Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K-Rta exhibits SUMO-targeting ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) like activity and is essential for viral reactivation.
ABSTRACT: The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a protein that regulates a wide variety of cellular processes by covalent attachment of SUMO moieties to a diverse array of target proteins. Sumoylation also plays an important role in the replication of many viruses. Previously, we showed that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes a SUMO-ligase, K-bZIP, which catalyzes sumoylation of host and viral proteins. We report here that this virus also encodes a gene that functions as a SUMO-targeting ubiquitin-ligase (STUbL) which preferentially targets sumoylated proteins for degradation. K-Rta, the major transcriptional factor which turns on the entire lytic cycle, was recently found to have ubiquitin ligase activity toward a selected set of substrates. We show in this study that K-Rta contains multiple SIMs (SUMO interacting motif) and binds SUMOs with higher affinity toward SUMO-multimers. Like RNF4, the prototypic cellular STUbL, K-Rta degrades SUMO-2/3 and SUMO-2/3 modified proteins, including promyelocytic leukemia (PML) and K-bZIP. PML-NBs (nuclear bodies) or ND-10 are storage warehouses for sumoylated proteins, which negatively regulate herpesvirus infection, as part of the intrinsic immune response. Herpesviruses have evolved different ways to degrade or disperse PML bodies, and KSHV utilizes K-Rta to inhibit PML-NBs formation. This process depends on K-Rta's ability to bind SUMO, as a K-Rta SIM mutant does not effectively degrade PML. Mutations in the K-Rta Ring finger-like domain or SIM significantly inhibited K-Rta transactivation activity in reporter assays and in the course of viral reactivation. Finally, KSHV with a mutation in the Ring finger-like domain or SIM of K-Rta replicates poorly in culture, indicating that reducing SUMO-conjugates in host cells is important for viral replication. To our knowledge, this is the first virus which encodes both a SUMO ligase and a SUMO-targeting ubiquitin ligase that together may generate unique gene regulatory programs.
Project description:We identify the SUMO-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase (STUbL) family of proteins and propose that STUbLs selectively ubiquitinate sumoylated proteins and proteins that contain SUMO-like domains (SLDs). STUbL recruitment to sumoylated/SLD proteins is mediated by tandem SUMO interaction motifs (SIMs) within the STUbLs N-terminus. STUbL-mediated ubiquitination maintains sumoylation pathway homeostasis by promoting target protein desumoylation and/or degradation. Thus, STUbLs establish a novel mode of communication between the sumoylation and ubiquitination pathways. STUbLs are evolutionarily conserved and include: Schizosaccharomyces pombe Slx8-Rfp (founding member), Homo sapiens RNF4, Dictyostelium discoideum MIP1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Slx5-Slx8. Cells lacking Slx8-Rfp accumulate sumoylated proteins, display genomic instability, and are hypersensitive to genotoxic stress. These phenotypes are suppressed by deletion of the major SUMO ligase Pli1, demonstrating the specificity of STUbLs as regulators of sumoylated proteins. Notably, human RNF4 expression restores SUMO pathway homeostasis in fission yeast lacking Slx8-Rfp, underscoring the evolutionary functional conservation of STUbLs. The DNA repair factor Rad60 and its human homolog NIP45, which contain SLDs, are candidate STUbL targets. Consistently, Rad60 and Slx8-Rfp mutants have similar DNA repair defects.
Project description:Aspects of intrinsic antiviral immunity are mediated by promyelocytic leukemia nuclear body (PML-NB) constituent proteins. During herpesvirus infection, these antiviral proteins are independently recruited to nuclear domains that contain infecting viral genomes to cooperatively promote viral genome silencing. Central to the execution of this particular antiviral response is the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) signaling pathway. However, the participating SUMOylation enzymes are not fully characterized. We identify the SUMO ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) as a constituent PML-NB protein. We show that PIAS1 localizes at PML-NBs in a SUMO interaction motif (SIM)-dependent manner that requires SUMOylated or SUMOylation-competent PML. Following infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), PIAS1 is recruited to nuclear sites associated with viral genome entry in a SIM-dependent manner, consistent with the SIM-dependent recruitment mechanisms of other well-characterized PML-NB proteins. In contrast to that of Daxx and Sp100, however, the recruitment of PIAS1 is enhanced by PML. PIAS1 promotes the stable accumulation of SUMO1 at nuclear sites associated with HSV-1 genome entry, whereas the accumulation of other evaluated PML-NB proteins occurs independently of PIAS1. We show that PIAS1 cooperatively contributes to HSV-1 restriction through mechanisms that are additive to those of PML and cooperative with those of PIAS4. The antiviral mechanisms of PIAS1 are counteracted by ICP0, the HSV-1 SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase, which disrupts the recruitment of PIAS1 to nuclear domains that contain infecting HSV-1 genomes through mechanisms that do not directly result in PIAS1 degradation.Adaptive, innate, and intrinsic immunity cooperatively and efficiently restrict the propagation of viral pathogens. Intrinsic immunity mediated by constitutively expressed cellular proteins represents the first line of intracellular defense against infection. PML-NB constituent proteins mediate aspects of intrinsic immunity to restrict herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) as well as other viruses. These proteins repress viral replication through mechanisms that rely on SUMO signaling. However, the participating SUMOylation enzymes are not known. We identify the SUMO ligase PIAS1 as a constituent PML-NB antiviral protein. This finding distinguishes a SUMO ligase that may mediate signaling events important in PML-NB-mediated intrinsic immunity. Moreover, this research complements the recent identification of PIAS4 as an intrinsic antiviral factor, supporting a role for PIAS proteins as both positive and negative regulators of host immunity to virus infection.
Project description:Human adenovirus (HAdV) E1B-55K is a multifunctional regulator of productive viral replication and oncogenic transformation in nonpermissive mammalian cells. These functions depend on E1B-55K's posttranslational modification with the SUMO protein and its binding to HAdV E4orf6. Both early viral proteins recruit specific host factors to form an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that targets antiviral host substrates for proteasomal degradation. Recently, we reported that the PML-NB-associated factor Daxx represses efficient HAdV productive infection and is proteasomally degraded via a SUMO-E1B-55K-dependent, E4orf6-independent pathway, the details of which remained to be established. RNF4, a cellular SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL), induces ubiquitinylation of specific SUMOylated proteins and plays an essential role during DNA repair. Here, we show that E1B-55K recruits RNF4 to the insoluble nuclear matrix fraction of the infected cell to support RNF4/Daxx association, promoting Daxx PTM and thus inhibiting this antiviral factor. Removing RNF4 from infected cells using RNA interference resulted in blocking the proper establishment of viral replication centers and significantly diminished viral gene expression. These results provide a model for how HAdV antagonize the antiviral host responses by exploiting the functional capacity of cellular STUbLs. Thus, RNF4 and its STUbL function represent a positive factor during lytic infection and a novel candidate for future therapeutic antiviral intervention strategies.IMPORTANCE Daxx is a PML-NB-associated transcription factor that was recently shown to repress efficient HAdV productive infection. To counteract this antiviral measurement during infection, Daxx is degraded via a novel pathway including viral E1B-55K and host proteasomes. This virus-mediated degradation is independent of the classical HAdV E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which is essential during viral infection to target other host antiviral substrates. To maintain a productive viral life cycle, HAdV E1B-55K early viral protein inhibits the chromatin-remodeling factor Daxx in a SUMO-dependent manner. In addition, viral E1B-55K protein recruits the STUbL RNF4 and sequesters it into the insoluble fraction of the infected cell. E1B-55K promotes complex formation between RNF4- and E1B-55K-targeted Daxx protein, supporting Daxx posttranslational modification prior to functional inhibition. Hence, RNF4 represents a novel host factor that is beneficial for HAdV gene expression by supporting Daxx counteraction. In this regard, RNF4 and other STUbL proteins might represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human gammaherpesvirus implicated in AIDS-related neoplasms. Previously, we demonstrated that the early lytic gene product K-bZIP is a transcriptional repressor that affects a subset of viral gene transcriptions mediated by the viral transactivator K-Rta (Y. Izumiya et al. J. Virol. 77:1441-1451, 2003). Sumoylation has emerged as an important posttranslational modification that affects the location and function of cellular and viral proteins and also plays a significant role in transcriptional repression along with Ubc9, the E2 SUMO conjugation enzyme. Here, we provide evidence that K-bZIP is sumoylated at the lysine 158 residue and associates with Ubc9 both in a cell-free system and in virus-infected BCBL-1 cells. Reporter assays showed that the expression of SUMO-specific protease 1 attenuated the transcriptional repression activity of K-bZIP. The expression of a K-bZIPK158R mutant, which was no longer sumoylated, exhibited the reduced transcriptional repression activity. This indicates that sumoylation plays an important part in the transcriptional repression activity of K-bZIP. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that K-bZIP interacts with and recruits Ubc9 to specific KSHV promoters. Thus, our data indicate that K-bZIP is a SUMO adaptor, which recruits Ubc9 to specific viral target promoters, thereby exerting its transcriptional repression activity.
Project description:PML, the organizer of nuclear bodies (NBs), is expressed in several isoforms designated PMLI to VII which differ in their C-terminal region due to alternative splicing of a single gene. This variability is important for the function of the different PML isoforms. PML NB formation requires the covalent linkage of SUMO to PML. Arsenic trioxide (As?O?) enhances PML SUMOylation leading to an increase in PML NB size and promotes its interaction with RNF4, a poly-SUMO-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligase responsible for proteasome-mediated PML degradation. Furthermore, the presence of a bona fide SUMO Interacting Motif (SIM) within the C-terminal region of PML seems to be required for recruitment of other SUMOylated proteins within PML NBs. This motif is present in all PML isoforms, except in the nuclear PMLVI and in the cytoplasmic PMLVII. Using a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assay in living cells, we found that As?O? enhanced the SUMOylation and interaction with RNF4 of nuclear PML isoforms (I to VI). In addition, among the nuclear PML isoforms, only the one lacking the SIM sequence, PMLVI, was resistant to As?O?-induced PML degradation. Similarly, mutation of the SIM in PMLIII abrogated its sensitivity to As?O?-induced degradation. PMLVI and PMLIII-SIM mutant still interacted with RNF4. However, their resistance to the degradation process was due to their inability to be polyubiquitinated and to recruit efficiently the 20S core and the ? regulatory subunit of the 11S complex of the proteasome in PML NBs. Such resistance of PMLVI to As?O?-induced degradation was alleviated by overexpression of RNF4. Our results demonstrate that the SIM of PML is dispensable for PML SUMOylation and interaction with RNF4 but is required for efficient PML ubiquitination, recruitment of proteasome components within NBs and proteasome-dependent degradation of PML in response to As?O?.
Project description:Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification of chromatin has profound effects on transcription regulation. By using Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) as a model, we recently demonstrated that epigenetic modification of viral chromatin by SUMO-2/3 is involved in regulating gene expression and viral reactivation. However, how this modification orchestrates transcription reprogramming through targeting histone modifying enzymes remains largely unknown. Here we show that JMJD2A, the first identified Jumonji C domain-containing histone demethylase, is the histone demethylase responsible for SUMO-2/3 enrichment on the KSHV genome during viral reactivation. Using in vitro and in vivo SUMOylation assays, we found that JMJD2A is SUMOylated on lysine 471 by KSHV K-bZIP, a viral SUMO-2/3-specific E3 ligase, in a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM)-dependent manner. SUMOylation is required for stabilizing chromatin association and gene transactivation by JMJD2A. These finding suggest that SUMO-2/3 modification plays an essential role in the epigenetic regulatory function of JMJD2A. Consistently, hierarchical clustering analysis of RNA-seq data showed that a SUMO-deficient mutant of JMJD2A was more closely related to JMJD2A knockdown than to wild-type. Our previous report demonstrated that JMJD2A coated and maintained the "ready to activate" status of the viral genome. Consistent with our previous report, a SUMO-deficient mutant of JMJD2A reduced viral gene expression and virion production. Importantly, JMJD2A has been implicated as an oncogene in various cancers by regulating proliferation. We therefore further analyzed the role of SUMO modification of JMJD2A in regulating cell proliferation. Interestingly, the SUMO-deficient mutant of JMJD2A failed to rescue the proliferation defect of JMJD2A knockdown cells. Emerging specific inhibitors of JMJD2A have been generated for evaluation in cancer studies. Our results revealed that SUMO conjugation mediates an epigenetic regulatory function of JMJD2A and suggests that inhibiting JMJD2A SUMOylation may be a novel avenue for anti-cancer therapy.
Project description:Modification with SUMO regulates many eukaryotic proteins. Down-regulation of sumoylated forms of proteins involves either their desumoylation, and hence recycling of the unmodified form, or their proteolytic targeting by ubiquitin ligases that recognize their SUMO modification (termed STUbL or ULS). STUbL enzymes such as Uls1 and Slx5-Slx8 in budding yeast or RNF4 and Arkadia/RNF111 in humans bear multiple SUMO interaction motifs to recognize substrates carrying poly-SUMO chains. Using yeast as experimental system and isothermal titration calorimetry, we here show that Arkadia specifically selects substrates carrying SUMO1-capped SUMO2/3 hybrid conjugates and targets them for proteasomal degradation. Our data suggest that a SUMO1-specific binding site in Arkadia with sequence similarity to a SUMO1-binding site in DPP9 is required for targeting endogenous hybrid SUMO conjugates and PML nuclear bodies in human cells. We thus characterize Arkadia as a STUbL with a preference for substrate proteins marked with distinct hybrid SUMO chains.
Project description:Krüppel-associated box domain-associated protein 1 (KAP1) is a universal transcriptional corepressor that undergoes multiple posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including SUMOylation and Ser-824 phosphorylation. However, the functional interplay of KAP1 PTMs in regulating KAP1 turnover during DNA damage response remains unclear. To decipher the role and cross-talk of multiple KAP1 PTMs, we show here that DNA double strand break-induced KAP1 Ser-824 phosphorylation promoted the recruitment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted ubiquitin E3 ligase, ring finger protein 4 (RNF4), and subsequent RNF4-mediated, SUMO-dependent degradation. Besides the SUMO interacting motif (SIM), a previously unrecognized, but evolutionarily conserved, arginine-rich motif (ARM) in RNF4 acts as a novel recognition motif for selective target recruitment. Results from combined mutagenesis and computational modeling studies suggest that RNF4 utilizes concerted bimodular recognition, namely SIM for Lys-676 SUMOylation and ARM for Ser(P)-824 of simultaneously phosphorylated and SUMOylated KAP1 (Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1). Furthermore, we proved that arginines 73 and 74 within the ARM of RNF4 are required for efficient recruitment to KAP1 or accelerated degradation of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) under stress. In parallel, results of bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays validated the role of the ARM in recognizing Ser(P)-824 in living cells. Taken together, we establish that the ARM is required for RNF4 to efficiently target Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1, conferring ubiquitin Lys-48-mediated proteasomal degradation in the context of double strand breaks. The conservation of such a motif may possibly explain the requirement for timely substrate selectivity determination among a myriad of SUMOylated proteins under stress conditions. Thus, the ARM dynamically regulates the SIM-dependent recruitment of targets to RNF4, which could be critical to dynamically fine-tune the abundance of Ser(P)-824-SUMO-KAP1 and, potentially, other SUMOylated proteins during DNA damage response.
Project description:RNF4 (RING finger protein 4) is a STUbL [SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier)-targeted ubiquitin ligase] controlling PML (promyelocytic leukaemia) nuclear bodies, DNA double strand break repair and other nuclear functions. In the present paper, we describe that the sequence and spacing of the SIMs (SUMO-interaction motifs) in RNF4 regulate the avidity-driven recognition of substrate proteins carrying SUMO chains of variable length.
Project description:SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) recognize sumoylated proteins as substrates for ubiquitylation and have been implicated in several aspects of DNA repair and the damage response. However, few physiological STUbL substrates have been identified, and the relative importance of SUMO binding versus direct interactions with the substrate remains a matter of debate. We now present evidence that the ubiquitin ligase Rad18 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which monoubiquitylates the sliding clamp protein proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in response to DNA damage, exhibits the hallmarks of a STUbL. Although not completely dependent on sumoylation, Rad18's activity towards PCNA is strongly enhanced by the presence of SUMO on the clamp. The stimulation is brought about by a SUMO-interacting motif in Rad18, which also mediates sumoylation of Rad18 itself. Our results imply that sumoylated PCNA is the physiological ubiquitylation target of budding yeast Rad18 and suggest a new mechanism by which the transition from S phase-associated sumoylation to damage-induced ubiquitylation of PCNA is accomplished.