Acid-base and electrochemical properties of manganese meso(ortho- and meta-N-ethylpyridyl)porphyrins: potentiometric, spectrophotometric and spectroelectrochemical study of protolytic and redox equilibria.
ABSTRACT: The difference in electrostatics and reduction potentials between manganese ortho-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP) and manganese meta-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-3-yl)porphyrin (MnTE-3-PyP) is a challenging topic, particularly because of the high likelihood for their clinical development. Hence, a detailed study of the protolytic and electrochemical speciation of Mn(II-IV)TE-2-PyP and Mn(II-IV)TE-3-PyP in a broad pH range has been performed using the combined spectrophotometric and potentiometric methods. The results reveal that in aqueous solutions within the pH range ?2-13 the following species exist: (H(2)O)Mn(II)TE-m-PyP(4+), (HO)Mn(II)TE-m-PyP(3+), (H(2)O)(2)Mn(III)TE-m-PyP(5+), (HO)(H(2)O)Mn(III)TE-m-PyP(4+), (O)(H(2)O)Mn(III)TE-m-PyP(3+), (O)(H(2)O)Mn(IV)TE-m-PyP(4+) and (O)(HO)Mn(IV)TE-m-PyP(3+) (m = 2, 3). All the protolytic equilibrium constants that include the accessible species as well as the thermodynamic parameters for each particular protolytic equilibrium have been determined. The corresponding formal reduction potentials related to the reduction of the above species and the thermodynamic parameters describing the accessible reduction couples were calculated as well.
Project description:The manganese porphyrin, manganese (III) meso-tetrakis N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP(5+)), acts as a pro-oxidant in the presence of intracellular H2O2. Mitochondria are the most prominent source of intracellular ROS and important regulators of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Due to the increased oxidants near and within the mitochondria, we hypothesized that the mitochondria are a target of the pro-oxidative activity of MnTE-2-PyP(5+) and that we could exploit this effect to enhance the chemotherapeutic response in lymphoma. In this study, we demonstrate that MnTE-2-PyP(5+) modulates the mitochondrial redox environment and sensitizes lymphoma cells to antilymphoma chemotherapeutics. MnTE-2-PyP(5+) increased dexamethasone-induced mitochondrial ROS and oxidation of the mitochondrial glutathione pool in lymphoma cells. The combination treatment induced glutathionylation of Complexes I, III, and IV in the electron transport chain, and decreased the activity of Complexes I and III, but not the activity of Complex IV. Treatment with the porphyrin and dexamethasone also decreased cellular ATP levels. Rho(0) malignant T-cells with impaired mitochondrial electron transport chain function were less sensitive to the combination treatment than wild-type cells. These findings suggest that mitochondria are important for the porphyrin's ability to enhance cell death. MnTE-2-PyP(5+) also augmented the effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), an antiglycolytic agent. In combination with 2DG, MnTE-2-PyP(5+) increased protein glutathionylation, decreased ATP levels more than 2DG treatment alone, and enhanced 2DG-induced cell death in primary B-ALL cells. MnTE-2-PyP(5+) did not enhance dexamethasone- or 2DG-induced cell death in normal cells. Our findings suggest that MnTE-2-PyP(5+) has potential as an adjuvant for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.
Project description:Glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is exploited for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Innate and acquired resistance limits treatment efficacy; however, resistance mechanisms are not well understood. Previously, using WEHI7.2 murine thymic lymphoma cells, we found that increasing the resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) by catalase transfection or selection for H(2)O(2) resistance caused glucocorticoid resistance. This suggests the possibility that increasing H(2)O(2) sensitivity could sensitize the cells to glucocorticoids. In other cell types, increasing manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) can increase intracellular H(2)O(2). The current study showed that increased expression of MnSOD sensitized WEHI7.2 cells to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis and H(2)O(2). Treatment of WEHI7.2 cells with the catalytic antioxidant Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP(5+)), a manganoporphyrin, mimicked the effects of increased MnSOD expression. MnTE-2-PyP(5+) also sensitized WEHI7.2 cells to cyclophosphamide and inhibited cell growth; it had no effect on the WEHI7.2 cell response to doxorubicin or vincristine. In primary follicular lymphoma cells, MnTE-2-PyP(5+) increased cell death due to dexamethasone. Treatment of H9c2 cardiomyocytes with MnTE-2-PyP(5+) inhibited doxorubicin cytotoxicity. The profile of MnTE-2-PyP(5+) effects suggests MnTE-2-PyP(5+) has potential for use in hematologic malignancies that are treated with glucocorticoids, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin.
Project description:Cationic Mn porphyrins are among the most potent catalytic antioxidants and/or cellular redox modulators. Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin chloride (MnTE-2-PyPCl(5)) is the Mn porphyrin most studied in vivo and has successfully rescued animal models of a variety of oxidative stress-related diseases. The stability of an authentic MnTE-2-PyPCl(5) sample was investigated hereon by thermogravimetric, derivative thermogravimetric, and differential thermal analyses (TG/DTG/DTA), under dynamic air, followed by studies at selected temperatures to evaluate the decomposition path and appropriate conditions for storage and handling of these materials. All residues were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Three thermal processes were observed by TG/DTG. The first event (endothermic) corresponded to dehydration, and did not alter the MnTE-2-PyPCl(5) moiety. The second event (endothermic) corresponded to the loss of EtCl (dealkylation), which was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The residue at 279°C had UV-vis and TLC data consistent with those of the authentic, completely dealkylated analog, MnT-2-PyPCl. The final, multi-step event corresponded to the loss of the remaining organic matter to yield Mn(3)O(4) which was characterized by IR spectroscopy. Isothermal treatment at 188°C under static air for 3h yielded a mixture of partially dealkylated MnPs and traces of the free-base, dealkylated ligand, H(2)T-2-PyP, which reveals that dealkylation is accompanied by thermal demetallation under static air conditions. Dealkylation was not observed if the sample was heated as a solid or in aqueous solution up to ?100°C. Whereas moderate heating changes sample composition by loss of H(2)O, the dehydrated sample is indistinguishable from the original sample upon dissolution in water, which indicates that catalytic activity (on Mn basis) remains unaltered. Evidently, dealkylation at high temperature compromises sample activity.
Project description:Using current chemotherapy protocols, over 55% of lymphoma patients fail treatment. Novel agents are needed to improve lymphoma survival. The manganese porphyrin, MnTE-2-PyP(5+), augments glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in WEHI7.2 murine thymic lymphoma cells, suggesting that it may have potential as a lymphoma therapeutic. However, the mechanism by which MnTE-2-PyP(5+) potentiates glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is unknown. Previously, we showed that glucocorticoid treatment increases the steady state levels of hydrogen peroxide ([H(2)O(2)](ss)) and oxidizes the redox environment in WEHI7.2 cells. In the current study, we found that when MnTE-2-PyP(5+) is combined with glucocorticoids, it augments dexamethasone-induced oxidative stress however, it does not augment the [H(2)O(2)](ss) levels. The combined treatment depletes GSH, oxidizes the 2GSH:GSSG ratio, and causes protein glutathionylation to a greater extent than glucocorticoid treatment alone. Removal of the glucocorticoid-generated H(2)O(2) or depletion of glutathione by BSO prevents MnTE-2-PyP(5+) from augmenting glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. In combination with glucocorticoids, MnTE-2-PyP(5+) glutathionylates p65 NF-?B and inhibits NF-?B activity. Inhibition of NF-?B with SN50, an NF- ?B inhibitor, enhances glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis to the same extent as MnTE-2-PyP(5+). Taken together, these findings indicate that: 1) H(2)O(2) is important for MnTE-2-PyP(5+) activity; 2) Mn-TE-2-PyP(5+) cycles with GSH; and 3) MnTE-2-PyP(5+) potentiates glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis by glutathionylating and inhibiting critical survival proteins, including NF-?B. In the clinic, over-expression of NF-?B is associated with a poor prognosis in lymphoma. MnTE-2-PyP(5+) may therefore, synergize with glucocorticoids to inhibit NF-?B and improve current treatment.
Project description:Growing interest in redox-active compounds as therapeutics for oxidative stress-related diseases led to the design of metalloporphyrins as some of the most potent functional SOD-mimics. Herein we report a detailed electrochemical study of the protolytic and redox equilibria of manganese ortho and meta substituted N-ethylpyridyl porphyrins (MnPs), MnTE-2-PyP(5+) and MnTE-3-PyP(5+), in aqueous solutions. The electrochemical parameters of redox processes for all experimentally available species have been determined, as well as their diffusion coefficients and estimated sizes of aqueous cavities. The results indicate that possible changes of the intracellular acidity cannot affect the antioxidant activity of MnPs in vivo, since no change in the E(Mn(III)P/Mn(II)P) values was observed below pH 10. Furthermore, the results confirm that both of these MnPs can be efficient redox scavengers of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), another major damaging species in vivo. This can occur by either single-electron reduction or two-electron reduction of ONOO(-), involving either the Mn(IV)P/Mn(III)P redox couple or Mn(IV)P/Mn(II)P redox couple. In addition to kred(ONOO(-)) reported previously, the thermodynamic parameters calculated herein imply a strong and identical driving force for the reaction of both ortho and meta isomeric MnPs with ONOO(-). An enlargement of both Mn(III)P complexes upon an increase of the solution pH was also observed and attributed to the reduction of positive charge on the central ion caused by deprotonation of the axial water molecules. This expansion of aqueous cavities suggests the formation of a solvent cage and the increased lipophilicity of Mn(III)P complexes caused by increased electron density on the Mn ion.
Project description:Background:Cardiomyopathies remain among the leading causes of death worldwide, despite all efforts and important advances in the development of cardiovascular therapeutics, demonstrating the need for new solutions. Herein, we describe the effects of the redox-active therapeutic Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin, AEOL10113, BMX-010 (MnTE-2-PyP5+), on rat heart as an entry to new strategies to circumvent cardiomyopathies. Methods:Wistar rats weighing 250-300?g were used in both in vitro and in vivo experiments, to analyze intracellular Ca2+ dynamics, L-type Ca2+ currents, Ca2+ spark frequency, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and cardiomyocyte and cardiac contractility, in control and MnTE-2-PyP5+-treated cells, hearts, or animals. Cells and hearts were treated with 20??M MnTE-2-PyP5+ and animals with 1?mg/kg, i.p. daily. Additionally, we performed electrocardiographic and echocardiographic analysis. Results:Using isolated rat cardiomyocytes, we observed that MnTE-2-PyP5+ reduced intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude, without altering cell contractility. Whereas MnTE-2-PyP5+ did not alter basal ROS levels, it was efficient in modulating cardiomyocyte redox state under stress conditions; MnTE-2-PyP5+ reduced Ca2+ spark frequency and increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ load. Accordingly, analysis of isolated perfused rat hearts showed that MnTE-2-PyP5+ preserves cardiac function, increases SR Ca2+ load, and reduces arrhythmia index, indicating an antiarrhythmic effect. In vivo experiments showed that MnTE-2-PyP5+ treatment increased Ca2+ transient, preserved cardiac ejection fraction, and reduced arrhythmia index and duration. MnTE-2-PyP5+ was effective both to prevent and to treat cardiac arrhythmias. Conclusion:MnTE-2-PyP5+ prevents and treats cardiac arrhythmias in rats. In contrast to most antiarrhythmic drugs, MnTE-2-PyP5+ preserves cardiac contractile function, arising, thus, as a prospective therapeutic for improvement of cardiac arrhythmia treatment.
Project description:The goal of this study was to use two manganese (Mn)-based superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics to test the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species contribute to both acute and long-term outcomes in a galactose-1P uridylyltransferase (GALT)-null Drosophila melanogaster model of classic galactosemia.We tested the impact of each of two Mn porphyrin SOD mimics, MnTnBuOE-2-PyP(5+), and MnTE-2-PyP(5+), (i) on survival of GALT-null Drosophila larvae reared in the presence versus absence of dietary galactose and (ii) on the severity of a long-term movement defect in GALT-null adult flies. Both SOD mimics conferred a significant survival benefit to GALT-null larvae exposed to galactose but not to controls or to GALT-null larvae reared in the absence of galactose. One mimic, MnTE-2-PyP(5+), also largely rescued a galactose-independent long-term movement defect otherwise seen in adult GALT-null flies. The survival benefit of both SOD mimics occurred despite continued accumulation of elevated galactose-1P in the treated animals, and studies of thiolated proteins demonstrated that in both the presence and absence of dietary galactose MnTE-2-PyP(5+) largely prevented the elevated protein oxidative damage otherwise seen in GALT-null animals relative to controls.Our results confirm oxidative stress as a mediator of acute galactose sensitivity in GALT-null Drosophila larvae and demonstrate for the first time that oxidative stress may also contribute to galactose-independent adult outcomes in GALT deficiency. Finally, our results demonstrate for the first time that both MnTnBuOE-2-PyP(5+) and MnTE-2-PyP(5+) are bioavailable and effective when administered through an oral route in a D. melanogaster model of classic galactosemia.
Project description:Our goal herein has been to gain further insight into the parameters which control porphyrin therapeutic potential. Mn porphyrins (MnTnOct-2-PyP(5+), MnTnHexOE-2-PyP(5+), MnTE-2-PyPhP(5+), and MnTPhE-2-PyP(5+)) that bear the same positive charge and same number of carbon atoms at meso positions of porphyrin core were explored. The carbon atoms of their meso substituents are organized to form either linear or cyclic structures of vastly different redox properties, bulkiness, and lipophilicities. These Mn porphyrins were compared to frequently studied compounds, MnTE-2-PyP(5+), MnTE-3-PyP(5+), and MnTBAP(3-). All Mn(III) porphyrins (MnPs) have metal-centered reduction potential, E1/2 for Mn(III)P/Mn(II)P redox couple, ranging from -194 to +340 mV versus NHE, log kcat(O2(•-)) from 3.16 to 7.92, and log kred(ONOO(-)) from 5.02 to 7.53. The lipophilicity, expressed as partition between n-octanol and water, log POW, was in the range -1.67 to -7.67. The therapeutic potential of MnPs was assessed via: (i) in vitro ability to prevent spontaneous lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate as assessed by malondialdehyde levels; (ii) in vivo O2(•-) specific assay to measure the efficacy in protecting the aerobic growth of SOD-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae; and (iii) aqueous solution chemistry to measure the reactivity toward major in vivo endogenous antioxidant, ascorbate. Under the conditions of lipid peroxidation assay, the transport across the cellular membranes, and in turn shape and size of molecule, played no significant role. Those MnPs of E1/2 ? +300 mV were the most efficacious, significantly inhibiting lipid peroxidation in 0.5-10 ?M range. At up to 200 ?M, MnTBAP(3-) (E1/2 = -194 mV vs NHE) failed to inhibit lipid peroxidation, while MnTE-2-PyPhP(5+) with 129 mV more positive E1/2 (-65 mV vs NHE) was fully efficacious at 50 ?M. The E1/2 of Mn(III)P/Mn(II)P redox couple is proportional to the log kcat(O2(•-)), i.e., the SOD-like activity of MnPs. It is further proportional to kred(ONOO(-)) and the ability of MnPs to prevent lipid peroxidation. In turn, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by MnPs is also proportional to their SOD-like activity. In an in vivo S. cerevisiae assay, however, while E1/2 predominates, lipophilicity significantly affects the efficacy of MnPs. MnPs of similar log POW and E1/2, that have linear alkyl or alkoxyalkyl pyridyl substituents, distribute more easily within a cell and in turn provide higher protection to S. cerevisiae in comparison to MnP with bulky cyclic substituents. The bell-shape curve, with MnTE-2-PyP(5+) exhibiting the highest ability to catalyze ascorbate oxidation, has been established and discussed. Our data support the notion that the SOD-like activity of MnPs parallels their therapeutic potential, though species other than O2(•-), such as peroxynitrite, H2O2, lipid reactive species, and cellular reductants, may be involved in their mode(s) of action(s).
Project description:The cationic, ortho Mn(III) N-alkylpyridylporphyrins (alkyl=ethyl, E, and n-hexyl, nHex) MnTE-2-PyP(5+) (AEOL10113, FBC-007) and MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) have proven efficacious in numerous in vivo animal models of diseases having oxidative stress in common. The remarkable therapeutic efficacy observed is due to their: (1) ability to catalytically remove O2(•-) and ONOO(-) and other reactive species; (2) ability to modulate redox-based signaling pathways; (3) accumulation within critical cellular compartments, i.e., mitochondria; and (4) ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. The similar redox activities of both compounds are related to the similar electronic and electrostatic environments around the metal active sites, whereas their different bioavailabilities are presumably influenced by the differences in lipophilicity, bulkiness, and shape. Both porphyrins are water soluble, but MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) is approximately 4 orders of magnitude more lipophilic than MnTE-2-PyP(5+), which should positively affect its ability to pass through biological membranes, making it more efficacious in vivo at lower doses. To gain insight into the in vivo tissue distribution of Mn porphyrins and its impact upon their therapeutic efficacy and mechanistic aspects of action, as well as to provide data that would ensure proper dosing regimens, we conducted comprehensive pharmacokinetic (PK) studies for 24h after single-dose drug administration. The porphyrins were administered intravenously (iv), intraperitoneally (ip), and via oral gavage at the following doses: 10mg/kg MnTE-2-PyP(5+) and 0.5 or 2mg/kg MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+). Drug levels in plasma and various organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, brain) were determined and PK parameters calculated (Cmax, C24h, tmax, and AUC). Regardless of high water solubility and pentacationic charge of these Mn porphyrins, they are orally available. The oral availability (based on plasma AUCoral/AUCiv) is 23% for MnTE-2-PyP(5+) and 21% for MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+). Despite the fivefold lower dose administered, the AUC values for liver, heart, and spleen are higher for MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) than for MnTE-2-PyP(5+) (and comparable for other organs), clearly demonstrating the better tissue penetration and tissue retention of the more lipophilic MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+).
Project description:Radiation is a common anticancer therapy for many cancer patients, including prostate cancer. Diabetic prostate cancer patients suffer from increased lymph node metastasis, tumor recurrence and decreased survival as compared to non-diabetic prostate cancer patients. These patients are also at increased risk for enhanced radiation-induced normal tissue damage such as proctitis. Diabetics are oxidatively stressed and radiation causes additional oxidative damage. We and others have reported that, MnTE-2-PyP, a manganese porphyrin, protects normal prostate tissue from radiation damage. We have also reported that, in an in vivo mouse model of prostate cancer, MnTE-2-PyP decreases tumor volume and increases survival of the mice. In addition, MnTE-2-PyP has also been shown to reduce blood glucose and inhibits pro-fibrotic signaling in a diabetic model. Therefore, to investigate the role of MnTE-2-PyP in normal tissue protection in an irradiated diabetic environment, we have treated human prostate fibroblast cells with MnTE-2-PyP in an irradiated hyperglycemic environment. This study revealed that hyperglycemia causes increased cell death after radiation as compared to normo-glycemia. MnTE-2-PyP protects against hyperglycemia-induced cell death after radiation. MnTE-2-PyP decreases expression of NOX4 and ?-SMA, one of the major oxidative enzymes and pro-fibrotic molecules respectively. MnTE-2-PyP obstructs NF-?B activity by decreasing DNA binding of the p50-p50 homodimer in the irradiated hyperglycemic environment. MnTE-2-PyP increases NRF2 mediated cytoprotection by increasing NRF2 protein expression and DNA binding. Therefore, we are proposing that, MnTE-2-PyP protects fibroblasts from irradiation and hyperglycemia damage by enhancing the NRF2- mediated pathway in diabetic prostate cancer patients, undergoing radiotherapy.