The prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4 is integral to a positive feedback loop for prostaglandin E2 production in human macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an important biological mediator involved in the defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Previously, we reported that in macrophages (M?s), infection with avirulent Mtb H37Ra resulted in inhibition of necrosis by an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial permeability transition via the PGE2 receptor EP2. However, human M?s also express EP4, a PGE2 receptor functionally closely related to EP2 that also couples to stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein, but the functional differences between EP2 and EP4 in Mtb-infected M?s have been unclear. EP4 antagonist addition to H37Ra-infected M?s inhibited the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), which are involved in PGE2 production. Moreover, H37Ra infection induced PGE2 production through the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Induction of COX2 and mPGES-1 expression by TLR2 stimulation or Mtb infection was increased after additional stimulation with EP4 agonist. Hence, in Mtb-infected M?s, PGE2 production induced by pathogen recognition receptors/p38 MAPK signaling is up-regulated by EP4-triggered signaling to maintain an effective PGE2 concentration.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Deletion of mPGES-1 (microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1)-an anti-inflammatory target alternative to COX (cyclooxygenase)-2-attenuates injury-induced neointima formation in mice. This is attributable to the augmented levels of PGI2 (prostacyclin)-a known restraint of the vascular response to injury, acting via IP (I prostanoid receptor). To examine the role of mPGES-1-derived PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) in vascular remodeling without the IP. APPROACH AND RESULTS:Mice deficient in both IP and mPGES-1 (DKO [double knockout] and littermate controls [IP KO (knockout)]) were subjected to angioplasty wire injury. Compared with the deletion of IP alone, coincident deletion of IP and mPGES-1 increased neointima formation, without affecting media area. Early pathological changes include impaired reendothelialization and increased leukocyte invasion in neointima. Endothelial cells (ECs), but not vascular smooth muscle cells, isolated from DKOs exhibited impaired cell proliferation. Activation of EP (E prostanoid receptor) 4 (and EP2, to a lesser extent), but not of EP1 or EP3, promoted EC proliferation. EP4 antagonism inhibited proliferation of mPGES-1-competent ECs, but not of mPGES-1-deficient ECs, which showed suppressed PGE2 production. EP4 activation inhibited leukocyte adhesion to ECs in vitro, promoted reendothelialization, and limited neointima formation post-injury in the mouse. Endothelium-restricted deletion of EP4 in mice suppressed reendothelialization, increased neointimal leukocytes, and exacerbated neointimal formation. CONCLUSIONS:Removal of the IP receptors unmasks a protective role of mPGES-1-derived PGE2 in limiting injury-induced vascular hyperplasia. EP4, in the endothelial compartment, is essential to promote reendothelialization and restrain neointimal formation after injury. Activating EP4 bears therapeutic potential to prevent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention.
Project description:BACKGROUND:IL-23 is the key cytokine for generation of pathogenic IL-17-producing helper T (TH17) cells, which contribute critically to autoimmune diseases. However, how IL-23 generates pathogenic TH17 cells remains to be elucidated. OBJECTIVES:We sought to examine the involvement, molecular mechanisms, and clinical implications of prostaglandin (PG) E2-EP2/EP4 signaling in induction of IL-23-driven pathogenic TH17 cells. METHODS:The role of PGE2 in induction of pathogenic TH17 cells was investigated in mouse TH17 cells in culture in vitro and in an IL-23-induced psoriasis mouse model in vivo. Clinical relevance of the findings in mice was examined by using gene expression profiling of IL-23 and PGE2-EP2/EP4 signaling in psoriatic skin from patients. RESULTS:IL-23 induces Ptgs2, encoding COX2 in TH17 cells, and produces PGE2, which acts back on the PGE receptors EP2 and EP4 in these cells and enhances IL-23-induced expression of an IL-23 receptor subunit gene, Il23r, by activating signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, cAMP-responsive element binding protein 1, and nuclear factor ? light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) through cyclic AMP-protein kinase A signaling. This PGE2 signaling also induces expression of various inflammation-related genes, which possibly function in TH17 cell-mediated pathology. Combined deletion of EP2 and EP4 selectively in T cells suppressed accumulation of IL-17A+ and IL-17A+IFN-?+ pathogenic Th17 cells and abolished skin inflammation in an IL-23-induced psoriasis mouse model. Analysis of human psoriatic skin biopsy specimens shows positive correlation between PGE2 signaling and the IL-23/TH17 pathway. CONCLUSIONS:T cell-intrinsic EP2/EP4 signaling is critical in IL-23-driven generation of pathogenic TH17 cells and consequent pathogenesis in the skin.
Project description:Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammation plays a critical role in cancer development; however, mechanisms of immunosuppression hinder productive anti-tumor immunity to limit immunopathology. Tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) dysfunction or exhaustion by upregulating inhibitory receptors such as programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) in tumor-bearing hosts is one such mechanism. Identification and blockade of the pathways that induce CTL dysfunction has been shown to partially restore CTL function in tumor-bearing hosts. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a rate-limiting enzyme for prostanoid biosynthesis, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and plays a key role in both inflammation and cancer. The disruption of COX2/PGE2 signaling using COX2 inhibitors or PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 antagonists, combined with anti-PD-1 blockade was therapeutic in terms of improving eradication of tumors and augmenting the numbers of functional tumor-specific CTLs. Thus, COX2/PGE2 axis inhibition is a promising adjunct therapy to PD-1 blockade for immune-based therapies in cancer.
Project description:Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays an important role in bone development and metabolism. To interfere therapeutically in the PGE2 pathway, however, knowledge about the involved enzymes (cyclooxygenases) and receptors (PGE2 receptors) is essential. We therefore examined the production of PGE2 in cultured growth plate chondrocytes in vitro and the effects of exogenously added PGE2 on cell proliferation. Furthermore, we analysed the expression and spatial distribution of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 and PGE2 receptor types EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 in the growth plate in situ and in vitro. PGE2 synthesis was determined by mass spectrometry, cell proliferation by DNA [3H]-thymidine incorporation, mRNA expression of cyclooxygenases and EP receptors by RT-PCR on cultured cells and in homogenized growth plates. To determine cellular expression, frozen sections of rat tibial growth plate and primary chondrocyte cultures were stained using immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies directed towards COX-1, COX-2, EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4. Cultured growth plate chondrocytes transiently secreted PGE2 into the culture medium. Although both enzymes were expressed in chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo, it appears that mainly COX-2 contributed to PGE2-dependent proliferation. Exogenously added PGE2 stimulated DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent fashion and gave a bell-shaped curve with a maximum at 10-8 M. The EP1/EP3 specific agonist sulprostone and the EP1-selective agonist ONO-D1-004 increased DNA synthesis. The effect of PGE2 was suppressed by ONO-8711. The expression of EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptors in situ and in vitro was observed; EP2 was homogenously expressed in all zones of the growth plate in situ, whereas EP1 expression was inhomogenous, with spared cells in the reserve zone. In cultured cells these four receptors were expressed in a subset of cells only. The most intense staining for the EP1 receptor was found in polygonal cells surrounded by matrix. Expression of receptor protein for EP3 and EP4 was observed also in rat growth plates. In cultured chrondrocytes, however, only weak expression of EP3 and EP4 receptor was detected. We suggest that in growth plate chondrocytes, COX-2 is responsible for PGE2 release, which stimulates cell proliferation via the EP1 receptor.
Project description:Increasing evidence suggests that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in synaptic transmission and plasticity, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a key molecule in COX-2-meduated synaptic modification. However, the precise mechanisms, in particular, which subtypes of PGE2 receptors (EPs) mediate the PGE2-induced synaptic response, are not clear. Recently, we demonstrated that EPs are expressed heterogeneously in the hippocampus, and EP2/4 are mainly expressed in presynaptic terminals. Here, we report that PGE2 increased synaptic stimulus-evoked amplitudes of EPSPs in hippocampal slices and frequency of miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) in hippocampal neurons in culture. These actions were mimicked by an EP2 agonist and attenuated by protein kinase A inhibitors. Decrease of EP2 expression through silencing the EP2 gene eliminated PGE2-induced increase of the frequency of mEPSCs. COX-2 and microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) and mPGES-2 are present in postsynaptic dendritic spines, because they are colocalized with PSD-95 (postsynaptic density-95), a postsynaptic marker. In addition, the frequency of mEPSCs was enhanced in neurons pretreated with interleukin-1beta or lipopolysaccharide, which elevated expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 and produced PGE2, and this enhancement was inhibited by a COX-2 inhibitor that inhibited production of PGE2. Our results suggest that PGE2 synthesized by postsynaptically localized COX-2 functions as a retrograde messenger in hippocampal synaptic signaling via a presynaptic EP2 receptor.
Project description:We have shown that calcium (Ca2+) oscillations in human pulmonary fibroblasts (HPFs) contribute to profibrotic effects of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and that disruption of these oscillations blunts features of pulmonary fibrosis. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) exerts antifibrotic effects in the lung, but the mechanisms for this action are not well defined. We thus sought to explore interactions between PGE2 and the profibrotic agent TGF-? in pulmonary fibroblasts (PFs) isolated from patients with or without idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). PGE2 inhibited TGF-?-promoted [Ca2+] oscillations and prevented the activation of Akt and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMK-II) but did not prevent activation of Smad-2 or ERK. PGE2 also eliminated TGF-?-stimulated expression of collagen A1, fibronectin, and ?-smooth muscle actin and reduced stress fiber formation in the HPFs. RNA sequencing revealed that HPFs preferentially express EP2 receptors relative to other prostanoid receptor subtypes: EP2 expression is ~10-fold higher than that of EP4 receptors; EP1 and EP3 receptors are barely detectable; and EP2-receptor expression is ~3.5-fold lower in PFs from IPF patients than in normal HPFs. The inhibitory effects of PGE2 on synthetic function and stress fiber formation were blocked by selective EP2 or EP4 antagonists and mimicked by selective EP2 or EP4 agonists, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine and forskolin, all of which elevate cellular cAMP concentrations. We conclude that PGE2, likely predominantly via EP2 receptors, interferes with Ca2+ signaling, CaMK-II activation, and Akt activation in IPF-HPFs and HPFs treated with TGF-?. Moreover, a decreased expression of EP2 receptors in pulmonary fibroblasts from IPF patients may contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The regulatory mechanisms of the expression of connective tissue growth factor/CCN family member 2 (CTGF/CCN2) in human articular chondrocytes have not been clarified. We investigated the effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on CTGF/CCN2 expression in chondrocytes. FINDINGS: Articular cartilage samples were obtained from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and chondrocytes were isolated and cultured in vitro. Chondrocytes were stimulated with PGE2, PGE receptor (EP)-specific agonists, or interleukin (IL)-1. CTGF expression was analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The inhibitory effects of EP receptor antagonists (for EP2 and EP4) against PGE2 stimulation were also investigated. Stimulation of chondrocytes with PGE2 or IL-1 significantly suppressed CTGF expression. The suppressive effect of PGE2 was reproduced by EP2/EP4 receptor agonists but not by EP1/EP3 receptor agonists, and was partially blocked by an EP4 receptor antagonist, suggesting that the EP4 receptor has a dominant role. CONCLUSIONS: PGE2 may be involved in the regulation of CTGF/CCN2 expression in human articular chondrocytes via the EP4 receptor. Elucidation of EP4-mediated signaling in chondrocytes may contribute to a better understanding of the effects of PGE2 in arthritis.
Project description:Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a potent myeloid mitogen, and the immunosuppressive prostanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are elevated following thermal injury and sepsis. We have previously demonstrated that bone marrow myeloid commitment shifts toward monocytopoiesis and away from granulocytopoiesis during thermal injury and sepsis and that PGE2 plays a central role in this alteration. Here we investigated whether PGE2 can modulate IL-6-stimulated growth in the promyelocytic cell line, NFS-60, by down-regulating IL-6 receptor (IL-6r) expression. Exposure of NFS-60 cells to PGE2 suppressed IL-6-stimulated proliferation as well as IL-6r expression. Receptor down-regulation is functionally significant since IL-6-induced signal transduction through activators of transcription (STAT)-3 is also decreased. Down-regulation of IL-6r correlated with the ability of PGE2 to arrest cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. PGE2 appears to signal through EP2 receptors. Butaprost (EP2 agonist) but not sulprostone (EP3 agonist) inhibited IL-6-stimulated proliferation. In addition, an EP2 antagonist (AH6809) alleviated the anti-proliferative effects of PGE2. NFS-60 cells express predominantly EP2 and EP4 receptors. While PGE2 down-regulated both the IL-6r protein and mRNA expression, it had no influence on EP2 or EP4 mRNA expression. The present study demonstrates that PGE2 is a potent down-regulator of IL-6r expression and thus may provide a mechanistic explanation for the granulocytopenia seen in thermal injury and sepsis.
Project description:Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) triggers pro-inflammatory processes that can aggravate neuronal degeneration and functional impairments in many neurological conditions, mainly via producing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that activates four membrane receptors, EP1-EP4. However, which EP receptor is the culprit of COX-2/PGE2-mediated neuronal inflammation and degeneration remains largely unclear and presumably depends on the insult types and responding components. Herein, we demonstrated that COX-2 was induced and showed nuclear translocation in two neuronal cell lines - mouse Neuro-2a and human SH-SY5Y - after treatment with neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), leading to the biosynthesis of PGE2 and upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1?. Inhibiting COX-2 or microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 suppressed the 6-OHDA-triggered PGE2 production in these cells. Treatment with PGE2 or EP2 selective agonist butaprost, but not EP4 agonist CAY10598, increased cAMP response in both cell lines. PGE2-initiated cAMP production in these cells was blocked by our recently developed novel selective EP2 antagonists - TG4-155 and TG6-10-1, but not by EP4 selective antagonist GW627368X. The 6-OHDA-promoted cytotoxicity was largely blocked by TG4-155, TG6-10-1 or COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib, but not by GW627368X. Our results suggest that PGE2 receptor EP2 is a key mediator of COX-2 activity-initiated cAMP signaling in Neuro-2a and SH-SY5Y cells following 6-OHDA treatment, and contributes to oxidopamine-mediated neurotoxicity.
Project description:Marek's disease virus (MDV) causes deadly lymphoma and induces an imbalance of the lipid metabolism in infected chickens. Here, we discovered that MDV activates the fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway in primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). In addition, MDV-infected cells contained high levels of fatty acids and showed increased numbers of lipid droplets (LDs). Chemical inhibitors of the FAS pathway (TOFA and C75) reduced MDV titers by approximately 30-fold. Addition of the downstream metabolites, including malonyl-coenzyme A and palmitic acid, completely restored the inhibitory effects of the FAS inhibitors. Furthermore, we could demonstrate that MDV infection activates the COX-2/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway, as evident by increased levels of arachidonic acid, COX-2 expression, and PGE2 synthesis. Inhibition of the COX-2/PGE2 pathway by chemical inhibitors or knockdown of COX2 using short hairpin RNA reduced MDV titers, suggesting that COX-2 promotes virus replication. Exogenous PGE2 completely restored the inhibition of the COX-2/PGE2 pathway in MDV replication. Unexpectedly, exogenous PGE2 also partially rescued the inhibitory effects of FAS inhibitors on MDV replication, suggesting that there is a link between these two pathways in MDV infection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the FAS and COX-2/PGE2 pathways play an important role in the replication of this deadly pathogen.IMPORTANCE Disturbances of the lipid metabolism in chickens infected with MDV contribute to the pathogenesis of disease. However, the role of lipid metabolism in MDV replication remained unknown. Here, we demonstrate that MDV infection activates FAS and induces LD formation. Moreover, our results demonstrate that MDV replication is highly dependent on the FAS pathway and the downstream metabolites. Finally, our results reveal that MDV also activates the COX-2/PGE2 pathway, which supports MDV replication by activating PGE2/EP2 and PGE2/EP4 signaling pathways.