Three-stage biochemical selection: cloning of prototype class IIS/IIC/IIG restriction endonuclease-methyltransferase TsoI from the thermophile Thermus scotoductus.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In continuing our research into the new family of bifunctional restriction endonucleases (REases), we describe the cloning of the tsoIRM gene. Currently, the family includes six thermostable enzymes: TaqII, Tth111II, TthHB27I, TspGWI, TspDTI, TsoI, isolated from various Thermus sp. and two thermolabile enzymes: RpaI and CchII, isolated from mesophilic bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Chlorobium chlorochromatii, respectively. The enzymes have several properties in common. They are large proteins (molecular size app. 120 kDa), coded by fused genes, with the REase and methyltransferase (MTase) in a single polypeptide, where both activities are affected by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). They recognize similar asymmetric cognate sites and cleave at a distance of 11/9 nt from the recognition site. Thus far, we have cloned and characterised TaqII, Tth111II, TthHB27I, TspGWI and TspDTI. RESULTS: TsoI REase, which originate from thermophilic Thermus scotoductus RFL4 (T. scotoductus), was cloned in Escherichia coli (E. coli) using two rounds of biochemical selection of the T. scotoductus genomic library for the TsoI methylation phenotype. DNA sequencing of restriction-resistant clones revealed the common open reading frame (ORF) of 3348 bp, coding for a large polypeptide of 1116 aminoacid (aa) residues, which exhibited a high level of similarity to Tth111II (50% identity, 60% similarity). The ORF was PCR-amplified, subcloned into a pET21 derivative under the control of a T7 promoter and was subjected to the third round of biochemical selection in order to isolate error-free clones. Induction experiments resulted in synthesis of an app. 125 kDa protein, exhibiting TsoI-specific DNA cleavage. Also, the wild-type (wt) protein was purified and reaction optima were determined. CONCLUSIONS: Previously we identified and cloned the Thermus family RM genes using a specially developed method based on partial proteolysis of thermostable REases. In the case of TsoI the classic biochemical selection method was successful, probably because of the substantially lower optimal reaction temperature of TsoI (app. 10-15°C). That allowed for sufficient MTase activity in vivo in recombinant E. coli. Interestingly, TsoI originates from bacteria with a high optimum growth temperature of 67°C, which indicates that not all bacterial enzymes match an organism's thermophilic nature, and yet remain functional cell components. Besides basic research advances, the cloning and characterisation of the new prototype REase from the Thermus sp. family enzymes is also of practical importance in gene manipulation technology, as it extends the range of available DNA cleavage specificities.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We previously defined a family of restriction endonucleases (REases) from Thermus sp., which share common biochemical and biophysical features, such as the fusion of both the nuclease and methyltransferase (MTase) activities in a single polypeptide, cleavage at a distance from the recognition site, large molecular size, modulation of activity by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and incomplete cleavage of the substrate DNA. Members include related thermophilic REases with five distinct specificities: TspGWI, TaqII, Tth111II/TthHB27I, TspDTI and TsoI. RESULTS: TspDTI, TsoI and isoschizomers Tth111II/TthHB27I recognize different, but related sequences: 5'-ATGAA-3', 5'-TARCCA-3' and 5'-CAARCA-3' respectively. Their amino acid sequences are similar, which is unusual among REases of different specificity. To gain insight into this group of REases, TspDTI, the prototype member of the Thermus sp. enzyme family, was cloned and characterized using a recently developed method for partially cleaving REases. CONCLUSIONS: TspDTI, TsoI and isoschizomers Tth111II/TthHB27I are closely related bifunctional enzymes. They comprise a tandem arrangement of Type I-like domains, like other Type IIC enzymes (those with a fusion of a REase and MTase domains), e.g. TspGWI, TaqII and MmeI, but their sequences are only remotely similar to these previously characterized enzymes. The characterization of TspDTI, a prototype member of this group, extends our understanding of sequence-function relationships among multifunctional restriction-modification enzymes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Restriction-modification systems are a diverse class of enzymes. They are classified into four major types: I, II, III and IV. We have previously proposed the existence of a Thermus sp. enzyme family, which belongs to type II restriction endonucleases (REases), however, it features also some characteristics of types I and III. Members include related thermophilic endonucleases: TspGWI, TaqII, TspDTI, and Tth111II. RESULTS: Here we describe cloning, mutagenesis and analysis of the prototype TspGWI enzyme that recognises the 5'-ACGGA-3' site and cleaves 11/9 nt downstream. We cloned, expressed, and mutagenised the tspgwi gene and investigated the properties of its product, the bifunctional TspGWI restriction/modification enzyme. Since TspGWI does not cleave DNA completely, a cloning method was devised, based on amino acid sequencing of internal proteolytic fragments. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme shares significant sequence similarity with another representative of the Thermus sp. family - TaqII. Interestingly, these enzymes recognise similar, yet different sequences in the DNA. Both enzymes cleave DNA at the same distance, but differ in their ability to cleave single sites and in the requirement of S-adenosylmethionine as an allosteric activator for cleavage. Both the restriction endonuclease (REase) and methyltransferase (MTase) activities of wild type (wt) TspGWI (either recombinant or isolated from Thermus sp.) are dependent on the presence of divalent cations. CONCLUSION: TspGWI is a bifunctional protein comprising a tandem arrangement of Type I-like domains; particularly noticeable is the central HsdM-like module comprising a helical domain and a highly conserved S-adenosylmethionine-binding/catalytic MTase domain, containing DPAVGTG and NPPY motifs. TspGWI also possesses an N-terminal PD-(D/E)XK nuclease domain related to the corresponding domains in HsdR subunits, but lacks the ATP-dependent translocase module of the HsdR subunit and the additional domains that are involved in subunit-subunit interactions in Type I systems. The MTase and REase activities of TspGWI are autonomous and can be uncoupled. Structurally and functionally, the TspGWI protomer appears to be a streamlined 'half' of a Type I enzyme.
Project description:The TspDTI restriction endonuclease, which shows a novel recognition specificity 5'-ATGAA(N(11/9))-3', was isolated from Thermus sp. DT. TspDTI appears to be a 'twin' of restriction endonuclease TspGWI from Thermus sp. GW, as we have previously reported. TspGWI was isolated from the same location as TspDTI, it recognizes a related sequence 5'-ACGGA(N(11/9))-3' and has conserved cleavage positions. Both enzymes resemble two other class-IIS endonucleases from Thermus sp.: TaqII and Tth111II. N-terminal amino acid sequences of TspGWI tryptic peptides exhibit 88.9-100% similarity to the TaqII sequence. All four enzymes were purified to homogeneity; their polypeptide sizes (114.5-122 kDa) make them the largest class-IIS restriction endonucleases known to date. The existence of a Thermus sp. sub-family of class-IIS restriction endonucleases of a common origin is herein proposed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: An industrial approach to protein production demands maximization of cloned gene expression, balanced with the recombinant host's viability. Expression of toxic genes from thermophiles poses particular difficulties due to high GC content, mRNA secondary structures, rare codon usage and impairing the host's coding plasmid replication.TaqII belongs to a family of bifunctional enzymes, which are a fusion of the restriction endonuclease (REase) and methyltransferase (MTase) activities in a single polypeptide. The family contains thermostable REases with distinct specificities: TspGWI, TaqII, Tth111II/TthHB27I, TspDTI and TsoI and a few enzymes found in mesophiles. While not being isoschizomers, the enzymes exhibit amino acid (aa) sequence homologies, having molecular sizes of ~120 kDa share common modular architecture, resemble Type-I enzymes, cleave DNA 11/9 nt from the recognition sites, their activity is affected by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). RESULTS: We describe the taqIIRM gene design, cloning and expression of the prototype TaqII. The enzyme amount in natural hosts is extremely low. To improve expression of the taqIIRM gene in Escherichia coli (E. coli), we designed and cloned a fully synthetic, low GC content, low mRNA secondary structure taqIIRM, codon-optimized gene under a bacteriophage lambda (?) PR promoter. Codon usage based on a modified 'one amino acid-one codon' strategy, weighted towards low GC content codons, resulted in approximately 10-fold higher expression of the synthetic gene. 718 codons of total 1105 were changed, comprising 65% of the taqIIRM gene. The reason for we choose a less effective strategy rather than a resulting in high expression yields 'codon randomization' strategy, was intentional, sub-optimal TaqII in vivo production, in order to decrease the high 'toxicity' of the REase-MTase protein. CONCLUSIONS: Recombinant wt and synthetic taqIIRM gene were cloned and expressed in E. coli. The modified 'one amino acid-one codon' method tuned for thermophile-coded genes was applied to obtain overexpression of the 'toxic' taqIIRM gene. The method appears suited for industrial production of thermostable 'toxic' enzymes in E. coli. This novel variant of the method biased toward increasing a gene's AT content may provide economic benefits for industrial applications.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Genomics and metagenomics are currently leading research areas, with DNA sequences accumulating at an exponential rate. Although enormous advances in DNA sequencing technologies are taking place, progress is frequently limited by factors such as genomic contig assembly and generation of representative libraries. A number of DNA fragmentation methods, such as hydrodynamic sharing, sonication or DNase I fragmentation, have various drawbacks, including DNA damage, poor fragmentation control, irreproducibility and non-overlapping DNA segment representation. Improvements in these limited DNA scission methods are consequently needed. An alternative method for obtaining higher quality DNA fragments involves partial digestion with restriction endonucleases (REases). RESULTS: We constructed a horse genomic library and a deletion derivative library of the butyrylcholinesterase cDNA coding region using a novel method, based on TaqII, Thermus sp. family bifunctional enzyme exhibiting cofactor analogue specificity relaxation. We used sinefungin (SIN) - an S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) analogue with reversed charge pattern, and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), to convert the 6-bp recognition site TaqII (5'-GACCGA-3' [11/9]) into a theoretical 2.9-bp REase, with 70 shortened variants of the canonical recognition sequence detected. Because partial DNA cleavage is an inherent feature of the Thermus sp. enzyme family, this modified TaqII is uniquely suited to quasi-random library generation. CONCLUSIONS: In the presence of SIN/DMSO, TaqII REase is transformed from cleaving every 4096 bp on average to cleaving every 58 bp. TaqII SIN/DMSO thus extends the palette of available REase prototype specificities. This phenomenon, employed under partial digestion conditions, was applied to quasi-random DNA fragmentation. Further applications include high sensitivity probe generation and metagenomic DNA amplification.
Project description:Over 470 prototype Type II restriction endonucleases (REases) are currently known. Most recognise specific DNA sequences 4-8 bp long, with very few exceptions cleaving DNA more frequently. TsoI is a thermostable Type IIC enzyme that recognises the DNA sequence TARCCA (R = A or G) and cleaves downstream at N11/N9. The enzyme exhibits extensive top-strand nicking of the supercoiled single-site DNA substrate. The second DNA strand of such substrate is specifically cleaved only in the presence of duplex oligonucleotides containing a cognate site. We have previously shown that some Type IIC/IIG/IIS enzymes from the Thermus-family exhibit 'affinity star' activity, which can be induced by the S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) cofactor analogue-sinefungin (SIN). Here, we define a novel type of inherently built-in 'star' activity, exemplified by TsoI. The TsoI 'star' activity cannot be described under the definition of the classic 'star' activity as it is independent of the reaction conditions used and cannot be separated from the cognate specificity. Therefore, we define this phenomenon as Secondary-Cognate-Specificity (SCS). The TsoI SCS comprises several degenerated variants of the cognate site. Although the efficiency of TsoI SCS cleavage is lower in comparison to the cognate TsoI recognition sequence, it can be stimulated by S-adenosyl-L-cysteine (SAC). We present a new route for the chemical synthesis of SAC. The TsoI/SAC REase may serve as a novel tool for DNA manipulation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acoustic or hydrodynamic shearing, sonication and enzymatic digestion are used to fragment DNA. However, these methods have several disadvantages, such as DNA damage, difficulties in fragmentation control, irreproducibility and under-representation of some DNA segments. The DNA fragmentation tool would be a gentle enzymatic method, offering cleavage frequency high enough to eliminate DNA fragments distribution bias and allow for easy control of partial digests. Only three such frequently cleaving natural restriction endonucleases (REases) were discovered: CviJI, SetI and FaiI. Therefore, we have previously developed two artificial enzymatic specificities, cleaving DNA approximately every ~?3-bp: TspGWI/sinefungin (SIN) and TaqII/SIN. RESULTS:In this paper we present the third developed specificity: TthHB27I/SIN(SAM) - a new genomic tool, based on Type IIS/IIC/IIG Thermus-family REases-methyltransferases (MTases). In the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) or its analogue SIN, the 6-bp cognate TthHB27I recognition sequence 5'-CAARCA-3' is converted into a combined 3.2-3.0-bp 'site' or its statistical equivalent, while a cleavage distance of 11/9 nt is retained. Protocols for various modes of limited DNA digestions were developed. CONCLUSIONS:In the presence of DMSO and SAM or SIN, TthHB27I is transformed from rare 6-bp cutter to a very frequent one, approximately 3-bp. Thus, TthHB27I/SIN(SAM) comprises a new tool in the very low-represented segment of such prototype REases specificities. Moreover, this modified TthHB27I enzyme is uniquely suited for controlled DNA fragmentation, due to partial DNA cleavage, which is an inherent feature of the Thermus-family enzymes. Such tool can be used for quasi-random libraries generation as well as for other DNA manipulations, requiring high frequency cleavage and uniform distribution of cuts along DNA.
Project description:For a very long time, Type II restriction enzymes (REases) have been a paradigm of ORFans: proteins with no detectable similarity to each other and to any other protein in the database, despite common cellular and biochemical function. Crystallographic analyses published until January 2008 provided high-resolution structures for only 28 of 1637 Type II REase sequences available in the Restriction Enzyme database (REBASE). Among these structures, all but two possess catalytic domains with the common PD-(D/E)XK nuclease fold. Two structures are unrelated to the others: R.BfiI exhibits the phospholipase D (PLD) fold, while R.PabI has a new fold termed 'half-pipe'. Thus far, bioinformatic studies supported by site-directed mutagenesis have extended the number of tentatively assigned REase folds to five (now including also GIY-YIG and HNH folds identified earlier in homing endonucleases) and provided structural predictions for dozens of REase sequences without experimentally solved structures. Here, we present a comprehensive study of all Type II REase sequences available in REBASE together with their homologs detectable in the nonredundant and environmental samples databases at the NCBI. We present the summary and critical evaluation of structural assignments and predictions reported earlier, new classification of all REase sequences into families, domain architecture analysis and new predictions of three-dimensional folds. Among 289 experimentally characterized (not putative) Type II REases, whose apparently full-length sequences are available in REBASE, we assign 199 (69%) to contain the PD-(D/E)XK domain. The HNH domain is the second most common, with 24 (8%) members. When putative REases are taken into account, the fraction of PD-(D/E)XK and HNH folds changes to 48% and 30%, respectively. Fifty-six characterized (and 521 predicted) REases remain unassigned to any of the five REase folds identified so far, and may exhibit new architectures. These enzymes are proposed as the most interesting targets for structure determination by high-resolution experimental methods. Our analysis provides the first comprehensive map of sequence-structure relationships among Type II REases and will help to focus the efforts of structural and functional genomics of this large and biotechnologically important class of enzymes.
Project description:Two restriction-modification systems have been previously discovered in Thermus aquaticus YT-1. TaqI is a 263-amino acid (aa) Type IIP restriction enzyme that recognizes and cleaves within the symmetric sequence 5'-TCGA-3'. TaqII, in contrast, is a 1105-aa Type IIC restriction-and-modification enzyme, one of a family of Thermus homologs. TaqII was originally reported to recognize two different asymmetric sequences: 5'-GACCGA-3' and 5'-CACCCA-3'. We previously cloned the taqIIRM gene, purified the recombinant protein from Escherichia coli, and showed that TaqII recognizes the 5'-GACCGA-3' sequence only. Here, we report the discovery, isolation, and characterization of TaqIII, the third R-M system from T. aquaticus YT-1. TaqIII is a 1101-aa Type IIC/IIL enzyme and recognizes the 5'-CACCCA-3' sequence previously attributed to TaqII. The cleavage site is 11/9 nucleotides downstream of the A residue. The enzyme exhibits striking biochemical similarity to TaqII. The 93% identity between their aa sequences suggests that they have a common evolutionary origin. The genes are located on two separate plasmids, and are probably paralogs or pseudoparalogs. Putative positions and aa that specify DNA recognition were identified and recognition motifs for 6 uncharacterized Thermus-family enzymes were predicted.
Project description:Type II restriction endonucleases (REases) cleave double-stranded DNA at specific sites within or close to their recognition sequences. Shortly after their discovery in 1970, REases have become one of the primary tools in molecular biology. However, the list of available specificities of type II REases is relatively short despite the extensive search for them in natural sources and multiple attempts to artificially change their specificity. In this study, we examined the possibility of generating cleavage specificities of REases by swapping putative target recognition domains (TRDs) between the type IIB enzymes AloI, PpiI, and TstI. Our results demonstrate that individual TRDs recognize distinct parts of the bipartite DNA targets of these enzymes and are interchangeable. Based on these properties, we engineered a functional type IIB REase having previously undescribed DNA specificity. Our study suggests that the TRD-swapping approach may be used as a general technique for the generation of type II enzymes with predetermined specificities.