using DNA-dependent RNA polymerase as a common marker gene. By leveraging existing microbial metagenomic data, we found higher richness and phylogenetic diversity in this single viral family than in the two prokaryotic domains. We also obtained results showing that the evolutionary rate alone cannot account for the observed high diversity of Megaviridae lineages. These results suggest that the Megaviridae family has a deep co-evolutionary history with diverse marine protists since the early "Big-Bang" radiation of the eukaryotic tree of life.
Project description:Large dsDNA viruses are involved in the population control of many globally distributed species of eukaryotic phytoplankton and have a prominent role in bloom termination. The genus Phaeocystis (Haptophyta, Prymnesiophyceae) includes several high-biomass-forming phytoplankton species, such as Phaeocystis globosa, the blooms of which occur mostly in the coastal zone of the North Atlantic and the North Sea. Here, we report the 459,984-bp-long genome sequence of P. globosa virus strain PgV-16T, encoding 434 proteins and eight tRNAs and, thus, the largest fully sequenced genome to date among viruses infecting algae. Surprisingly, PgV-16T exhibits no phylogenetic affinity with other viruses infecting microalgae (e.g., phycodnaviruses), including those infecting Emiliania huxleyi, another ubiquitous bloom-forming haptophyte. Rather, PgV-16T belongs to an emerging clade (the Megaviridae) clustering the viruses endowed with the largest known genomes, including Megavirus, Mimivirus (both infecting acanthamoeba), and a virus infecting the marine microflagellate grazer Cafeteria roenbergensis. Seventy-five percent of the best matches of PgV-16T-predicted proteins correspond to two viruses [Organic Lake phycodnavirus (OLPV)1 and OLPV2] from a hypersaline lake in Antarctica (Organic Lake), the hosts of which are unknown. As for OLPVs and other Megaviridae, the PgV-16T sequence data revealed the presence of a virophage-like genome. However, no virophage particle was detected in infected P. globosa cultures. The presence of many genes found only in Megaviridae in its genome and the presence of an associated virophage strongly suggest that PgV-16T shares a common ancestry with the largest known dsDNA viruses, the host range of which already encompasses the earliest diverging branches of domain Eukarya.
Project description:Molecular surveys are revealing diverse eukaryotic assemblages in oxygen-limited ocean waters. These communities may play pivotal ecological roles through autotrophy, feeding, and a wide range of symbiotic associations with prokaryotes. We used 18S rRNA gene sequencing to provide the first snapshot of pelagic microeukaryotic community structure in two cellular size fractions (0.2-1.6 ?m, >1.6 ?m) from seven depths through the anoxic oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off northern Chile. Sequencing of >154,000 amplicons revealed contrasting patterns of phylogenetic diversity across size fractions and depths. Protist and total eukaryote diversity in the >1.6 ?m fraction peaked at the chlorophyll maximum in the upper photic zone before declining by ~50% in the OMZ. In contrast, diversity in the 0.2-1.6 ?m fraction, though also elevated in the upper photic zone, increased four-fold from the lower oxycline to a maximum at the anoxic OMZ core. Dinoflagellates of the Dinophyceae and endosymbiotic Syndiniales clades dominated the protist assemblage at all depths (~40-70% of sequences). Other protist groups varied with depth, with the anoxic zone community of the larger size fraction enriched in euglenozoan flagellates and acantharean radiolarians (up to 18 and 40% of all sequences, respectively). The OMZ 0.2-1.6 ?m fraction was dominated (11-99%) by Syndiniales, which exhibited depth-specific variation in composition and total richness despite uniform oxygen conditions. Metazoan sequences, though confined primarily to the 1.6 ?m fraction above the OMZ, were also detected within the anoxic zone where groups such as copepods increased in abundance relative to the oxycline and upper OMZ. These data, compared to those from other low-oxygen sites, reveal variation in OMZ microeukaryote composition, helping to identify clades with potential adaptations to oxygen-depletion.
Project description:Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1) is the only known virus infecting the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) from the Caribbean Sea. Recently, related viruses, Dikerogammarus haemobaphes virus 1 (DhV1) and Carcinus maenas virus 1 (CmV1), have been detected in the demon shrimp (Dikerogammarus haemobaphes) and the European shore crab (Carcinus maenas), respectively, from sites in the United Kingdom. The virion morphology of these crustacean viruses is similar to that of iridoviruses. However, unlike iridoviruses and other nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs), these viruses complete their morphogenesis in the host cell nucleus rather than in the cytoplasm. To date, these crustacean viruses have remained unclassified due to a lack of genomic data. Using an Illumina MiSeq sequencer, we sequenced the complete genomes of PaV1, CmV1, and DhV1. Comparative genome analysis shows that these crustacean virus genomes encode the 10 hallmark proteins previously described for the NCLDVs of eukaryotes, strongly suggesting that they are members of this group. With a size range of 70 to 74 kb, these are the smallest NCLDV genomes identified to date. Extensive gene loss, divergence of gene sequences, and the accumulation of low-complexity sequences reflect the extreme degradation of the genomes of these "minimal" NCLDVs rather than any direct relationship with the NCLDV ancestor. Phylogenomic analysis supports the classification of these crustacean viruses as a distinct family, "Mininucleoviridae," within the pitho-irido-Marseille branch of the NCLDVs.IMPORTANCE Recent genomic and metagenomic studies have led to a dramatic expansion of the known diversity of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) of eukaryotes, which include giant viruses of protists and important pathogens of vertebrates, such as poxviruses. However, the characterization of viruses from nonmodel hosts still lags behind. We sequenced the complete genomes of three viruses infecting crustaceans, the Caribbean spiny lobster, demon shrimp, and European shore crab. These viruses have the smallest genomes among the known NCLDVs, with losses of many core genes, some of which are shared with iridoviruses. The deterioration of the transcription apparatus is compatible with microscopic and ultrastructural observations indicating that these viruses replicate in the nucleus of infected cells rather than in the cytoplasm. Phylogenomic analysis indicates that these viruses are sufficiently distinct from all other NCLDVs to justify the creation of a separate family, for which we propose the name "Mininucleoviridae" (i.e., small viruses reproducing in the cell nucleus).
Project description:Oceanic viruses that infect bacteria, or phages, are known to modulate host diversity, metabolisms, and biogeochemical cycling, while the viruses that infect marine Archaea remain understudied despite the critical ecosystem roles played by their hosts. Here we introduce "MArVD", for Metagenomic Archaeal Virus Detector, an annotation tool designed to identify putative archaeal virus contigs in metagenomic datasets. MArVD is made publicly available through the online iVirus analytical platform. Benchmarking analysis of MArVD showed it to be >99% accurate and 100% sensitive in identifying the 127 known archaeal viruses among the 12,499 viruses in the VirSorter curated dataset. Application of MArVD to 10 viral metagenomes from two depth profiles in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) oxygen minimum zone revealed 43 new putative archaeal virus genomes and large genome fragments ranging in size from 10 to 31 kb. Network-based classifications, which were consistent with marker gene phylogenies where available, suggested that these putative archaeal virus contigs represented six novel candidate genera. Ecological analyses, via fragment recruitment and ordination, revealed that the diversity and relative abundances of these putative archaeal viruses were correlated with oxygen concentration and temperature along two OMZ-spanning depth profiles, presumably due to structuring of the host Archaea community. Peak viral diversity and abundances were found in surface waters, where Thermoplasmata 16S rRNA genes are prevalent, suggesting these archaea as hosts in the surface habitats. Together these findings provide a baseline for identifying archaeal viruses in sequence datasets, and an initial picture of the ecology of such viruses in non-extreme environments.
Project description:Phosphate (PO(4)) is an important limiting nutrient in marine environments. Marine cyanobacteria scavenge PO(4) using the high-affinity periplasmic phosphate binding protein PstS. The pstS gene has recently been identified in genomes of cyanobacterial viruses as well. Here, we analyse genes encoding transporters in genomes from viruses that infect eukaryotic phytoplankton. We identified inorganic PO(4) transporter-encoding genes from the PHO4 superfamily in several virus genomes, along with other transporter-encoding genes. Homologues of the viral pho4 genes were also identified in genome sequences from the genera that these viruses infect. Genome sequences were available from host genera of all the phytoplankton viruses analysed except the host genus Bathycoccus. Pho4 was recovered from Bathycoccus by sequencing a targeted metagenome from an uncultured Atlantic Ocean population. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that pho4 genes from pelagophytes, haptophytes and infecting viruses were more closely related to homologues in prasinophytes than to those in what, at the species level, are considered to be closer relatives (e.g. diatoms). We also identified PHO4 superfamily members in ocean metagenomes, including new metagenomes from the Pacific Ocean. The environmental sequences grouped with pelagophytes, haptophytes, prasinophytes and viruses as well as bacteria. The analyses suggest that multiple independent pho4 gene transfer events have occurred between marine viruses and both eukaryotic and bacterial hosts. Additionally, pho4 genes were identified in available genomes from viruses that infect marine eukaryotes but not those that infect terrestrial hosts. Commonalities in marine host-virus gene exchanges indicate that manipulation of host-PO(4) uptake is an important adaptation for viral proliferation in marine systems. Our findings suggest that PO(4) -availability may not serve as a simple bottom-up control of marine phytoplankton.