Enlargement of cerebral ventricles as an early indicator of encephalomyelitis.
ABSTRACT: Inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis involve an invasion of immune cells that ultimately leads to white matter demyelination, neurodegeneration and development of neurological symptoms. A clinical diagnosis is often made when neurodegenerative processes are already ongoing. In an attempt to seek early indicators of disease, we studied the temporal and spatial distribution of brain modifications in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In a thorough magnetic resonance imaging study performed with EAE mice, we observed significant enlargement of the ventricles prior to disease clinical manifestation and an increase in free water content within the cerebrospinal fluid as demonstrated by changes in T2 relaxation times. The increase in ventricle size was seen in the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. In some EAE mice the ventricle size started returning to normal values during disease remission. In parallel to this macroscopic phenomenon, we studied the temporal evolution of microscopic lesions commonly observed in the cerebellum also starting prior to disease onset. Our data suggest that changes in ventricle size during the early stages of brain inflammation could be an early indicator of the events preceding neurological disease and warrant further exploration in preclinical and clinical studies.
Project description:Cardiac diseases (e.g. coronary and valve) are associated with ventricular cellular remodeling. However, ventricular biopsies from left and right ventricles from patients with different pathologies are rare and thus little is known about disease-induced cellular remodeling in both sides of the heart and between different diseases. We hypothesized that the protein expression profiles between right and left ventricles of patients with aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are different and that the protein profile is different between the two diseases. Left and right ventricular biopsies were collected from patients with either CAD or AVS. The biopsies were processed for proteomic analysis using isobaric tandem mass tagging and analyzed by reverse phase nano-LC-MS/MS. Western blot for selected proteins showed strong correlation with proteomic analysis.Proteomic analysis between ventricles of the same disease (intra-disease) and between ventricles of different diseases (inter-disease) identified more than 500 proteins detected in all relevant ventricular biopsies. Comparison between ventricles and disease state was focused on proteins with relatively high fold (±1.2 fold difference) and significant (P < 0.05) differences. Intra-disease protein expression differences between left and right ventricles were largely structural for AVS patients and largely signaling/metabolism for CAD. Proteins commonly associated with hypertrophy were also different in the AVS group but with lower fold difference. Inter-disease differences between left ventricles of AVS and CAD were detected in 9 proteins. However, inter-disease differences between the right ventricles of CAD and AVS patients were associated with differences in 73 proteins. The majority of proteins which had a significant difference in one ventricle compared to the other pathology also had a similar trend in the adjacent ventricle.This work demonstrates for the first time that left and right ventricles have a different proteome and that the difference is dependent on the type of disease. Inter-disease differential expression was more prominent for right ventricles. The finding that a protein change in one ventricle was often associated with a similar trend in the adjacent ventricle for a large number of proteins suggests cross-talk proteome remodeling between adjacent ventricles.
Project description:The presence of morphometric abnormalities of the lateral ventricles, which can reflect focal or diffuse atrophic changes of nearby brain structures, is not well characterized in methamphetamine dependence. The current study was aimed to examine the size and shape alterations of the lateral ventricles in methamphetamine-dependent subjects.High-resolution brain structural images were obtained from 37 methamphetamine-dependent subjects and 25 demographically matched healthy individuals. Using a combined volumetric and surface-based morphometric approach, the structural variability of the lateral ventricles, with respect to extent and location, was examined.Methamphetamine-dependent subjects had an enlarged right lateral ventricle compared with healthy individuals. Morphometric analysis revealed a region-specific pattern of lateral ventricular expansion associated with methamphetamine dependence, which was mainly distributed in the areas adjacent to the ventral striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, and thalamus.Patterns of shape decomposition in the lateral ventricles may have relevance to the structural vulnerability of the prefrontal-ventral striatal-thalamic circuit to methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.
Project description:Investigating the mechanisms by which metabolic wastes are cleared from nervous tissue is important for understanding natural function and the pathophysiology of several neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Recent evidence suggests clearance may be the function of annular spaces around cerebral blood vessels, called perivascular spaces (PVS), through which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is transported from the subarachnoid space into brain parenchyma to exchange with interstitial fluid (also known as the glymphatic system). In this work, an MRI-based methodology was developed to reconstruct the PVS network in whole rat brain to better elucidate both PVS uptake and clearance pathways. MR visible tracer (Gd-albumin) was infused in vivo into the CSF-filled lateral ventricle followed by ex vivo high-resolution MR imaging at 17.6?T with an image voxel volume two orders of magnitude smaller than previously reported. Imaged tracer distribution patterns were reconstructed to obtain a more complete brain PVS network. Several PVS connections were repeatedly highlighted across different animals, and new PVS connections between ventricles and different parts of the brain parenchyma were revealed suggesting a possible role for the ventricles as a source or sink for solutes in the brain. In the future, this methodology may be applied to understand changes in the PVS network with disease.
Project description:The aim of this study was to gain better understanding of the variable anatomical features of double inlet left ventricle hearts without cavopulmonary connection that would potentially facilitate favorable streaming. Thirty-nine post-mortem specimens of double inlet left ventricle without cavopulmonary connection were investigated. The focus was on anatomical characteristics that could influence the flow and separation of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood in the ventricles. Elements of interest were the ventriculoarterial connection, the spatial relationship of the ventricles, the position and size of the great arteries, the ventricular septal defect, the presence of relative outflow tract stenosis and the relationship of the inflow and outflow tracts. The most common anatomy was a discordant ventriculoarterial connection with an anatomically left-sided morphologically right ventricle (n = 12, 31%). When looking at the pulmonary trunk/aorta ratio, 21 (72%) hearts showed no pulmonary stenosis relative to the aorta. The ventricular septal defect created a relative subpulmonary or subaortic stenosis in 13 (41%) cases. Sixteen (41%) hearts had a parallel relationship of the inflow and outflow tracts, facilitating separation of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood streams. On the other end of the spectrum were 10 (25%) hearts with a perpendicular relationship, which might lead to maximum mixing of the blood streams. The relationship of the inflow and outflow tracts as well as the presence of (sub-) pulmonary stenosis might play a crucial role in the distribution of blood in double inlet left ventricle hearts. Additional in vivo studies will be necessary to confirm this postulation.
Project description:Transplantation of embryonic stem cells and their neural derivatives can lead to amelioration of the disease symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Oligodendroglial progenitors (OPs), derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC, HES-1), were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide and transduced with luciferase. At 7 days following induction of EAE in C57/BL6 mice, 1 × 10(6) cells were transplanted in the ventricles of C57/BL6 mice and noninvasively monitored by magnetic resonance and bioluminescence imaging. Cells were found to remain within the cerebroventricular system and did not survive for more than 10 days. However, EAE mice that received hESC-OPs showed a significant improvement in neurological disability scores (0.9 ± 0.2; n = 12) compared to that of control animals (3.3 ± 0.4; n = 12) at day 15 post-transplantation. Histopathologically, transplanted hESC-OPs generated TREM2-positive CD45 cells, increased TIMP-1 expression, confined inflammatory cells within the subarachnoid space, and gave rise to higher numbers of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells in the spinal cord and spleen. Our results suggest that transplantation of hESC-OPs can alter the pathogenesis of EAE through immunomodulation, potentially providing new avenues for stem cell-based treatment of MS.
Project description:The sodium osmotic gradient is necessary for the initiation of brain ventricle inflation, but a previous study predicted that organic and inorganic osmolytes play equivalently important roles in osmotic homeostasis in astrocytes. To test whether organic osmoregulation also plays a role in brain ventricle inflation, the core component for volume-regulated anion and organic osmolyte channel, lrrc8a, was investigated in the zebrafish model. RT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization indicated that both genes were ubiquitously expressed through to 12?hpf, and around the ventricular layer of neural tubes and the cardiogenic region at 24?hpf. Knocking down either one lrrc8a paralog with morpholino oligos resulted in abnormalities in circulation at 32?hpf. Morpholino oligos or CRISPR interference against either paralog led to smaller brain ventricles at 24?hpf. Either lrrc8aa or lrrc8ab mRNA rescued the phenotypic penetrance in both lrrc8aa and lrrc8ab morphants. Supplementation of taurine in the E3 medium and overexpression csad mRNA also rescued lrrc8aa and lrrc8ab morphants. Our results indicate that the two zebrafish lrrc8a paralogs are maternal message genes and are ubiquitously expressed in early embryos. The two genes play redundant roles in the expansion of brain ventricles and the circulatory system and taurine contributes to brain ventricle expansion via the volume-regulated anion and organic osmolyte channels.
Project description:This study measured how heart failure affects the contractile properties of the human myocardium from the left and right ventricles. The data showed that maximum force and maximum power were reduced by approximately 30% in multicellular preparations from both ventricles, possibly because of ventricular remodeling (e.g., cellular disarray and/or excess fibrosis). Heart failure increased the calcium (Ca2+) sensitivity of contraction in both ventricles, but the effect was bigger in right ventricular samples. The changes in Ca2+ sensitivity were associated with ventricle-specific changes in the phosphorylation of troponin I, which indicated that adrenergic stimulation might induce different effects in the left and right ventricles.
Project description:The ventricles of the brain remain perhaps the largest anatomic structure in the human body without established primary purpose, even though their existence has been known at least since described by Aristotle. We hypothesize that the ventricles help match a stroke volume of arterial blood that arrives into the rigid cranium with an equivalent volume of ejected venous blood by spatially configuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to act as a low viscosity relay medium for arteriovenous pulse wave (PW) phase coupling. We probe the hypothesis by comparing the spatiotemporal behavior of vascular PW about the ventricular surfaces in piglets to internal observations of ventricle wall motions and adjacent CSF pressure variations in humans. With wavelet brain angiography data obtained from piglets, we map the travel relative to brain pulse motion of arterial and venous PWs over the ventricle surfaces. We find that arterial PWs differ in CF phase from venous PWs over the surfaces of the ventricles consistent with arteriovenous PW phase coupling. We find a spatiotemporal difference in vascular PW phase between the ventral and dorsal ventricular surfaces, with the PWs arriving slightly sooner to the ventral surfaces. In humans undergoing neuroendoscopic surgery for hydrocephalus, we measure directly ventricle wall motions and the adjacent internal CSF pressure variations. We find that CSF pressure peaks slightly earlier in the ventral Third Ventricle than the dorsal Lateral Ventricle. When matched anatomically, the peri-ventricular vascular PW phase distribution in piglets complements the endo-ventricular CSF PW phase distribution in humans. This is consistent with a role for the ventricles in arteriovenous PW coupling and may add a framework for understanding hydrocephalus and other disturbances of intracranial pressure.
Project description:The choroid plexus and cerebral ventricles are critical structures for the production of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and play an important role in regulating ion and metal transport in the brain, however many aspects of its roles in normal physiology and disease states, such as psychiatric illness, remain unknown. The choroid plexus is difficult to examine in vivo, and in situ ex vivo, and as such has typically been examined indirectly with radiolabeled tracers or ex vivo stains, making measurements of the endogenous K+, Cl-, and Ca+ distributions unreliable. In the present study, we directly examined the distribution of endogenous ions and biologically relevant transition metals in the choroid plexus and regions surrounding the ventricles (ventricle wall, cortex, corpus callosum, striatum) using X-ray fluorescence imaging (XFI). We find that the choroid plexus was rich in Cl- and Fe while K+ levels increase further from the ventricle as Cl- levels decrease, consistent with the known role of ion transporters in the choroid plexus CSF production. A polyI:C offspring displayed enlarged ventricles, elevated Cl- surrounding the ventricles, and intraventricular calcifications. These observations fit with clinical findings in patients with schizophrenia and suggest maternal treatment with polyI:C may lead to dysfunctional ion regulation in offspring. This study demonstrates the power of XFI for examining the endogenous elemental distributions of the ventricular system in healthy brain tissue as well as disease models.
Project description:Several inherited arrhythmias primarily affect the right ventricle, including Brugada syndrome and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, however the molecular basis of this chamber predilection is not well understood. Right and left ventricular cardiomyocytes derive from distinct progenitor populations. Here, we show that Hrt2, a gene associated with Brugada syndrome, is a direct target of Wnt signaling in the right ventricle and Notch signaling in the left ventricle. Perturbations of Wnt and Notch signaling during development and in the adult lead to chamber-specific transcriptional effects on Hrt2 expression associated with distinct binding patterns to Hrt2 enhancers. Differential enhancer binding is present at early developmental stages when the signaling pathways are active and persists into adulthood. Consistent with chamber-specific regulation, mice deficient in Wnt transcriptional activity dysregulate only a small fraction of transcripts in common between ventricles. Wnt target gen es important for cellular electrophysiology are differentially regulated, resulting in perturbed cardiac conduction and cellular electrophysiological parameters only within the right ventricle. Ex vivo and in vivo physiologic stimulation of the right ventricle is sufficient to induce ventricular tachycardia in Wnt transcriptionally inactive hearts, while left ventricular stimulation has no effect. Taken together, these data delineate mechanisms underlying ventricular-specific arrhythmia susceptibility due to embryonic programming. Overall design: RNA-seq data of Wnt GOF ventricles from e12.5 embryonic hearts n=6 for each group (control ventricles, wntgof ventricles)