Determining the absolute requirement of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 for pathological cardiac hypertrophy: short communication.
ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) is often the end phase of maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy. A contributing factor is activation of a hypertrophic gene expression program controlled by decreased class II histone deacetylase (HDAC) transcriptional repression via HDAC phosphorylation. Cardiac-specific overexpression of G proteinen-coupled receptor kinase-5 (GRK5) has previously been shown to possess nuclear activity as a HDAC5 kinase, promoting an intolerance to in vivo ventricular pressure overload; however, its endogenous requirement in adaptive and maladaptive hypertrophy remains unknown.We used mouse models with global or cardiomyocyte-specific GRK5 gene deletion to determine the absolute requirement of endogenous GRK5 for cardiac hypertrophy and HF development after chronic hypertrophic stimuli.Mice with global deletion of GRK5 were subjected to transverse aortic constriction. At 12 weeks, these mice showed attenuated hypertrophy, remodeling, and hypertrophic gene transcription along with preserved cardiac function. Global GRK5 deletion also diminished hypertrophy and related gene expression due to chronic phenylephrine infusion. We then generated mice with conditional, cardiac-specific deletion of GRK5 that also demonstrated similar protection from pathological cardiac hypertrophy and HF after transverse aortic constriction.These results define myocyte GRK5 as a critical regulator of pathological cardiac growth after ventricular pressure overload, supporting its role as an endogenous (patho)-physiological HDAC kinase. Further, these results define GRK5 as a potential therapeutic target to limit HF development after hypertrophic stress.
Project description:G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) acting in the cardiomyocyte regulate important signaling events that control cardiac function. Both GRK2 and GRK5, the predominant GRKs expressed in the heart, have been shown to be upregulated in failing human myocardium. Although the canonical role of GRKs is to desensitize G protein-coupled receptors via phosphorylation, it has been demonstrated that GRK5, unlike GRK2, can reside in the nucleus of myocytes and exert G protein-coupled receptor-independent effects that promote maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.To explore novel mechanisms by which GRK5 acting in the nucleus of cardiomyocytes participates in pathological cardiac hypertrophy.In this study, we have found that GRK5-mediated pathological cardiac hypertrophy involves the activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) because GRK5 causes enhancement of NFAT-mediated hypertrophic gene transcription. Transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific GRK5 overexpression activate an NFAT-reporter in mice basally and after hypertrophic stimulation, including transverse aortic constriction and phenylephrine treatment. Complimentary to this, GRK5 null mice exhibit less NFAT transcriptional activity after transverse aortic constriction. Furthermore, the loss of NFATc3 expression in the heart protected GRK5 overexpressing transgenic mice from the exaggerated hypertrophy and early progression to heart failure seen after transverse aortic constriction. Molecular studies suggest that GRK5 acts in concert with NFAT to increase hypertrophic gene transcription in the nucleus via GRK5's ability to bind DNA directly without a phosphorylation event.GRK5, acting in a kinase independent manner, is a facilitator of NFAT activity and part of a DNA-binding complex responsible for pathological hypertrophic gene transcription.
Project description:G protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) kinases (GRKs) play a crucial role in regulating cardiac hypertrophy. Recent data from our lab has shown that, following ventricular pressure overload, GRK5, a primary cardiac GRK, facilitates maladaptive myocyte growth via novel nuclear localization. In the nucleus, GRK5's newly discovered kinase activity on histone deacetylase 5 induces hypertrophic gene transcription. The mechanisms governing the nuclear targeting of GRK5 are unknown. We report here that GRK5 nuclear accumulation is dependent on Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM) binding to a specific site within the amino terminus of GRK5 and this interaction occurs after selective activation of hypertrophic Gq-coupled receptors. Stimulation of myocytes with phenylephrine or angiotensinII causes GRK5 to leave the sarcolemmal membrane and accumulate in the nucleus, while the endothelin-1 does not cause nuclear GRK5 localization. A mutation within the amino-terminus of GRK5 negating CaM binding attenuates GRK5 movement from the sarcolemma to the nucleus and, importantly, overexpression of this mutant does not facilitate cardiac hypertrophy and related gene transcription in vitro and in vivo. Our data reveal that CaM binding to GRK5 is a physiologically relevant event that is absolutely required for nuclear GRK5 localization downstream of hypertrophic stimuli, thus facilitating GRK5-dependent regulation of maladaptive hypertrophy.
Project description:G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) are critical regulators of cellular signaling and function. In cardiomyocytes, GRK2 and GRK5 are two GRKs important for myocardial regulation, and both have been shown to be up-regulated in the dysfunctional heart. We report that increased levels and activity of GRK5 in failing myocardium may have unique significance due to its nuclear localization, a property not shared by GRK2. We find that transgenic mice with elevated cardiac GRK5 levels have exaggerated hypertrophy and early heart failure compared with control mice after pressure overload. This pathology is not present in cardiac GRK2-overexpressing mice or in mice with overexpression of a mutant GRK5 that is excluded from the nucleus. Nuclear accumulation of GRK5 is enhanced in myocytes after aortic banding in vivo and in vitro in myocytes after increased G alpha q activity, the trigger for pressure-overload hypertrophy. GRK5 enhances activation of MEF2 in concert with Gq signals, demonstrating that nuclear localized GRK5 regulates gene transcription via a pathway critically linked to myocardial hypertrophy. Mechanistically, we show that this is due to GRK5 acting, in a non-GPCR manner, as a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC) kinase because it can associate with and phosphorylate the myocyte enhancer factor-2 repressor, HDAC5. Moreover, significant HDAC activity can be found with GRK5 in the heart. Our data show that GRK5 is a nuclear HDAC kinase that plays a key role in maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy apparently independent of any action directly on GPCRs.
Project description:Hyper-aldosteronism is associated with myocardial dysfunction including induction of cardiac fibrosis and maladaptive hypertrophy. Mechanisms of these cardiotoxicities are not fully understood. Here we show that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation by aldosterone leads to pathological myocardial signalling mediated by mitochondrial G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) pro-death activity and GRK5 pro-hypertrophic action. Moreover, these MR-dependent GRK2 and GRK5 non-canonical activities appear to involve cross-talk with the angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R). Most importantly, we show that ventricular dysfunction caused by chronic hyper-aldosteronism in vivo is completely prevented in cardiac Grk2 knockout mice (KO) and to a lesser extent in Grk5 KO mice. However, aldosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is totally prevented in Grk5 KO mice. We also show human data consistent with MR activation status in heart failure influencing GRK2 levels. Therefore, our study uncovers GRKs as targets for ameliorating pathological cardiac effects associated with high-aldosterone levels.
Project description:PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that has been shown to regulate cell growth and survival through dephosphorylation of several members of the AGC family of kinases. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) is an AGC kinase that regulates phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiac hypertrophy through its noncanonical function of directly targeting proteins to the nucleus to regulate transcription. Here we investigated the possibility that the PHLPP2 isoform can regulate GRK5-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs). We show that removal of PHLPP2 by siRNA induces hypertrophic growth of NRVMs as measured by cell size changes at baseline, potentiated PE-induced cell size changes, and re-expression of fetal genes atrial natriuretic factor and brain natriuretic peptide. Endogenous GRK5 and PHLPP2 were found to interact in NRVMs, and PE-induced nuclear accumulation of GRK5 was enhanced upon down-regulation of PHLPP2. Conversely, overexpression of PHLPP2 blocked PE-induced hypertrophic growth, re-expression of fetal genes, and nuclear accumulation of GRK5, which depended on its phosphatase activity. Finally, using siRNA against GRK5, we found that GRK5 was necessary for the hypertrophic response induced by PHLPP2 knockdown. Our findings demonstrate for the first time a novel regulation of GRK5 by the phosphatase PHLPP2, which modulates hypertrophic growth. Understanding the signaling pathways affected by PHLPP2 has potential for new therapeutic targets in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and failure.
Project description:Pressure overload induces stress-induced signaling pathways and a coordinated transcriptional response that begets concentric cardiac hypertrophy. Although concentric hypertrophy initially attenuates wall stress and maintains cardiac function, continued stress can result in maladaptive cardiac remodeling. Cardiac remodeling is orchestrated by transcription factors that act within the context of an epigenetic landscape. Since the epigenetic landscape serves as a molecular link between environmental factors (stress) and cellular phenotype (disease), defining the role of the epigenome in the development and progression of cardiac remodeling could lead to new therapeutic approaches. In this study, we hypothesized that the epigenetic landscape is important in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and the progression to maladaptive remodeling. To demonstrate the importance of the epigenome in HF, we targeted the PTIP-associated histone methyltransferase complex in adult cardiac myocytes. This complex imparts histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation marks at actively expressed genes. We subjected PTIP null (PTIP-) mice to 2 weeks of transverse aortic constriction, a stress that induces concentric hypertrophy in control mice (PTIP+). PTIP- mice have a maladaptive response to 2wk of transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced pressure overload characterized by cardiac dilatation, decreased LV function, cardiac fibrosis, and increased cell death. PTIP deletion resulted in altered stress-induced gene expression profiles including blunted expression of ADRA1A, ADRA1B, JUN, ATP2A2, ATP1A2, SCN4B, and CACNA1G. These results suggest that H3K4 methylation patterns and the complexes that regulate them, specifically the PTIP-associated HMT, are necessary for the adaptive response to TAC.
Project description:<b>Rationale:</b> Sustained cardiac hypertrophy often leads to heart failure (HF). Understanding the regulation of cardiomyocyte growth is crucial for the treatment of adverse ventricular remodeling and HF. Cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) is an anaphase-promoting complex activator that is essential for cell division and tumorigenesis, but the role of CDC20 in cardiac hypertrophy is unknown. We aimed to test whether CDC20 participates in the regulation of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and investigate the underlying mechanism <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. <b>Methods:</b> Male C57BL/6 mice were administered a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (rAAV9) vector expressing CDC20 or a siRNA targeting CDC20 and their respective controls by tail intravenous injection. <b>Results:</b> Microarray analysis showed that CDC20 was significantly upregulated in the heart after angiotensin II infusion. Knockdown of CDC20 in cardiomyocytes and in the heart reduced cardiac hypertrophy upon agonist stimulation or transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Conversely, enforced expression of CDC20 in cardiomyocytes and in the heart aggravated the hypertrophic response. Furthermore, we found that CDC20 directly targeted LC3, a key regulator of autophagy, and promoted LC3 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome, which inhibited autophagy leading to hypertrophy. Moreover, knockdown of LC3 or inhibition of autophagy attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy after deletion of CDC20 <i>in vitro</i>. <b>Conclusions:</b> Our study reveals a novel cardiac hypertrophy regulatory mechanism that involves CDC20, LC3 and autophagy, and suggests that CDC20 could be a new therapeutic target for patients with hypertrophic heart diseases.
Project description:Cardiac hypertrophy accompanied by maladaptive cardiac remodeling is the uppermost risk factor for the development of heart failure. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) have various biological functions, and their vital role in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy still needs to be explored. In this study, we demonstrated that lncRNA Plscr4 was upregulated in hypertrophic mice hearts and in angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated cardiomyocytes. Next, we observed that overexpression of Plscr4 attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Conversely, the inhibition of Plscr4 gave rise to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Furthermore, overexpression of Plscr4 attenuated TAC (transverse aortic constriction)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Finally, we demonstrated that Plscr4 acted as an endogenous sponge of miR-214 and forced expression of Plscr4 downregulated miR-214 expression to promote Mfn2 and attenuate hypertrophy. In contrast, knockdown of Plscr4 upregulated miR-214 to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Additionally, luciferase assay showed that miR-214 was the direct target of Plscr4, and overexpression of miR-214 counteracted the anti-hypertrophy effect of Plscr4. Collectively, these findings identify Plscr4 as a negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro due to its regulation of the miR-214-Mfn2 axis, suggesting that Plscr4 might act as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.
Project description:G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are dynamic regulators of cellular signaling. GRK5 is highly expressed within myocardium and is upregulated in heart failure. Although GRK5 is a critical regulator of cardiac G protein-coupled receptor signaling, recent data has uncovered noncanonical activity of GRK5 within nuclei that plays a key role in pathological hypertrophy. Targeted cardiac elevation of GRK5 in mice leads to exaggerated hypertrophy and early heart failure after transverse aortic constriction (TAC) because of GRK5 nuclear accumulation.In this study, we investigated the role of GRK5 in physiological, swimming-induced hypertrophy (SIH).Cardiac-specific GRK5 transgenic mice and nontransgenic littermate control mice were subjected to a 21-day high-intensity swim protocol (or no swim sham controls). SIH and specific molecular and genetic indices of physiological hypertrophy were assessed, including nuclear localization of GRK5, and compared with TAC. Unlike after TAC, swim-trained transgenic GRK5 and nontransgenic littermate control mice exhibited similar increases in cardiac growth. Mechanistically, SIH did not lead to GRK5 nuclear accumulation, which was confirmed in vitro as insulin-like growth factor-1, a known mediator of physiological hypertrophy, was unable to induce GRK5 nuclear translocation in myocytes. We found specific patterns of altered gene expression between TAC and SIH with GRK5 overexpression. Further, SIH in post-TAC transgenic GRK5 mice was able to preserve cardiac function.These data suggest that although nuclear-localized GRK5 is a pathological mediator after stress, this noncanonical nuclear activity of GRK5 is not induced during physiological hypertrophy.
Project description:It has been shown that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) reduces cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis, prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury, and improves cardiac function in ischemic rat hearts. However, it is still not known whether GHRH would be beneficial for life-threatening pathological conditions, like cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). Thus, we tested the myocardial therapeutic potential of GHRH stimulation in vitro and in vivo, using GHRH or its agonistic analog MR-409. We show that in vitro, GHRH(1-44)NH2 attenuates phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiac cells, adult rat ventricular myocytes, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs, decreasing expression of hypertrophic genes and regulating hypertrophic pathways. Underlying mechanisms included blockade of Gq signaling and its downstream components phospholipase C?, protein kinase C?, calcineurin, and phospholamban. The receptor-dependent effects of GHRH also involved activation of G?s and cAMP/PKA, and inhibition of increase in exchange protein directly activated by cAMP1 (Epac1). In vivo, MR-409 mitigated cardiac hypertrophy in mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction and improved cardiac function. Moreover, CMs isolated from transverse aortic constriction mice treated with MR-409 showed improved contractility and reversal of sarcolemmal structure. Overall, these results identify GHRH as an antihypertrophic regulator, underlying its therapeutic potential for HF, and suggest possible beneficial use of its analogs for treatment of pathological cardiac hypertrophy.