Characterization of TEM-1 ?-Lactamase-Producing Kingella kingae Clinical Isolates.
ABSTRACT: Kingella kingae is a human pathogen that causes pediatric osteoarticular infections and infective endocarditis in children and adults. The bacterium is usually susceptible to ?-lactam antibiotics, although ?-lactam resistance has been reported in rare isolates. This study was conducted to identify ?-lactam-resistant strains and to characterize the resistance mechanism. Screening of a set of 90 K. kingae clinical isolates obtained from different geographic locations revealed high-level resistance to penicillins among 25% of the strains isolated from Minnesota and Iceland. These strains produced TEM-1 ?-lactamase and were shown to contain additional ?50-kb plasmids. Ion Torrent sequencing of extrachromosomal DNA from a ?-lactamase-producing strain confirmed the plasmid location of the blaTEM gene. An identical plasmid pattern was demonstrated by multiplex PCR in all ?-lactamase producers. The porin gene's fragments were analyzed to investigate the relatedness of bacterial strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 27 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the por gene fragment, resulting in two major clusters with 11 allele types forming bacterial-strain subclusters. ?-Lactamase producers were grouped together based on por genotyping. Our results suggest that the ?-lactamase-producing strains likely originate from a single plasmid-bearing K. kingae isolate that traveled from Europe to the United States, or vice versa. This study highlights the prevalence of penicillin resistance among K. kingae strains in some regions and emphasizes the importance of surveillance for antibiotic resistance of the pathogen.
Project description:Kingella kingae is a betaproteobacterium from the order Neisseriales, and it is an agent of invasive infections in children. We sequenced the genome from the septic arthritis strain 11220434. It is composed of a 1,990,794-bp chromosome but no plasmid, and it contains 2,042 protein-coding genes and 52 RNA genes, including 3 rRNA genes.
Project description:The Gram-negative bacterium Kingella kingae is part of the normal oropharyngeal mucosal flora of children <4 years old. K. kingae can enter the submucosa and cause infections of the skeletal system in children, including septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. The organism is also associated with infective endocarditis in children and adults. Although biofilm formation has been coupled with pharyngeal colonization, osteoarticular infections, and infective endocarditis, no studies have investigated biofilm formation in K. kingae. In this study we measured biofilm formation by 79 K. kingae clinical isolates using a 96-well microtiter plate crystal violet binding assay. We found that 37 of 79 strains (47%) formed biofilms. All strains that formed biofilms produced corroding colonies on agar. Biofilm formation was inhibited by proteinase K and DNase I. DNase I also caused the detachment of pre-formed K. kingae biofilm colonies. A mutant strain carrying a deletion of the pilus gene cluster pilA1pilA2fimB did not produce corroding colonies on agar, autoaggregate in broth, or form biofilms. Biofilm forming strains have higher levels of pilA1 expression. The extracellular components of biofilms contained 490 ?g cm-2 of protein, 0.68 ?g cm-2 of DNA, and 0.4 ?g cm-2 of total carbohydrates. We concluded that biofilm formation is common among K. kingae clinical isolates, and that biofilm formation is dependent on the production of proteinaceous pili and extracellular DNA. Biofilm development may have relevance to the colonization, transmission, and pathogenesis of this bacterium. Extracellular DNA production by K. kingae may facilitate horizontal gene transfer within the oral microbial community.
Project description:Kingella negevensis is a newly described gram-negative bacterium in the Neisseriaceae family and is closely related to Kingella kingae, an important cause of pediatric osteoarticular infections and other invasive diseases. Like K. kingae, K. negevensis can be isolated from the oropharynx of young children, although at a much lower rate. Due to the potential for misidentification as K. kingae, the burden of disease due to K. negevensis is currently unknown. Similarly, there is little known about virulence factors present in K. negevensis and how they compare to virulence factors in K. kingae. Using a variety of approaches, we show that K. negevensis produces many of the same putative virulence factors that are present in K. kingae, including a polysaccharide capsule, a secreted exopolysaccharide, a Knh-like trimeric autotransporter, and type IV pili, suggesting that K. negevensis may have significant pathogenic potential.
Project description:Cell-free extracts prepared from Kingella kingae colony biofilms were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida albicans, and K. kingae. The extracts evidently inhibited biofilm formation by modifying the physicochemical properties of the cell surface, the biofilm matrix, and the substrate. Chemical and biochemical analyses indicated that the biofilm inhibition activity in the K. kingae extract was due to polysaccharide. Structural analyses showed that the extract contained two major polysaccharides. One was a linear polysaccharide with the structure →6)-α-d-GlcNAcp-(1→5)-β-d-OclAp-(2→, which was identical to a capsular polysaccharide produced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. The second was a novel linear polysaccharide, designated PAM galactan, with the structure →3)-β-d-Galf-(1→6)-β-d-Galf-(1→. Purified PAM galactan exhibited broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition activity. A cluster of three K. kingae genes encoding UDP-galactopyranose mutase (ugm) and two putative galactofuranosyl transferases was sufficient for the synthesis of PAM galactan in Escherichia coli. PAM galactan is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit antibiofilm activity. The biological roles and potential technological applications of these molecules remain unknown.
Project description:Kingella kingae is an important invasive pathogen in early childhood. The organism elaborates an RTX toxin presumably restricted to this species. Consequently, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting the RTX locus have been developed in recent years and are gaining increasing use for the molecular diagnosis of K. kingae infections. However, the present study shows that Kingella negevensis, a Kingella species newly identified in young children, harbors an identical Kingella RTX locus, raising the question of whether K. negevensis can be misidentified as K. kingae by clinical microbiology laboratories. In silico comparison of Kingella sp. RTX and groEL genes and in vitro studies provided evidence that targeting the rtxA and rtxB genes could not differentiate between strains of K. kingae and K. negevensis, whereas targeting the groEL gene could. This prompted the design of a highly specific and sensitive qPCR assay targeting K. negevensis groEL (kngroEL). Ninety-nine culture-negative osteoarticular specimens from 99 children younger than 4 years of age were tested with a conventional 16S rRNA gene-based broad-range PCR assay and Kingella-specific rtxB, K. kingae-specific groEL (kkgroEL), and kngroEL qPCR assays. Forty-two specimens were rtxB positive, including 41 that were also kkgroEL positive and 1 (the remaining one) that was kngroEL positive. Thus, this study discloses an invasive infection caused by K. negevensis in humans and demonstrates that targeting the RTX locus cannot be used for the formal diagnosis of K. kingae infections. These findings stress the need for further studies on the epidemiology of asymptomatic carriage and invasive infections caused by K. negevensis in humans.
Project description:Kingella kingae is a human oral bacterium that can cause infections of the skeletal system in children. The bacterium is also a cardiovascular pathogen causing infective endocarditis in children and adults. We report herein the draft genome sequence of septic arthritis K. kingae strain PYKK081.
Project description:Kingella kingae is an emerging osteoarticular pathogen in young children. Its isolation by traditional culture methods remains difficult, underscoring the need to implement other diagnostic methods for its detection and identification, such as nucleic acid amplification tests. Although the genome of this bacterium has not yet been sequenced, a toxin named RTX has been identified. The goal of this study was to develop sensitive, specific, and rapid molecular methods based on the rtxA toxin gene sequence to diagnose this infection. Two real-time PCR assays (SYBR green and TaqMan chemistries) targeting this gene are reported. Sensitivity and specificity were first evaluated successfully with 67 strains: 31 Kingella kingae isolates and 36 strains from other bacterial species. Then, 52 clinical specimens positive or negative by culture and/or PCR (16S rRNA and cpn60 genes) were tested with these assays. A nested PCR assay with subsequent sequencing was also developed to confirm the presence of Kingella kingae isolates in these clinical specimens. The results obtained demonstrate that these assays are accurate for the diagnosis of Kingella kingae infection.
Project description:Kingella kingae is a common etiological agent of pediatric osteoarticular infections. While current research has expanded our understanding of K. kingae pathogenesis, there is a paucity of knowledge about host-pathogen interactions and virulence gene regulation. Many host-adapted bacterial pathogens contain phase variable DNA methyltransferases (mod genes), which can control expression of a regulon of genes (phasevarion) through differential methylation of the genome. Here, we identify a phase variable type III mod gene in K. kingae, suggesting that phasevarions operate in this pathogen. Phylogenetic studies revealed that there are two active modK alleles in K. kingae Proteomic analysis of secreted and surface-associated proteins, quantitative PCR, and a heat shock assay comparing the wild-type modK1 ON (i.e., in frame for expression) strain to a modK1 OFF (i.e., out of frame) strain revealed three virulence-associated genes under ModK1 control. These include the K. kingae toxin rtxA and the heat shock genes groEL and dnaK Cytokine expression analysis showed that the interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor responses of THP-1 macrophages were lower in the modK1 ON strain than in the modK1::kan mutant. This suggests that the ModK1 phasevarion influences the host inflammatory response and provides the first evidence of this phase variable epigenetic mechanism of gene regulation in K. kingae.
Project description:Although Kingella kingae is the most common etiology of osteoarticular infections in young children, is a frequent cause of bacteremia in those younger than 4 years, and has been involved in clusters of invasive infections among daycare center attendees, the population structure of the species has not been systematically studied. Using multilocus sequence typing, we investigated the genetic diversity of the largest intercontinental collection of K. kingae strains to date. To facilitate typing of bacterial isolates, we developed a novel genotyping tool that targets the DNA uptake sequence (DUS). Among 324 strains isolated from asymptomatic carriers and patients from Israel, Europe, North America, and Australia with various invasive forms of the disease from 1960 to 2013, we identified 64 sequence types (STs) and 12 ST complexes (STcs). Five predominant STcs, comprising 72.2% of all strains, were distributed intercontinentally. ST-6 was the most frequent, showing a worldwide distribution, and appeared genotypically isolated by exhibiting few neighboring STs, suggesting an optimal fitness. ST-14 and ST-23 appeared to be the oldest groups of bacteria, while ST-25 probably emerged more recently from the highly evolutive ST-23. Using the DUS typing method, randomly chosen isolates were correctly classified to one of the major STcs. The comprehensive description of K. kingae evolution would help to detect new emerging clones and decipher virulence and fitness mechanisms. The rapid and reproducible DUS typing method may serve in the initial investigation of K. kingae outbreaks.
Project description:Kingella kingae is an emerging pathogen causing osteoarticular infections in pediatric patients. Electron microscopy of K. kingae clinical isolates revealed the heterogeneously-sized membranous structures blebbing from the outer membrane that were classified as outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). OMVs purified from the secreted fraction of a septic arthritis K. kingae isolate were characterized. Among several major proteins, K. kingae OMVs contained virulence factors RtxA toxin and PilC2 pilus adhesin. RtxA was also found secreted as a soluble protein in the extracellular environment indicating that the bacterium may utilize different mechanisms for the toxin delivery. OMVs were shown to be hemolytic and possess some leukotoxic activity while high leukotoxicity was detected in the non-hemolytic OMV-free component of the secreted fraction. OMVs were internalized by human osteoblasts and synovial cells. Upon interaction with OMVs, the cells produced increased levels of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) suggesting that these cytokines might be involved in the signaling response of infected joint and bone tissues during natural K. kingae infection. This study is the first report of OMV production by K. kingae and demonstrates that OMVs are a complex virulence factor of the organism causing cytolytic and inflammatory effects on host cells.