Eukaryotic stress granules are cleared by autophagy and Cdc48/VCP function.
ABSTRACT: Stress granules and P bodies are conserved cytoplasmic aggregates of nontranslating messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes (mRNPs) implicated in the regulation of mRNA translation and decay and are related to RNP granules in embryos, neurons, and pathological inclusions in some degenerative diseases. Using baker's yeast, 125 genes were identified in a genetic screen that affected the dynamics of P bodies and/or stress granules. Analyses of such mutants, including CDC48 alleles, provide evidence that stress granules can be targeted to the vacuole by autophagy, in a process termed granulophagy. Moreover, stress granule clearance in mammalian cells is reduced by inhibition of autophagy or by depletion or pathogenic mutations in valosin-containing protein (VCP), the human ortholog of CDC48. Because mutations in VCP predispose humans to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, inclusion body myopathy, and multisystem proteinopathy, this work suggests that autophagic clearance of stress granule related and pathogenic RNP granules that arise in degenerative diseases may be important in reducing their pathology.
Project description:The stress response in eukaryotic cells often inhibits translation initiation and leads to the formation of cytoplasmic RNA-protein complexes referred to as stress granules. Stress granules contain nontranslating mRNAs, translation initiation components, and many additional proteins affecting mRNA function. Stress granules have been proposed to affect mRNA translation and stability and have been linked to apoptosis and nuclear processes. Stress granules also interact with P-bodies, another cytoplasmic RNP granule containing nontranslating mRNA, translation repressors, and some mRNA degradation machinery. Together, stress granules and P-bodies reveal a dynamic cycle of distinct biochemical and compartmentalized mRNPs in the cytosol, with implications for the control of mRNA function.
Project description:Stress granules are mRNA-protein assemblies formed from nontranslating mRNAs. Stress granules are important in the stress response and may contribute to some degenerative diseases. Here, we describe the stress granule transcriptome of yeast and mammalian cells through RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of purified stress granule cores and single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) validation. While essentially every mRNA, and some noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), can be targeted to stress granules, the targeting efficiency varies from <1% to >95%. mRNA accumulation in stress granules correlates with longer coding and UTR regions and poor translatability. Quantifying the RNA-seq analysis by smFISH reveals that only 10% of bulk mRNA molecules accumulate in mammalian stress granules and that only 185 genes have more than 50% of their mRNA molecules in stress granules. These results suggest that stress granules may not represent a specific biological program of messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) assembly, but instead form by condensation of nontranslating mRNPs in proportion to their length and lack of association with ribosomes.
Project description:Recent results indicate that nontranslating mRNAs in eukaryotic cells exist in distinct biochemical states that accumulate in P bodies and stress granules, although the nature of interactions between these particles is unknown. We demonstrate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that RNA granules with similar protein composition and assembly mechanisms as mammalian stress granules form during glucose deprivation. Stress granule assembly is dependent on P-body formation, whereas P-body assembly is independent of stress granule formation. This suggests that stress granules primarily form from mRNPs in preexisting P bodies, which is also supported by the kinetics of P-body and stress granule formation both in yeast and mammalian cells. These observations argue that P bodies are important sites for decisions of mRNA fate and that stress granules, at least in yeast, primarily represent pools of mRNAs stalled in the process of reentry into translation from P bodies.
Project description:Disturbances in autophagy and stress granule dynamics have been implicated as potential mechanisms underlying inclusion body myopathy (IBM) and related disorders. Yet the roles of core autophagy proteins in IBM and stress granule dynamics remain poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that disrupted expression of the core autophagy proteins ULK1 and ULK2 in mice causes a vacuolar myopathy with ubiquitin and TDP-43-positive inclusions; this myopathy is similar to that caused by VCP/p97 mutations, the most common cause of familial IBM. Mechanistically, we show that ULK1/2 localize to stress granules and phosphorylate VCP, thereby increasing VCP's activity and ability to disassemble stress granules. These data suggest that VCP dysregulation and defective stress granule disassembly contribute to IBM-like disease in Ulk1/2-deficient mice. In addition, stress granule disassembly is accelerated by an ULK1/2 agonist, suggesting ULK1/2 as targets for exploiting the higher-order regulation of stress granules for therapeutic intervention of IBM and related disorders.
Project description:Stress granules are dynamic assemblies of proteins and nontranslating RNAs that form when translation is inhibited in response to diverse stresses. Defects in ubiquitin-proteasome system factors including valosin-containing protein (VCP) and the proteasome impact the kinetics of stress granule induction and dissolution as well as being implicated in neuropathogenesis. However, the impacts of dysregulated proteostasis on mRNA regulation and stress granules are not well understood. Using single mRNA imaging, we discovered ribosomes stall on some mRNAs during arsenite stress, and the release of transcripts from stalled ribosomes for their partitioning into stress granules requires the activities of VCP, components of the ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) complex, and the proteasome. This is an unexpected contribution of the RQC system in releasing mRNAs from translation under stress, thus identifying a new type of stress-activated RQC (saRQC) distinct from canonical RQC pathways in mRNA substrates, cellular context, and mRNA fate.
Project description:Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules are non-membrane-bound organelles that have critical roles in the stress response1,2, maternal messenger RNA storage3, synaptic plasticity4, tumour progression5,6 and neurodegeneration7-9. However, the dynamics of their mRNA components within and near the granule surface remain poorly characterized, particularly in the context and timing of mRNAs exiting translation. Herein, we used multicolour single-molecule tracking to quantify the precise timing and kinetics of single mRNAs as they exit translation and enter RNP granules during stress. We observed single mRNAs interacting with stress granules and P-bodies, with mRNAs moving bidirectionally between them. Although translating mRNAs only interact with RNP granules dynamically, non-translating mRNAs can form stable, and sometimes rigid, associations with RNP granules with stability increasing with both mRNA length and granule size. Live and fixed cell imaging demonstrated that mRNAs can extend beyond the protein surface of a stress granule, which may facilitate interactions between RNP granules. Thus, the recruitment of mRNPs to RNP granules involves dynamic, stable and extended interactions affected by translation status, mRNA length and granule size that collectively regulate RNP granule dynamics.
Project description:Stress granules are higher order assemblies of nontranslating mRNAs and proteins that form when translation initiation is inhibited. Stress granules are thought to form by protein-protein interactions of RNA-binding proteins. We demonstrate RNA homopolymers or purified cellular RNA forms assemblies in vitro analogous to stress granules. Remarkably, under conditions representative of an intracellular stress response, the mRNAs enriched in assemblies from total yeast RNA largely recapitulate the stress granule transcriptome. We suggest stress granules are formed by a summation of protein-protein and RNA-RNA interactions, with RNA self-assembly likely to contribute to other RNP assemblies wherever there is a high local concentration of RNA. RNA assembly in vitro is also increased by GR and PR dipeptide repeats, which are known to increase stress granule formation in cells. Since GR and PR dipeptides are involved in neurodegenerative diseases, this suggests that perturbations increasing RNA-RNA assembly in cells could lead to disease.
Project description:The cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cell is a highly compartmentalized space that contains a variety of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules in addition to its complement of membrane-bound organelles. These RNP granules contain specific sets of proteins and mRNAs and form in response to particular environmental and developmental stimuli. Two of the better-characterized of these RNP structures are the stress granule and Processing-body (P-body) that have been conserved from yeast to humans. In this report, we examined the cues regulating stress granule assembly and the relationship between stress granule and P-body foci. These two RNP structures are generally thought to be independent entities in eukaryotic cells. However, we found here that stress granule and P-body proteins were localized to a common or merged granule specifically in response to a hypoosmotic stress. Interestingly, these hybrid-bodies were found to be transient structures that were resolved with time into separate P-body and stress granule foci. In all, these data suggest that the identity of an RNP granule is not absolute and that it can vary depending upon the nature of the induction conditions. Since the activities of a granule are likely influenced by its protein constituency, these observations are consistent with the possibility of RNP granules having distinct functions in different cellular contexts.
Project description:The eukaryotic cytosol contains multiple RNP granules, including P-bodies and stress granules. Three different methods have been used to describe the transcriptome of stress granules or P-bodies, but how these methods compare and how RNA partitioning occurs between P-bodies and stress granules have not been addressed. Here, we compare the analysis of the stress granule transcriptome based on differential centrifugation with and without subsequent stress granule immunopurification. We find that while differential centrifugation alone gives a first approximation of the stress granule transcriptome, this methodology contains nonspecific transcripts that play a confounding role in the interpretation of results. We also immunopurify and compare the RNAs in stress granules and P-bodies under arsenite stress and compare those results to those for the P-body transcriptome described under nonstress conditions. We find that the P-body transcriptome is dominated by poorly translated mRNAs under nonstress conditions, but during arsenite stress, when translation is globally repressed, the P-body transcriptome is very similar to the stress granule transcriptome. This suggests that translation is a dominant factor in targeting mRNAs into both P-bodies and stress granules, and during stress, when most mRNAs are untranslated, the composition of P-bodies reflects this broader translation repression.
Project description:Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules are biomolecular condensates-liquid-liquid phase-separated droplets that organize and manage messenger RNA metabolism, cell signaling, biopolymer assembly, biochemical reactions and stress granule responses to cellular adversity. Dysregulated RNP granules drive neuromuscular degenerative disease but have not previously been linked to heart failure. By exploring the molecular basis of congenital dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in genome-edited pigs homozygous for an RBM20 allele encoding the pathogenic R636S variant of human RNA-binding motif protein-20 (RBM20), we discovered that RNP granules accumulated abnormally in the sarcoplasm, and we confirmed this finding in myocardium and reprogrammed cardiomyocytes from patients with DCM carrying the R636S allele. Dysregulated sarcoplasmic RBM20 RNP granules displayed liquid-like material properties, docked at precisely spaced intervals along cytoskeletal elements, promoted phase partitioning of cardiac biomolecules and fused with stress granules. Our results link dysregulated RNP granules to myocardial cellular pathobiology and heart failure in gene-edited pigs and patients with DCM caused by RBM20 mutation.