Requirement of alpha(4)beta(1) and alpha(5)beta(1) integrin expression in bone-marrow-derived progenitor cells in preventing endotoxin-induced lung vascular injury and edema in mice.
ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine the role of integrin-mediated adhesion of bone-marrow-derived progenitor cells (BMPCs) as a requirement for the endothelial barrier protection in a lung injury model. C57BL mice were used as the source for BMPCs, which were characterized as CD34(+) and fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk1)(+) and also an expression of a repertoire of integrins. We used a mouse model of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung vascular injury and edema formation to test the effects of BMPC integrin expression in preventing endothelial barrier injury. Adhesion of BMPCs to purified extracellular matrix proteins induced focal adhesion kinase (Fak) phosphorylation and formation of branching point structures in a alpha(4) and alpha(5) integrin-dependent manner. BMPCs expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were administered via the retro-orbital venous route in mice treated intraperitonially with LPS (7.5 mg/kg body weight). We observed increased retention of RFP-labeled Flk1(+) and CD34(+) BMPCs for up to 8 weeks in mice injured with LPS. BMPC transplantation increased survival by 50% (at 72-96 hours after LPS) and reduced lung vascular injury and extravascular water content induced by LPS. However, blocking with anti-alpha(4) or anti-alpha(5) integrin antibody or shRNA-mediated silencing of alpha(4) or alpha(5) integrins in donor BMPCs failed to prevent the vascular injury or edema formation and mortality. Thus, alpha(4) and alpha(5) integrin-dependent adhesion of BMPCs in lung tissue plays a critical role in preventing lung vascular injury and increasing survival in a mouse model of LPS-induced acute lung injury.
Project description:Adult stem cell treatment is a potential novel therapeutic approach for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Given the extremely low rate of cell engraftment, it is believed that these cells exert their beneficial effects via paracrine mechanisms. However, the endogenous mediator(s) in the pulmonary vasculature remains unclear. Using the mouse model with endothelial cell (EC)-restricted disruption of FoxM1 (FoxM1 CKO), here we show that endothelial expression of the reparative transcriptional factor FoxM1 is required for the protective effects of bone marrow progenitor cells (BMPC) against LPS-induced inflammatory lung injury and mortality. BMPC treatment resulted in rapid induction of FoxM1 expression in wild type (WT) but not FoxM1 CKO lungs. BMPC-induced inhibition of lung vascular injury, resolution of lung inflammation, and survival, as seen in WT mice, were abrogated in FoxM1 CKO mice following LPS challenge. Mechanistically, BMPC treatment failed to induce lung EC proliferation in FoxM1 CKO mice, which was associated with impaired expression of FoxM1 target genes essential for cell cycle progression. We also observed that BMPC treatment enhanced endothelial barrier function in WT but not in FoxM1-deficient EC monolayers. Restoration of ?-catenin expression in FoxM1-deficient ECs normalized endothelial barrier enhancement in response to BMPC treatment. These data demonstrate the requisite role of endothelial FoxM1 in the mechanism of BMPC-induced vascular repair to restore vascular integrity and accelerate resolution of inflammation, thereby promoting survival following inflammatory lung injury.
Project description:Diabetes is associated with a higher incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) and increased risk for adverse vascular and fibrogenic events post-MI. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cell (BMPC) therapy has been shown to promote neovascularization, decrease infarct area and attenuate left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after MI. Unlike vascular effects, the anti-fibrosis mechanisms of BMPC, specifically under diabetic conditions, are poorly understood. We demonstrated that intramyocardial delivery of BMPCs in infarcted diabetic db/db mice significantly down-regulates profibrotic miRNA-155 in the myocardium and improves LV remodeling and function. Furthermore, inhibition of paracrine factor hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signaling in vivo suppressed the BMPC-mediated inhibition of miR-155 expression and the associated protective effect on cardiac fibrosis and function. In vitro studies confirmed that the conditioned media of BMPC inhibited miR-155 expression and profibrotic signaling in mouse cardiac fibroblasts under diabetic conditions. However, neutralizing antibodies directed against HGF blocked these effects. Furthermore, miR-155 over-expression in mouse cardiac fibroblasts inhibited antifibrotic Sloan-Kettering Institute proto-oncogene (Ski) and Ski-related novel gene, non-Alu-containing (SnoN) signaling and abrogated antifibrogenic response of HGF. Together, our data demonstrates that paracrine regulation of cardiac miRNAs by transplanted BMPCs contributes to the antifibrotic effects of BMPC therapy. BMPCs release HGF, which inhibits miR-155-mediated profibrosis signaling, thereby preventing cardiac fibrosis. These data suggest that targeting miR-155 might serve as a potential therapy against cardiac fibrosis in the diabetic heart.
Project description:Since thrombin activation of endothelial cells (ECs) is well-known to increase endothelial permeability by disassembly of adherens junctions (AJs) and actinomyosin contractility mechanism involving myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, we investigated the effects of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (BMPCs) on the thrombin-induced endothelial permeability response. We observed that addition of BMPCs to endothelial monolayers at a fixed ratio prevented the thrombin-induced decrease in transendothelial electrical resistance, a measure of AJ integrity, and increased mouse pulmonary microvessel filtration coefficient, a measure of transvascular liquid permeability. The barrier protection was coupled to increased vascular endothelial cadherin expression and increased Cdc42 activity in ECs. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to deplete Cdc42 in ECs, we demonstrated a key role of Cdc42 in signaling the BMPC-induced endothelial barrier protection. Endothelial integrity induced by BMPCs was also secondary to inhibition of MLC phosphorylation in ECs. Thus BMPCs interacting with ECs prevent thrombin-induced endothelial hyperpermeability by a mechanism involving AJ barrier annealing, inhibition of MLC phosphorylation, and activation of Cdc42.
Project description:This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene transfer, AMD3100-induced progenitor-cell mobilization, and Shh-AMD3100 combination therapy for treatment of surgically induced myocardial infarction (MI) in mice.Shh gene transfer improves myocardial recovery by up-regulating angiogenic genes and enhancing the incorporation of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (BMPCs) in infarcted myocardium. Here, we investigated whether the effectiveness of Shh gene therapy could be improved with AMD3100-induced progenitor-cell mobilization.Gene expression and cell function were evaluated in cells cultured with medium collected from fibroblasts transfected with plasmids encoding human Shh (phShh). MI was induced in wild-type mice, in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 knockout mice, and in mice transplanted with bone marrow that expressed green-fluorescent protein. Mice were treated with 100 ?g of phShh (administered intramyocardially), 5 mg/kg of AMD3100 (administered subcutaneously), or both; cardiac function was evaluated echocardiographically, and fibrosis, capillary density, and BMPC incorporation were evaluated immunohistochemically.phShh increased vascular endothelial growth factor and stromal cell-derived factor 1 expression in fibroblasts; the medium from phShh-transfected fibroblasts increased endothelial-cell migration and the migration, proliferation, and tube formation of BMPCs. Combination therapy enhanced cardiac functional recovery (i.e., left ventricular ejection fraction) in wild-type mice, but not in MMP-9 knockout mice, and was associated with less fibrosis, greater capillary density and smooth muscle-containing vessel density, and enhanced BMPC incorporation.Combination therapy consisting of intramyocardial Shh gene transfer and AMD3100-induced progenitor-cell mobilization improves cardiac functional recovery after MI and is superior to either individual treatment for promoting therapeutic neovascularization.
Project description:Little is known about the contribution of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (BMPCs) in the regulation endothelial barrier function as defined by microvascular permeability alterations at the level of adherens junctions (AJs).We investigated the role of BMPCs in annealing AJs and thereby in preventing lung edema formation induced by endotoxin (LPS).We observed that BMPCs enhanced basal endothelial barrier function and prevented the increase in pulmonary microvascular permeability and edema formation in mice after LPS challenge. Coculture of BMPCs with endothelial cells induced Rac1 and Cdc42 activation and AJ assembly in endothelial cells. However, transplantation of BMPCs isolated from sphingosine kinase-1-null mice (SPHK1(-/-)), having impaired S1P production, failed to activate Rac1 and Cdc42 or protect the endothelial barrier.These results demonstrate that BMPCs have the ability to reanneal endothelial AJs by paracrine S1P release in the inflammatory milieu and the consequent activation of Rac-1 and Cdc42 in endothelial cells.
Project description:Diabetic skin ulcers represent a challenging clinical problem with mechanisms not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism for the primary unfolded protein response (UPR) transducer inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1?) in diabetic wound healing. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (BMPCs) were isolated from adult male type 2 diabetic and their littermate control mice. In diabetic BMPCs, IRE1? protein expression and phosphorylation were repressed. The impaired diabetic BMPC angiogenic function was rescued by adenovirus-mediated expression of IRE1? but not by the RNase-inactive IRE1? or the activated X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), the canonical IRE1? target. In fact, IRE1? RNase processes a subset of microRNAs (miRs), including miR-466 and miR-200 families, through which IRE1? plays an important role in maintaining BMPC function under the diabetic condition. IRE1? attenuated maturation of miR-466 and miR-200 family members at precursor miR levels through the regulated IRE1?-dependent decay (RIDD) independent of XBP1. IRE1? deficiency in diabetes resulted in a burst of functional miRs from miR-466 and miR-200 families, which directly target and repress the mRNA encoding the angiogenic factor angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1), leading to decreased ANGPT1 expression and disrupted angiogenesis. Importantly, cell therapies using IRE1?-expressing BMPCs or direct IRE1? gene transfer significantly accelerated cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice through facilitating angiogenesis. In conclusion, our studies revealed a novel mechanistic basis for rescuing angiogenesis and tissue repair in diabetic wound treatments.
Project description:Patient-derived progenitor cell (PC) dysfunction is severely impaired in diabetes, but the molecular triggers that contribute to mechanisms of PC dysfunction are not fully understood. Methylglyoxal (MGO) is one of the highly reactive dicarbonyl species formed during hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that the MGO scavenger glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) reverses bone marrow-derived PC (BMPC) dysfunction through augmenting the activity of an important endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor, inositol-requiring enzyme 1? (IRE1?), resulting in improved diabetic wound healing. BMPCs were isolated from adult male db/db type 2 diabetic mice and their healthy corresponding control db/+ mice. MGO at the concentration of 10 µmol/L induced immediate and severe BMPC dysfunction, including impaired network formation, migration, and proliferation and increased apoptosis, which were rescued by adenovirus-mediated GLO1 overexpression. IRE1? expression and activation in BMPCs were significantly attenuated by MGO exposure but rescued by GLO1 overexpression. MGO can diminish IRE1? RNase activity by directly binding to IRE1? in vitro. In a diabetic mouse cutaneous wound model in vivo, cell therapies using diabetic cells with GLO1 overexpression remarkably accelerated wound closure by enhancing angiogenesis compared with diabetic control cell therapy. Augmenting tissue GLO1 expression by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer or with the small-molecule inducer trans-resveratrol and hesperetin formulation also improved wound closure and angiogenesis in diabetic mice. In conclusion, our data suggest that GLO1 rescues BMPC dysfunction and facilitates wound healing in diabetic animals, at least partly through preventing MGO-induced impairment of IRE1? expression and activity. Our results provide important knowledge for the development of novel therapeutic approaches targeting MGO to improve PC-mediated angiogenesis and tissue repair in diabetes.
Project description:LPS from bacteria is ubiquitous in the environment and can cause airway disease and modify allergic asthma. Identification of gene products that modulate the biologic response to inhaled LPS will improve our understanding of inflammatory airways disease. Previous work has identified quantitative trait loci for the response to inhaled LPS on chromosomes 2 and 11. In these regions, 28 genes had altered RNA expression after inhalation of LPS, including CD44, which was associated with differences in both TNF-alpha levels and neutrophil recruitment into the lung. It has previously been shown that CD44 can modulate macrophage recruitment in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as clearance of neutrophils after lung injury with both bleomycin and live Escherichia coli bacteria. In this study, we demonstrate that the biologic response to inhaled LPS is modified by CD44. Macrophages failed to be recruited to the lungs of CD44-deficient animals at all time points after LPS exposure. CD44-deficient macrophages showed reduced motility in a Transwell migration assay, reduced ability to secrete the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, reduced in vivo migration in response to monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and diminished adhesion to vascular endothelia in the presence of TNF-alpha. In addition, CD44-deficient animals had 150% fewer neutrophils at 24 h and 50% greater neutrophils 48 h after LPS exposure. These results support the role of CD44 in modulating the biologic response to inhaled LPS.
Project description:Selectins and their ligands mediate leukocyte rolling, allowing interactions with chemokines that lead to integrin activation and arrest. Here we show that E-selectin is crucial for generating a secondary wave of activating signals, transduced specifically by E-selectin ligand-1, that induces polarized, activated alpha(M)beta(2) integrin clusters at the leading edge of crawling neutrophils, allowing capture of circulating erythrocytes or platelets. In a humanized mouse model of sickle cell disease, the capture of erythrocytes by alpha(M)beta(2) microdomains leads to acute lethal vascular occlusions. In a model of transfusion-related acute lung injury, polarized neutrophils capture circulating platelets, resulting in the generation of oxidative species that produce vascular damage and lung injury. Inactivation of E-selectin or alpha(M)beta(2) prevents tissue injury in both inflammatory models, suggesting broad implications of this paradigm in thromboinflammatory diseases. These results indicate that endothelial selectins can influence neutrophil behavior beyond its canonical rolling step through delayed, organ-damaging, polarized activation.
Project description:Comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms regulating angiogenesis might provide new strategies for angiogenic therapies for treating diverse physiological and pathological ischemic conditions. The E-twenty six (ETS) factor Ets variant 2 (ETV2; aka Ets-related protein 71) is essential for the formation of hematopoietic and vascular systems. Despite its indispensable function in vessel development, ETV2 role in adult angiogenesis has not yet been addressed. We have therefore investigated the role of ETV2 in vascular regeneration.We used endothelial Etv2 conditional knockout mice and ischemic injury models to assess the role of ETV2 in vascular regeneration. Although Etv2 expression was not detectable under steady-state conditions, its expression was readily observed in endothelial cells after injury. Mice lacking endothelial Etv2 displayed impaired neovascularization in response to eye injury, wounding, or hindlimb ischemic injury. Lentiviral Etv2 expression in ischemic hindlimbs led to improved recovery of blood perfusion with enhanced vessel formation. After injury, fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk1), aka VEGFR2, expression and neovascularization were significantly upregulated by Etv2, whereas Flk1 expression and vascular endothelial growth factor response were significantly blunted in Etv2-deficient endothelial cells. Conversely, enforced Etv2 expression enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated endothelial sprouting from embryoid bodies. Lentiviral Flk1 expression rescued angiogenesis defects in endothelial Etv2 conditional knockout mice after hindlimb ischemic injury. Furthermore, Etv2(+/-); Flk1(+/-) double heterozygous mice displayed a more severe hindlimb ischemic injury response compared with Etv2(+/-) or Flk1(+/-) heterozygous mice, revealing an epistatic interaction between ETV2 and FLK1 in vascular regeneration.Our study demonstrates a novel obligatory role for the ETV2 in postnatal vascular repair and regeneration.