Fludarabine and 2-Gy TBI is superior to 2 Gy TBI as conditioning for HLA-matched related hematopoietic cell transplantation: a phase III randomized trial.
ABSTRACT: The risks and benefits of adding fludarabine to a 2-Gy total body irradiation (TBI) nonmyeloablative regimen are unknown. For this reason, we conducted a prospective randomized trial comparing 2-Gy TBI alone, or in combination with 90 mg/m(2) fludarabine (FLU/TBI), before transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells from HLA-matched related donors. Eighty-five patients with hematological malignancies were randomized to be conditioned with TBI alone (n = 44) or FLU/TBI (n = 41). All patients had initial engraftment. Two graft rejections were observed, both in the TBI group. Infection rates, nonrelapse mortality, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were similar between groups. Three-year overall survival was lower in the TBI group (54% versus 65%; hazard ratio [HR], .57; P = .09), with higher incidences of relapse/progression (55% versus 40%; HR, .55; P = .06), relapse-related mortality (37% versus 28%; HR, .53; P = .09), and a lower progression-free survival (36% versus 53%; HR, .56; P = .05). Median donor T cell chimerism levels were significantly lower in the TBI group at days 28 (61% versus 90%; P < .0001) and 84 (68% versus 92%; P < .0001), as was NK cell chimerism on day 28 (75% versus 96%; P = .0005). In conclusion, this randomized trial demonstrates the importance of fludarabine in augmenting the graft-versus-tumor effect by ensuring prompt and durable high-level donor engraftment early after transplantation.
Project description:Few studies thus far have compared head-to-head different non-myelooablative conditioning regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT).Here, we report the results of a phase II multicenter randomized study comparing non-myeloablative allo-HCT from HLA-identical siblings (n?=?54) or from 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donors (n?=?40) with either fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation (Flu-TBI arm; n?=?49) or 8 Gy TLI?+?anti-thymocyte globulin (TLI-ATG arm; n?=?45) conditioning.The 180-day cumulative incidences of grade II-IV acute GVHD (primary endpoint) were 12.2% versus 8.9% in Flu-TBI and TLI-ATG patients, respectively (P?=?0.5). Two-year cumulative incidences of moderate/severe chronic GVHD were 40.8% versus 17.8% in Flu-TBI and TLI-ATG patients, respectively (P?=?0.017). Five Flu-TBI patients and 10 TLI-ATG patients received pre-emptive DLI for low donor chimerism levels, while 1 Flu-TBI patient and 5 TLI-ATG patients (including 2 patients given prior pre-emptive DLIs) received a second HCT for poor graft function, graft rejection, or disease progression. Four-year cumulative incidences of relapse/progression were 22% and 50% in Flu-TBI and TLI-ATG patients, respectively (P?=?0.017). Four-year cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality were 24% and 13% in Flu-TBI and TLI-ATG patients, respectively (P?=?0.5). Finally, 4-year overall (OS) and progression-free survivals (PFS) were 53% and 54%, respectively, in the Flu-TBI arm, versus 54% (P?=?0.9) and 37% (P?=?0.12), respectively, in the TLI-ATG arm.In comparison to patients included in the Flu-TBI arm, patients included in the TLI-ATG arm had lower incidence of chronic GVHD, higher incidence of relapse and similar OS.The study was registered on ClinicalTrial.gov ( NCT00603954 ) and EUDRACT (2010-024297-19) .
Project description:Disease relapse and toxicity are the shortcomings of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). We hypothesized that adding total body irradiation (TBI) to and decreasing melphalan (Mel) from a base RIC regimen of fludarabine (Flu) and Mel would increase cytoreduction and improve disease control while decreasing toxicity. We performed a phase II trial of Flu 160 mg/m2, Mel 50 mg/m2, and TBI 400 cGy (FluMelTBI-50, n?=?61), followed by a second phase II trial of Flu 160 mg/m2, Mel 75 mg/m2, and TBI 400cGy (FluMelTBI-75, n?=?94) as RIC for alloHCT. Outcomes were compared with a contemporaneous cohort of 162 patients who received Flu 125 mg/m2 and Mel 140 mg/m2. Eligibility criteria were equivalent for all 3 regimens. All patients were ineligible for myeloablative/intensive conditioning. The median (range) follow-up for all patients was 51 (15 to 103) months. Day 100 donor lymphoid chimerism and transplant-related mortality, neutrophil and platelet engraftment, acute and chronic graft versus host disease incidence, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were equivalent between FluMel, FluMelTBI-50, and FluMelTBI-75. Stomatitis wasdecreased for FluMelTBI versus FluMel (P < .01). PFS for patients not in complete remission on alloHCT was improved for FluMelTBI-75 versus FluMel (P?=?.03). On multivariate analysis, OS (P?=?.05) and PFS (P?=?.05) were significantly improved for FluMelTBI-75 versus FluMel. FluMelTBI-75 is better tolerated than FluMel, with improved survival and disease control.
Project description:Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) candidates may lack HLA-matched, related haploidentical, and unrelated umbilical cord options. Barriers to partially HLA-mismatched, unrelated donor (mMUD) BMT include excess graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), graft failure, and death. We prospectively studied nonmyeloablative (NMA) mMUD BMT with high-dose posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for patients with hematologic malignancies. Three transplants were performed with busulfan/fludarabine conditioning, with subsequent change to fludarabine/Cy/total body irradiation (flu/Cy/TBI). Twenty mMUD transplants are reported using flu/Cy/TBI, T-cell replete bone marrow grafts, and PTCy, mycophenolate mofetil, and sirolimus or tacrolimus (1 patient) for GVHD prophylaxis. The median patient age was 56. Ofthese unrelated grafts, 45% had ?2 mismatched HLA loci, 25% had ?3 mismatched loci, and 50% had HLA-C mismatches. No graft failure or grades 3-4 acute GVHD occurred. The median times to neutrophil recovery (?500/?L) and platelet recovery (?20 000/?L) were 19 days and 31 days, respectively. Full-donor chimerism was achieved in 95% of evaluable patients by day 60. The 180-day probability of grades 2-4 acute GVHD (all grade 2) was 25%, and the 1-year probability of any chronic GVHD was 16% (none severe). The 2-year nonrelapse mortality probability was 6%. With 4-year median follow-up, the 1-year progression-free and overall survival probabilities were 65% and 75%, respectively. NMA, T-cell replete mMUD BMT is thus a potentially viable option for patients without other suitable donors. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01203722.
Project description:Alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens are increasingly used for the hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) of pediatric and young adult patients with nonmalignant diseases. Early experience suggests that these regimens are associated with good survival but a high incidence of mixed chimerism, which we have previously shown to be influenced by the alemtuzumab schedule. We hypothesized that the underlying diagnosis and donor graft source would also affect the development of mixed chimerism and that the majority of patients would survive RIC HCT without graft loss. To examine this, we conducted a retrospective study of 206 patients with metabolic diseases, non-Fanconi anemia marrow failure disorders, and primary immune deficiencies who underwent 210 consecutive RIC HCT procedures at Cincinnati Children's Hospital. Ninety-seven percent of the patients engrafted. Mixed donor and recipient chimerism developed in 46% of patients. Patients with marrow failure had a low risk of mixed chimerism (hazard ratio [HR], .208; 95% confidence interval [CI], .061 to .709; P = .012). The risk of mixed chimerism was high in patients who received a cord blood graft (HR, 3.122; 95% CI, 1.236 to 7.888; P = .016). As expected, patients who received a proximal or higher dose per kilogram of alemtuzumab schedule also experienced higher rates of mixed chimerism (all HR > 2, all P < .05). At the time of last follow-up (median, 654 days; range, 13 to 3337), over 75% of patients had greater than 90% whole blood donor chimerism. A second transplantation was performed in 5% of patients. Three-year survival without retransplantation was 84% (95% CI, 71% to 98%) for patients who underwent transplantation with an HLA-matched sibling donor. Survival without retransplantation was negatively affected by lack of a matched related donor, increasing age, and development of grades III and IV acute graft-versus-host disease. We conclude that alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan RIC HCT offers good results for many patients and that the risk of developing mixed chimerism is influenced by underlying diagnosis, graft source, and alemtuzumab dosing.
Project description:Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) offers curative therapy for many patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, post-HCT relapse remains a major problem, particularly in patients with high-risk cytogenetics. In this prospective phase II trial, we assessed the efficacy and toxicity of treosulfan, fludarabine, and 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) as conditioning for allogeneic HCT in patients with MDS or AML. Ninety-six patients with MDS (n = 36: 15 refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, 10 refractory anemia with excess blasts type 1, 10 refractory anemia with excess blasts type 2, 1 chronic myelomonocytic leukemia type 1) or AML (n = 60: 35 first complete remission [CR], 18 second CR, 3 advanced CR, 4 refractory relapse) were enrolled; median age was 51 (range, 1 to 60) years. Twelve patients had undergone a prior HCT with high-intensity conditioning. Patients received 14 g/m(2)/day treosulfan i.v. on days -6 to -4, 30 mg/m(2)/day fludarabine i.v. on days -6 to -2, and 2 Gy TBI on day 0, followed by infusion of hematopoietic cells from related (n = 27) or unrelated (n = 69) donors. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis consisted of tacrolimus and methotrexate. With a median follow-up of 30 months, the 2-year overall survival (OS), relapse incidence, and nonrelapse mortality were 73%, 27%, and 8%, respectively. The incidences of grades II to IV (III to IV) acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were 59% (10%) and 47%, respectively. Two-year OS was not significantly different between MDS patients with poor-risk and good/intermediate-risk cytogenetics (69% and 85%, respectively) or between AML patients with unfavorable and favorable/intermediate-risk cytogenetics (64% and 76%, respectively). In AML patients, minimal residual disease (MRD; n = 10) at the time of HCT predicted higher relapse incidence (70% versus 18%) and lower OS (41% versus 79%) at 2 years, when compared with patients without MRD. In conclusion, treosulfan, fludarabine, and low-dose TBI provided effective conditioning for allogeneic HCT in patients with MDS or AML and resulted in low relapse incidence, regardless of cytogenetic risk. In patients with AML, MRD at the time of HCT remained a risk factor for post-HCT relapse.
Project description:Fludarabine monophosphate (fludarabine) is an integral component of many reduced-intensity conditioning regimens for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Fludarabine's metabolite, 9-?-D-arabinofuranosyl-2-fluoroadenine (F-ara-A), undergoes cellular uptake and activation to form the active cytotoxic metabolite fludarabine triphosphate (F-ara-ATP), which inhibits cellular DNA synthesis in CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells. In this study, we evaluated whether fludarabine-based pharmacologic biomarkers were associated with clinical outcomes in HCT recipients.Participants with hematologic diseases were conditioned with fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic HCT and post-grafting immunosuppression. After fludarabine administration, we evaluated pharmacological biomarkers for fludarabine-F-ara-A area under the curve (AUC) and the ratio of circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells (CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio) after fludarabine administration-in 102 patients; F-ara-ATP accumulation rate in enriched CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells was evaluated in 36 and 34 patients, respectively.Interpatient variability in the pharmacological biomarkers was high, ranging from 3.7-fold (F-ara-A AUC) to 39-fold (F-ara-ATP in CD8(+) cells). Circulating CD8(+) cells were more sensitive to fludarabine administration. A population pharmacokinetic-based sampling schedule successfully allowed for estimation of F-ara-A AUC in this outpatient population. There was a poor correlation between the F-ara-AUC and the F-ara-ATP accumulation rate in CD4(+) (R (2) = 0.01) and CD8(+) cells (R (2) = 0.00). No associations were seen between the four biomarkers and clinical outcomes (day +28 donor T cell chimerism, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), neutrophil nadirs, cytomegalovirus reactivation, chronic GVHD, relapse, non-relapse mortality, or overall mortality).Considerable interpatient variability exists in pharmacokinetic and fludarabine-based biomarkers, but these biomarkers are not associated with clinical outcomes in fludarabine/TBI-conditioned patients.
Project description:The impact of the use of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) following a total body irradiation (TBI)-based myeloablative conditioning regimen has been poorly explored. We retrospectively analyzed 724 patients who underwent a first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) following a TBI-based conditioning regimen for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and compared the outcomes of 251 (35%) patients who received ATG (ATG group) with 473 (65%) patients who did not (non-ATG group). Median follow-up of surviving patients was 59 months (interquartile range, 28-83). The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) for non-ATG and ATG groups in the first 100 days was 33% vs 24%, respectively (P = .0098). The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was reduced significantly in the ATG group in comparison with the non-ATG group (46% vs 34%, P = .003). Using multivariate analysis, in vivo T-cell depletion (ATG group) was independently associated with a decreased incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.28; P < .001), grade III-IV aGVHD (HR, 0.21; P < .001), cGVHD (HR, 0.63; P = .02), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (HR, 0.54; P = .02). Relapse risk, overall survival, and leukemia-free survival were similar between the 2 groups. Our results suggest that the addition of ATG to TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for allo-HCT in AML patients results in a significant reduction in aGVHD and cGVHD, translating into a significant reduction in NRM without increasing the relapse rate.
Project description:Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation provides a reliable method for inducing tolerance toward solid organ grafts. However, this procedure can result in graft-versus-host disease, thereby limiting its application. Here, we test the hypothesis that mixed chimerism can be intentionally reverted to host hematopoiesis without rejection of a kidney graft.Recipient dogs were given 2-Gy total-body irradiation (TBI) before and a short course of immunosuppression after marrow infusion from dog leukocyte antigen-identical littermates. All dogs achieved stable mixed chimerism. After a mean of 20 weeks, one cohort of dogs received kidney transplants from their respective marrow donors. Subsequently, recipients were reconditioned with 2-Gy TBI and given autologous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized leukocytes (recipient leukocyte infusion [RLI]) that had been collected before marrow transplantation.Dogs receiving a second TBI and RLI without a kidney transplant rejected their donor hematopoietic graft within 3 weeks. Dogs that received kidney grafts, followed by a second TBI and RLI, rejected their marrow graft without rejecting their transplanted kidneys for periods greater than 1 year.Mixed chimerism may be clinically reverted to 100% recipient without rejection of a kidney allograft. This finding may have application toward minimizing the risk of graft-versus-host disease in solid organ transplantation patients given hematopoietic cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen-identical donors.
Project description:Conventional myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens often cause severe regimen-related toxicity (RRT). Furthermore, many patients suffer from poor quality of life in accordance with the increase in long-term survivors. We therefore devised a reduced-toxicity myeloablative conditioning (RTMAC) regimen consisting of 8-Gy total body irradiation (TBI), fludarabine (FLU) and cyclophosphamide (CY) for pediatric hematological malignancies. A retrospective single-center analysis was performed on patients with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), aged ≤20 years, who had received an 8-Gy TBI/FLU/CY RTMAC regimen followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Thirty-one patients underwent first allo-HSCT after an RTMAC regimen. The diagnoses were acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 11), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 13), MDS (n = 4), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 1) and acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage (n = 2). While 3 patients showed early hematological relapse, the remaining 28 patients achieved engraftments. None of the patients developed grade 4 or 5 toxicities during the study period. The 5-year overall survival and relapse-free survival were 80% [95% confidence interval: CI, 61-91%] and 71% [95% CI, 52-84%], respectively. Our RTMAC regimen would be less toxic and offers a high probability of survival for children with hematological malignancies.
Project description:Historically, alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for Fanconi anemia (FA) patients resulted in excessive morbidity and mortality. To improve outcomes, we made sequential changes to the HCT conditioning regimen. A total of 130 FA patients (median age, 9.0 years; range, 1-48) underwent alternative donor HCT at the University of Minnesota between 1995 and 2012. All patients received cyclophosphamide (CY), single fraction total body irradiation (TBI), and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) with or without fludarabine (FLU), followed by T-cell-depleted bone marrow or unmanipulated umbilical cord blood transplantation. The addition of FLU enhanced engraftment 3-fold. The incidence of grades 2-4 acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was 20% and 10%, respectively. Severe toxicity was highest in patients >10 years of age or those with a history of opportunistic infections or transfusions before HCT. Mortality was lowest in patients without a history of opportunistic infection or transfusions and who received conditioning with TBI 300 cGy, CY, FLU, and ATG. These patients had a probability of survival of 94% at 5 years. Alternative donor HCT is now associated with excellent survival for patients without prior opportunistic infections or transfusions and should be considered for all FA patients after the onset of marrow failure. These studies were registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005898, NCT00167206, and NCT00352976.