Wnt1 Accelerates an Ex Vivo Expansion of Human Cord Blood CD34(+)CD38(-) Cells.
ABSTRACT: Cord blood hematopoietic stem cells (CB-HSCs) transplantation has been increasing gradually with facing the limitation of insufficient quantity of HSCs in each CB unit. Therefore, efficient expansion methods which can maintain stem cell characteristics are needed. In this study, umbilical CB-CD34(+) cells were cultured in two different cytokine cocktails: 4 factors (4F?=?Flt3-L, SCF, IL-6, and TPO) and 5 factors (5F?=?Wnt1?+?4F) in both serum and serum-free media. The data revealed that the best condition to accelerate an expansion of CD34(+)CD38(-) cells was serum-free culture condition supplemented with 5F (5F KSR). This condition yielded 24.3?±?2.1 folds increase of CD34(+)CD38(-) cells. The expanded cells exhibited CD34(+) CD38(-) CD133(+) CD71(low) CD33(low) CD3(-) CD19(-) markers, expressed nanog, oct3/4, c-myc, and sox2 genes, and maintained differentiation potential into lymphoid, erythroid and myeloid lineages. The achievement of CD34(+)CD38(-) cells expansion may overcome an insufficient quantity of the cells leading to the improvement of the stem cell transplantation. Altogether, our findings highlight the role of Wnt1 and the new culture condition in stimulating hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells expansion which may offer a new therapeutic avenue for cord blood transplantation, regenerative medicine, stem cell bank applications, and other clinical applications in the future.
Project description:Cord blood (CB) is an attractive source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for hematopoietic cell transplantation. However, its application remains limited due to the low number of HSCs/progenitors in a single CB unit and its notoriously difficulty in expanding ex vivo. Here, we demonstrated that the human fetal liver sinusoidal endothelial cells engineered to constitutively express the adenoviral E4orf1 gene (hFLSECs-E4orf1) is capable of efficient expansion ex vivo for human CB hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Coculture of CD34+ hCB cells with hFLSECs-E4orf1 resulted in generation of substantially more total nucleated cells, CD34+CD38- and CD34+ CD38-CD90+ HSPCs in comparison with that of cytokines alone after 14 days. The multilineage differentiation potential of the expanded hematopoietic cells in coculture condition, as assessed by in vitro colony formation, was also significantly heightened. The CD34+ hCB cells amplified on hFLSECs-E4orf1 were capable of engraftment in vivo. Furthermore, hFLSECs-E4orf1 highly expressed hematopoiesis related growth factor and Notch receptors. Accordingly, the CD34+ hCB cells amplified on hFLSECs-E4orf1 exhibited Notch signaling activation. Taken together, our findings indicated that FLSECs may potentially be the crucial component of the microenvironment to support recapitulation of embryonic HSC amplification in vitro and allow identification of new growth factors responsible for collective regulation of hematopoiesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although cord blood (CB) offers promise for treatment of patients with high-risk hematological malignancies and immune disorders, the limited numbers of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)/progenitor cell in a CB unit and straitened circumstances in expanding ex vivo make it quite challenging to develop the successful cell therapies. METHODS:In this study, a novel strategy has been developed to support ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) by coculture with engineered human umbilical arterial endothelial cells (HuAECs-E4orf1-GFP), which expresses E4ORF1 stably by using a retroviral system. RESULTS:Coculture of CD34+ hCB cells with HuAECs-E4orf1-GFP resulted in generation of considerably more total nucleated cells, CD34+CD38-, and CD34+CD38-CD90+ HSPCs in comparison with that of cytokines alone or that of coculture with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HuVECs) after 14-day amplification. The in vitro multilineage differentiation potential and in vivo repopulating capacity of the expanded hematopoietic cells cocultured with HuAECs-E4orf1-GFP were also markedly enhanced compared with the other two control groups. DLL4, a major determinant of arterial endothelial cell (EC) identity, was associated with CD34+ hCB cells amplified on HuAECs-E4orf1-GFP. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, we demonstrated that HuAECs acted as a permissive niche in facilitating expansion of HSPCs. Our study further implicated that the crucial factors and related pathways presented in HuAECs may give a hint to maintain self-renewal of bona fide HSCs.
Project description:The main limitations of hematopoietic cord blood (CB) transplantation, viz, low cell dosage and delayed reconstitution, can be overcome by ex vivo expansion. CB expansion under conventional culture causes rapid cell differentiation and depletion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) responsible for engraftment. In this study, we use combinatorial cell culture technology (CombiCult<sup>®</sup>) to identify medium formulations that promote CD133<sup>+</sup> CB HSPC proliferation while maintaining their phenotypic characteristics. We employed second-generation CombiCult screens that use electrospraying technology to encapsulate CB cells in alginate beads. Our results suggest that not only the combination but also the order of addition of individual components has a profound influence on expansion of specific HSPC populations. Top protocols identified by the CombiCult screen were used to culture human CD133<sup>+</sup> CB HSPCs on nanofiber scaffolds and validate the expansion of the phenotypically defined CD34<sup>+</sup>CD38<sup>lo/-</sup>CD45RA<sup>-</sup>CD90<sup>+</sup>CD49f<sup>+</sup> population of hematopoietic stem cells and their differentiation into defined progeny.
Project description:While two-dimensional (2D) monolayers of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to enhance hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in vitro, expanded cells do not engraft long term in human recipients. This outcome is attributed to the failure of 2D culture to recapitulate the bone marrow (BM) niche signal milieu. Herein, we evaluated the capacity of a novel three-dimensional (3D) coculture system to support HSPC expansion in vitro. A high-throughput polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microwell platform was used to manufacture thousands of uniform 3D multicellular coculture spheroids. Relative gene expression in 3D spheroid versus 2D adherent BM-derived MSC cultures was characterized and compared with literature reports. We evaluated coculture spheroids, each containing 25-400 MSCs and 10 umbilical cord blood (CB)-derived CD34+ progenitor cells. At low exogenous cytokine concentrations, 2D and 3D MSC coculture modestly improved overall hematopoietic cell and CD34+ cell expansion outcomes. By contrast, a substantial increase in CD34+CD38- cell yield was observed in PDMS microwell cultures, regardless of the presence or absence of MSCs. This outcome indicated that CD34+CD38- cell culture yield could be increased using the microwell platform alone, even without MSC coculture support. We found that the increase in CD34+CD38- cell yield observed in PDMS microwell cultures did not translate to enhanced engraftment in NOD/SCID gamma (NSG) mice or a modification in the relative human hematopoietic lineages established in engrafted mice. In summary, there was no statistical difference in CD34+ cell yield from 2D or 3D cocultures, and MSC coculture support provided only modest benefit in either geometry. While the high-throughput 3D microwell platform may provide a useful model system for studying cells in coculture, further optimization will be required to generate HSPC yields suitable for use in clinical applications.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Cord blood (CB) has been established to be an alternative source of haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HPC) for transplantation. The number of HPC per CB unit is limited, which results in engraftment delay. Ex vivo expansion of HPC improvement must overcome this. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Flow cytometry was used to extensively phenotype HPC pre- and post-expansion and CFDA-SE staining was used to track cell divisions. The NSG mouse model was employed in transplantation studies to determine long and short term repopulation in human cells. Gene array analysis was used to evaluate signalling pathways regulated following ex vivo expansion of HPC. RESULTS:expansion of CD34(+) HPC impaired their regenerative function. In this xenograft transplantation model we showed that repopulating activity of CB cells declined following expansion. Expanded HPC had delayed engraftment at early and late stages post-transplant. High resolution division tracking revealed that the cultured HPC had reduced expansion and self-renewal probability and increased differentiation rate compared to non-expanded cells. Gene expression analysis exposed significant modulation of a complex network of genes and pathways that normally maintain HPC proliferation and limit their differentiation. CONCLUSIONS:The decline in short-term engraftment is consistent with the loss of rapid SCID repopulating ability r(SRA) by expanded CD34(+) CD38(+) cells recently reported. Our data raise concerns for future clinical applications of expanded HPC alone in transplantation.
Project description:Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a highly fatal malignancy characterized by devastating expansion of immature mast cells in various organs. Although considered a stem cell disease, little is known about MCL-propagating neoplastic stem cells. We here describe that leukemic stem cells (LSCs) in MCL reside within a CD34+/CD38- fraction of the clone. Whereas highly purified CD34+/CD38─ cells engrafted NSGhSCF mice with fully manifesting MCL, no MCL was produced by CD34+/CD38+ progenitors or the bulk of KIT+/CD34- mast cells. CD34+/CD38- MCL cells invariably expressed CD13 and CD133, and often also IL-1RAP, but did not express CD25, CD26 or CLL-1. CD34+/CD38- MCL cells also displayed several surface targets, including CD33, which was homogenously expressed on MCL LSCs in all cases, and the D816V mutant form of KIT. Although CD34+/CD38- cells were resistant against single drugs, exposure to combinations of CD33-targeting and KIT-targeting drugs resulted in LSC-depletion and markedly reduced engraftment in NSGhSCF mice. Together, MCL LSCs are CD34+/CD38- cells that express distinct profiles of markers and target antigens. Characterization of MCL LSCs should facilitate their purification and should support the development of LSC-eradicating curative treatment approaches in this fatal type of leukemia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Small molecule compounds have been well recognized for their promising power in the generation, expansion, and maintenance of embryonic or adult stem cells. The aim of this study was to identify a novel combination of small molecules in order to optimize the ex vivo expansion of umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells. METHODS:Considering the most important signaling pathways involved in the self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells, CB-CD34+ cells were expanded with cytokines in the presence of seven small molecules including SB, PD, Chir, Bpv, Pur, P?, and NAM. The eliminativism approach was used to find the best combination of selected small molecules for effective ex vivo expansion of CD34+ cell. In each step, proliferation, self-renewal, and clonogenic potential of the expanded cells as well as expression of some hematopoietic stem cell-related genes were studied. Finally, the engraftment potential of expanded cells was also examined by the mouse intra-uterine transplantation model. RESULTS:Our data shows that the simultaneous use of SB431542 (TGF-? inhibitor), Chir9901 (GSK3 inhibitor), and Bpv (PTEN inhibitor) resulted in a 50-fold increase in the number of CD34+CD38- cells. This was further reflected in approximately 3 times the increase in the clonogenic potential of the small molecule cocktail-expanded cells. These cells, also, showed a 1.5-fold higher engraftment potential in the peripheral blood of the NMRI model of in utero transplantation. These results are in total conformity with the upregulation of HOXB4, GATA2, and CD34 marker gene as well as the CXCR4 homing gene. CONCLUSION:Taken together, our findings introduce a novel combination of small molecules to improve the yield of existing protocols used in the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells.
Project description:Priming haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) in vitro with specific chromatin modifying agents and cytokines under serum-free-conditions significantly enhances engraftable HSC numbers. We extend these studies by culturing human CD133+ HSPCs on nanofibre scaffolds to mimic the niche for 5-days with the HDAC inhibitor Scriptaid and cytokines. Scriptaid increases absolute Lin-CD34+CD38-CD45RA-CD90+CD49f+ HSPC numbers, while concomitantly decreasing the Lin-CD38-CD34+CD45RA-CD90- subset. Hypothesising that Scriptaid plus cytokines expands the CD90+ subset without differentiation and upregulates CD90 on CD90- cells, we sorted, then cultured Lin-CD34+CD38-CD45RA-CD90- cells with Scriptaid and cytokines. Within 2-days and for at least 5-days, most CD90- cells became CD90+. There was no significant difference in the transcriptomic profile, by RNAsequencing, between cytokine-expanded and purified Lin-CD34+CD38-CD45RA-CD49f+CD90+ cells in the presence or absence of Scriptaid, suggesting that Scriptaid maintains stem cell gene expression programs despite expansion in HSC numbers. Supporting this, 50 genes were significantly differentially expressed between CD90+ and CD90- Lin-CD34+CD38-CD45RA-CD49f+ subsets in Scriptaid-cytokine- and cytokine only-expansion conditions. Thus, Scriptaid treatment of CD133+ cells may be a useful approach to expanding the absolute number of CD90+ HSC, without losing their stem cell characteristics, both through direct effects on HSC and potentially also conversion of their immediate CD90- progeny into CD90+ HSC.
Project description:Background:Nowadays, smart synthesized nanostructures have attracted wide attention in the field of stem cell nanotechnology due to their effect on different properties of stem cells. Methods:GFc7 growth nanofactor was synthesized based on nanochelating technology as an iron-containing copper chelator nanocomplex. The effect of this nanocomplex on the expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as well as its performance as a cryoprotectant was evaluated in the present study. Results:The results showed that the absolute count of CD34+ and CD34+CD38- cells on days 4, 7, 10 and 13; the percentage of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme on the same days and CD34+CXCR4 population on day 10 were significantly increased when they were treated with GFc7 growth nanofactor in a fetal bovine serum (FBS)-free medium. This medium also led to delayed differentiation in HSCs. One noticeable result was that CD34+CD38- cells cultured in an FBS medium were immediately differentiated into CD34+CD38+ cells, while CD34+CD38- cells treated with GFc7 growth nanofactor in FBS medium did not show such an immediate significant differentiation. De-freezing GFc7-treated CD34+ cells, which were already frozen according to cord blood bank protocols, showed a higher percentage of cell viability and a larger number of colonies according to colony-forming cell assay as compared to control. Conclusion:It can be claimed that treating HSCs with GFc7 growth nanofactor leads to quality and quantity improvement of HSCs, both in terms of expansion in vitro and freezing and de-freezing processes.
Project description:Imatinib therapy, which targets the oncogene product BCR-ABL, has transformed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) from a life-threatening disease into a chronic condition. Most patients, however, harbor residual leukemia cells, and disease recurrence usually occurs when imatinib is discontinued. Although various mechanisms to explain leukemia cell persistence have been proposed, the critical question from a therapeutic standpoint--whether disease persistence is BCR-ABL dependent or independent--has not been answered. Here, we report that human CML stem cells do not depend on BCR-ABL activity for survival and are thus not eliminated by imatinib therapy. Imatinib inhibited BCR-ABL activity to the same degree in all stem (CD34+CD38-, CD133+) and progenitor (CD34+CD38+) cells and in quiescent and cycling progenitors from newly diagnosed CML patients. Although short-term in vitro imatinib treatment reduced the expansion of CML stem/progenitors, cytokine support permitted growth and survival in the absence of BCR-ABL activity that was comparable to that of normal stem/progenitor counterparts. Our findings suggest that primitive CML cells are not oncogene addicted and that therapies that biochemically target BCR-ABL will not eliminate CML stem cells.