PI3K/AKT pathway involvement in the osteogenic effects of osteoclast culture supernatants on preosteoblast cells.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the ability of osteoclasts during bone resorption activities to regulate the differentiation and calcification of osteoblast precursor cells. The bone resorption model was established using in vitro cortical bone slices and mouse RAW264.7 cells, which were differentiated into osteoclasts by stimulation with the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to detect osteoclast differentiation. The osteoblast precursor cell line MC3T3-E1 was cultured with the bone resorption supernatant (BRS). Involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway in osteogenesis was evaluated by Western blotting, RT-PCR, and ELISA analysis of markers of the early (runt-related transcription factor-2 and alkaline phosphatase) and late (osteocalcin [OCN]) stages of osteogenesis, and Alizarin Red S staining of matrix mineralization. TRAP staining, RT-PCR, and SEM analysis demonstrated the successful establishment of the bone resorption model. Osteoclast BRS effectively increased the differentiation and calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells. Western blot analysis indicated that the BRS enhanced AKT and p-AKT expression levels in MC3T3-E1 cells. Following AKT2 knockdown and treatment with the PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002, the expression of OCN in MC3T3-E1 cells was decreased (p<0.05), as was the calcification area (p<0.05). The data obtained in this study indicated that the osteoclast bone resorption medium promoted the differentiation and calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells and that the PI3K/AKT pathway played a role in this process.
Project description:Phloretin has pleiotropic effects, including glucose transporter (GLUT) inhibition. We previously showed that phloretin promoted adipogenesis of bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) line ST2 independently of GLUT1 inhibition. This study investigated the effect of phloretin on osteoblastogenesis of ST2 cells and osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Treatment with 10 to 100 µM phloretin suppressed mineralization and expression of osteoblast differentiation markers, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), type 1 collagen, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osterix (Osx), while increased adipogenic markers, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?), fatty acid-binding protein 4, and adiponectin. Phloretin also inhibited mineralization and decreased osteoblast differentiation markers of MC3T3-E1 cells. Phloretin suppressed phosphorylation of Akt in ST2 cells. In addition, treatment with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed the mineralization and the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers other than ALP. GLUT1 silencing by siRNA did not affect mineralization, although it decreased the expression of OCN and increased the expression of ALP, Runx2, and Osx. The effects of GLUT1 silencing on osteoblast differentiation markers and mineralization were inconsistent with those of phloretin. Taken together, these findings suggest that phloretin suppressed osteoblastogenesis of ST2 and MC3T3-E1 cells by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway, suggesting that the effects of phloretin may not be associated with glucose uptake inhibition.
Project description:Bone homeostasis is maintained by a dynamic balance between bone formation and bone resorption. The cellular activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts are the primary factors that maintain this dynamic balance. The transcription factor Kaiso has been identified as a regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation in various cells. However, research into its role in bone homeostasis is currently lacking. In the present study, cell and animal experiments were conducted to investigate the role of Kaiso in bone homeostasis. The present study identified that Kaiso was downregulated during osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3?E1 cells. Gain? and loss?of?function studies in MC3T3?E1 cells demonstrated that Kaiso served a critical role in osteoblast differentiation <i>in vitro</i>. The findings were further confirmed <i>in vivo</i>. The results of the sequence analysis indicated that Kaiso influenced osteoblast differentiation and mineralization by regulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Moreover, integrin subunit ?10 (Itga10) was identified as a direct target of Kaiso via chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays. Collectively, these findings suggested that Kaiso regulated the differentiation of osteoblasts via the Itga10/PI3K/AKT pathway, which represents a therapeutic target for bone formation or bone resorption?related diseases.
Project description:AIM: To study the effects and mechanism of aromatic aminoketone (SY0916) on bone destruction in vitro. METHODS: MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow cells were co-cultured to obtain purified osteoclasts. The proliferation of osteoclast-like cells (OCLs) was determined by MTT assay. The number of osteoclasts was measured by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. The functioning of osteoclasts was determined by measuring the area of bone resorption pits on bone slices. MMP-9 secretion by osteoclasts was measured by an ELISA kit. Osteoclast apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry using an AnnexinV-FITC kit. Gene expression of RANK and MMP-9 in osteoclasts as well as RANKL and OPG in MC3T3-E1 cells was determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS: SY0916 significantly inhibited the proliferation of OCLs, decreased both the total and average area of bone resorption pits, and dramatically inhibited the number of osteoclasts between concentrations of 0.01 and 10 micromol/L. Furthermore, SY0916 reversed IL-1 beta-mediated inhibition of osteoclast apoptosis and shortened osteoclast lifespan. In addition, SY0916 significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of RANK, RANKL, OPG, and MMP-9. However, the inhibition of OPG was weaker than that of RANKL. Accordingly, the ratio of RANKL to OPG mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 cells was significantly decreased by SY0916. Meanwhile, the expression of MMP-9 protein in osteoclasts was inhibited by SY0916 between 0.01 and 10 micromol/L. CONCLUSION: SY0916 prevents osteoclastic bone destruction by inhibiting the proliferation and function of osteoclasts. The underlying mechanism for this effect involves the regulation of the RANKL-OPG-RANK axis, which determines the direction of bone metabolism.
Project description:Our previous study showed that ethanol extract of Lyciiradicis cortex (LRC) prevented the loss of bone mineral density in ovariectomized mice by promoting the differentiation of osteoblast linage cells. Here, we performed fractionation and isolation of the bioactive compound(s) responsible for the bone formation-enhancing effect of LRC extract. A known sesquiterpene glucoside, (1'R,3'S,5'R,8'S,2Z,4E)-dihydrophaseic acid 3'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (abbreviated as DPA3G), was isolated from LRC extract and identified as a candidate constituent. We investigated the effects of DPA3G on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, which play fundamental roles in bone formation and bone resorption, respectively, during bone remodeling. The DPA3G fraction treatment in mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 and preosteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 significantly enhanced cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity in both cell lines compared to the untreated control cells. Furthermore, DPA3G significantly increased mineralized nodule formation and the mRNA expression of osteoblastogenesis markers, Alpl, Runx2, and Bglap, in MC3T3-E1 cells. The DPA3G treatment, however, did not influence osteoclast differentiation in primary-cultured monocytes of mouse bone marrow. Because osteoblastic and osteoclastic precursor cells coexist in vivo, we tested the DPA3G effects under the co-culture condition of MC3T3-E1 cells and monocytes. Remarkably, DPA3G enhanced not only osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-El cells but also osteoclast differentiation of monocytes, indicating that DPA3G plays a role in the maintenance of the normal bone remodeling balance. Our results suggest that DPA3G may be a good candidate for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Project description:In our previous investigation, delphinidin, one of the most abundant anthocyanins found in vegetables and berry fruits, had been shown to inhibit osteoclasts and prevent bone loss in mouse models of osteoporosis. In the present study, we investigated whether a delphinidin glycoside-enriched maqui berry extract (MBE, Delphinol®) exhibits beneficial effects on bone metabolism both in vitro and in vivo. MBE stimulated the osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, as indicated by enhanced mineralized nodule formation, and increased alkaline phosphatase activity, through the upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), Osterix (Osx), osteocalcin (Ocn), and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (Mepe) mRNA expression. Immunostaining and immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that MBE suppressed NF-?B transnucleation through acting as a superoxide anion/peroxynitrite scavenger in MC3T3-E1 cells. Simultaneously, MBE inhibited both osteoclastogenesis in primary bone marrow macrophages and pit formation by maturated osteoclasts on dentine slices. Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and bone histomorphometry analyses of femurs demonstrated that the daily ingestion of MBE significantly increased BV/TV (ratio of bone volume to tissue volume), Tb.Th (trabecular thickness), Tb.N (trabecular number), N.Nd/N.Tm (node to terminus ratio), OV/TV (ratio of osteoid volume to tissue volume), BFR/TV (bone formation rate per tissue volume), and significantly decreased Tb.Sp (trabecular separation), ES/BS (ratio of eroded surface to bone surface) and N.Oc/BS (number of osteoclast per unit of bone surface, compared to vehicle controls in osteopenic mouse models. These findings suggest that MBE can be a promising natural agent for the prevention of bone loss in osteopenic conditions by not only inhibiting bone resorption, but also stimulating bone formation.
Project description:Cbl is an adaptor protein and E3 ligase that plays both positive and negative roles in several signaling pathways that affect various cellular functions. Tyrosine 737 is unique to Cbl and phosphorylated by Src family kinases. Phosphorylated CblY737 creates a binding site for the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) that also plays an important role in the regulation of bone homeostasis. To investigate the role of Cbl-PI3K interaction in bone homeostasis, we examined knock-in mice in which the PI3K binding site on Cbl was ablated due to the substitution of tyrosine 737 to phenylalanine (Cbl(YF/YF), YF mice). We previously reported that bone volume in these mice is increased due to decreased osteoclast function (Adapala et al., J Biol Chem 285:36745-36758, 19). Here, we report that YF mice also have increased bone formation and osteoblast numbers. In ex vivo cultures bone marrow-derived YF osteoblasts showed increased Col1A expression and their proliferation was also significantly augmented. Moreover, proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was increased after treatment with conditioned medium generated by culturing YF bone marrow stromal cells. Expression of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was increased in YF bone marrow stromal cells compared to wild type. Increased immunostaining of SDF-1 and CXCR4 was observed in YF bone marrow stromal cells compared to wild type. Treatment of YF condition medium with neutralizing anti-SDF-1 and anti-CXCR4 antibodies attenuated MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. Cumulatively, these results show that abrogation of Cbl-PI3K interaction perturbs bone homeostasis, affecting both osteoclast function and osteoblast proliferation.
Project description:The bone destruction disease including osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis are caused by the imbalance between osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Inhibition of the NF-?B pathway was responsible for decreased osteoclastogenesis. Recently many studies indicated that niclosamide, the FDA approved an antihelminth drug, inhibits prostate and breast cancer cells growth by targeting NF-?B signaling pathways. This study evaluated the effects of niclosamide on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation and function in vitro. In RANKL-induced murine osteoclast precursor cell RAW264.7 and M-CSF/RANKL-stimulated primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM), niclosamide dose-dependently inhibited the formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts and resorption pits formation between 0.5uM and 1uM. In addition, niclosamide suppressed the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and osteoclast differentiated-related genes in M-CSF/ RANKL-stimulated BMM by interference with TRAF-6, Erk1/2, JNK and NF-?B activation pathways. However, the cytotoxic effects of niclosamide obviously appeared at the effective concentrations for inhibiting osteoclastogenesis (0.5-1uM) with increase of apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in osteoblast precursor cell line, MC3T3-E1. Niclosamide also inhibited ALP activity, bone mineralization and osteoblast differentiation-related genes expression in MC3T3-E1. Therefore, our findings suggest the new standpoint that niclosamide's effects on bones must be considered before applying it in any therapeutic treatment.
Project description:Genetic studies have revealed a critical role of Distal-homeobox (Dlx) genes in bone formation, and our previous study showed that Dlx2 overexpressing in neural crest cells leads to profound abnormalities of the craniofacial tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and the underlying molecular mechanisms of Dlx2 in osteogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. Initially, we observed upregulation of Dlx2 during the early osteogenesis in BMSCs and MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, Dlx2 overexpression enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and extracellular matrix mineralization in BMSCs and MC3T3-E1 cell line. In addition, micro-CT of implanted tissues in nude mice confirmed that Dlx2 overexpression in BMSCs promoted bone formation in vivo. Unexpectedly, Dlx2 overexpression had little impact on the expression level of the pivotal osteogenic transcription factors Runx2, Dlx5, Msx2, and Osterix, but led to upregulation of Alp and Osteocalcin (OCN), both of which play critical roles in promoting osteoblast maturation. Importantly, luciferase analysis showed that Dlx2 overexpression stimulated both OCN and Alp promoter activity. Through chromatin-immunoprecipitation assay and site-directed mutagenesis analysis, we provide molecular evidence that Dlx2 transactivates OCN and Alp expression by directly binding to the Dlx2-response cis-acting elements in the promoter of the two genes. Based on these findings, we demonstrate that Dlx2 overexpression enhances osteogenic differentiation in vitro and accelerates bone formation in vivo via direct upregulation of the OCN and Alp gene, suggesting that Dlx2 plays a crucial role in osteogenic differentiation and bone formation.
Project description:In bone remodeling, after a lifespan of ?2 weeks, osteoclasts undergo apoptosis in each bone turnover cycle, resulting in generation of a large number of apoptotic bodies (ABs). However, the biological roles of osteoclast-derived ABs (OC-ABs) in bone remodeling have not been investigated and remain unknown. In this study, we stimulated bone marrow macrophages with receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) to obtain both preosteoclasts and mature osteoclasts (mOCs). We then used alendronate to induce apoptosis in preosteoclasts and mOCs and generate the respective ABs and used flow cytometry and immunoblotting to characterize the sizes and immunogenic characteristics of the extracted ABs. We show that mOC-ABs are engulfed by preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and promote the viability of these cells. Among all osteoclast-derived extracellular vesicles, mOC-ABs had the highest osteogenic potency. We further observed that mOC-ABs had the highest vesicular receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK) levels among all types of osteoclast-derived extracellular vesicles. Of note, masking of vesicular RANK by soluble RANKL strongly abolished the osteogenic potency of osteoclast-derived ABs. Mechanistically, we found that mOC-ABs induce osteoblast differentiation by activatingPI3K/AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal protein S6 kinase signaling. In conclusion, OC-ABs promote osteogenic differentiation by stimulating osteoblast differentiation via activation of RANKL reverse signaling. These findings provide important insights into the reversal phase between the bone resorption and formation stages during bone remodeling and identify an AB-dependent cellular signaling mechanism in osteoclast-osteoblast coupling.
Project description:Genistein and icariin are flavonoid compounds that exhibit estrogen-like properties in inducing bone formation and reducing bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency in both preclinical and clinical studies. However, the mechanisms that are involved in mediating their estrogenic actions in bone cells are far from clear. The present study aimed to study the signaling pathways that mediate the estrogenic actions of genistein and icariin in osteoblastic cells. The effects of genistein and icariin on the activation of estrogen receptor (ER) and the downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway in murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and rat osteoblastic UMR-106 cells were studied. As expected, genistein displayed higher binding affinity toward ER? than ER? and significantly induced estrogen response element (ERE)-dependent transcription in UMR-106 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, icariin failed to bind to ER? or ER? and did not induce ERE-dependent transcription in UMR-106 cells at 10-10 to 10-7 M. The effects of genistein (10 nM) and icariin (0.1 ?M) on cell proliferation and differentiation in osteoblastic UMR-106 cells were abolished in the presence of ER antagonist ICI 182,780 (1 ?M), MAPK inhibitor U0126 (10 ?M), and PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (10 ?M). Genistein at 10 nM rapidly induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation at 5-10 min in UMR-106 cells and the phosphorylation of ER? at both Ser118 and Ser167 in both MC3T3-E1 and transfected UMR-106 cells whereas icariin at 0.1 ?M rapidly activated both ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in UMR-106 cells and subsequent ER? phosphorylation at both Ser118 and Ser167 in MC3T3-E1 and transfected UMR-106 cells. Confocal imaging studies confirmed that the phosphorylation of ER? at Ser 118 and Ser 167 by genistein and icariin in MC3T3-E1 cells was mediated via MAPK- and PI3K-dependent pathway, respectively. Furthermore, our studies showed that icariin exerted stronger anti-apoptotic effects than genistein and 17?-estradiol (E2) and inhibited the cleavage of downstream caspase-3 in MC3T3-E1 cells induced by a potent PI3K inhibitor, PI828 (at 2 ?M). These results indicated that the mechanisms that mediate the estrogenic actions of icariin in osteoblastic cells are different from those of genistein.