Gene response of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles to an acute aerobic run in rats.
ABSTRACT: Genes can be activated or inhibited by signals within the tissues in response to an acute bout of exercise. It is unclear how a particular aerobic exercise bout may influence two muscles with similar actions to the activity. Therefore, the purposes of this investigation was to determine the gene response of selected genes involved in the "stress" response of the gastrocnemius (fast-twitch) and soleus (slow-twitch) muscles to a single two hour aerobic exercise bout in female Sprague-Dawley Rats at the 1 hour time point after the exercise. Exercised rats were run (n=8) for 2 hours at 20 m.min(-1) and one hour after the completion of the bout had their soleus (S) and gastrocnemius (G) muscles removed. Age and timed matched sedentary control rats had both S and G muscles removed also. RNA was isolated from all muscles. Real-time PCR analysis was performed on the following genes: NF?B, TNF?, and Atf3. GAPDH was used as the housekeeping gene for both muscles. S muscle showed more genes altered (n = 52) vs G (n = 26). NF?B gene expression was 0.83 ± 0.14 in the exercised S but was + 1.36 ± 0.58 in the exercised G and was not significantly different between the muscles. TNF? was altered 1.30 ± 0. 34 in the exercised S and 1.36 ± 0.71 in the exercised G and was not significantly different between the muscles. The gene Atf3 was significantly altered at 4.97 ± 1.01 in the exercised S, while it was not significantly altered in the exercised G (0.70 ± 0.55). This study demonstrates that an acute bout of aerobic exercise can alter gene expression to a different extent in both the S and G muscles. It is highly likely that muscle recruitment was a factor which influenced the gene expression in theses muscles. It is interesting to note that some genes were similarly activated in these two muscles but other genes may demonstrate a varied response to the same exercise bout depending on the type of muscle. Key pointsThe soleus (primarily slow twitch) and the gastrocnemius (primarily fast type) do not respond the same to a given exercise bout.There are gene transcription differences in stress genes between the 2 muscles.The results of exercise studies should be carefully viewed as the muscle used in measurements may not provide an adequate representation of all skeletal muscles.
Project description:Rats were fed on a diet containing 1% beta-guanidinopropionic acid (GPA), a creatine substrate analogue, for 6-10 weeks to deplete their muscle of creatine. This manipulation was previously shown to give a 90% decrease in [phosphocreatine] in skeletal and cardiac muscle and a 50% decrease in [ATP] in skeletal muscle only. Maximal activities of creatine kinase and of representative enzymes of aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism were measured in the superficial white, medial and deep red portions of the gastrocnemius muscle, in the soleus and plantaris muscle and in the heart. Fast-twitch muscles were smaller in GPA-fed animals than in controls, but the size of the soleus muscle was unchanged. The activities of aerobic enzymes increased by 30-40% in all fast-twitch muscle regions except the superficial gastrocnemius, but were unchanged in the soleus muscle. The activities of creatine kinase and phosphofructokinase decreased by 20-50% in all skeletal-muscle regions except the deep gastrocnemius, and the activity of glycogen phosphorylase generally paralleled these changes. There were no significant changes in the activities of any of the enzymes measured in the heart. The glycogen content of the gastrocnemius-plantaris complex was increased by 185% in GPA-fed rats. The proportion of Type I fibres in the soleus muscle increased from 81% in control rats to 100% in GPA-fed rats, consistent with a previous report of altered isometric twitch characteristics and a decrease in the maximum velocity of shortening in this muscle [Petrofsky & Fitch (1980) Pflugers Arch. 384, 123-129]. We conclude that fast-twitch muscles adapt by a combination of decreasing diffusion distances, increasing aerobic capacity and decreasing glycolytic potential. Slow-twitch muscles decrease glycolytic potential and become slower, thus decreasing energy demand. These results suggest that persistent changes in the [phosphocreatine] and [ATP] are alone sufficient to alter the expression of enzyme proteins and proteins of the contractile apparatus, and that fibre-type-specific thresholds exist for the transformation response.
Project description:It has been proposed that superior muscle hypertrophy may be obtained by training muscles predominant in type I fibers with lighter loads and those predominant in type II fibers with heavier loads. PURPOSE:To evaluate longitudinal changes in muscle strength and hypertrophy of the soleus (a predominantly slow-twitch muscle) and gastrocnemius (muscle with a similar composition of slow and fast-twitch fibers) when subjected to light (20-30 repetition maximum) and heavy (6-10 repetition maximum) load plantarflexion exercise. METHODS:The study employed a within-subject design whereby 26 untrained young men had their lower limbs randomized to perform plantarflexion with a low-load (LIGHT) and a high-load (HEAVY) for 8 weeks. Muscle thickness was estimated via B-mode ultrasound and maximal strength was determined by isometric dynamometry. RESULTS:Results showed that changes in muscle thickness were similar for the soleus and the gastrocnemius regardless of the magnitude of load used in training. Furthermore, each of the calf muscles demonstrated robust hypertrophy, with the lateral gastrocnemius showing greater gains compared to the medial gastrocnemius and soleus. Both HEAVY and LIGHT training programs elicited similar hypertrophic increases in the triceps surae. Finally, isometric strength increases were similar between loading conditions. CONCLUSIONS:The triceps surae muscles respond robustly to regimented exercise and measures of muscle hypertrophy and isometric strength appear independent of muscle fiber type composition. Moreover, the study provides further evidence that low-load training is a viable strategy to increase hypertrophy in different human muscles, with hypertrophic increases similar to that observed using heavy loads.
Project description:Statins are used to prevent and treat atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but they also induce myopathy and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we investigated whether exercise training prevents glucose intolerance, muscle impairment, and mitochondrial dysfunction in the skeletal muscles of Wistar rats treated with atorvastatin (5 mg kg-1 day-1) for 12 weeks. The rats were assigned to the following three groups: the control (CON), atorvastatin-treated (ATO), and ATO plus aerobic exercise training groups (ATO+EXE). The ATO+EXE group exhibited higher glucose tolerance and forelimb strength and lower creatine kinase levels than the other groups. Mitochondrial respiratory and Ca2+ retention capacity was significantly lower in the ATO group than in the other groups, but exercise training protected against atorvastatin-induced impairment in both the soleus and white gastrocnemius muscles. The mitochondrial H2O2 emission rate was relatively higher in the ATO group and lower in the ATO+EXE group, in both the soleus and white gastrocnemius muscles, than in the CON group. In the soleus muscle, the Bcl-2, SOD1, SOD2, Akt, and AMPK phosphorylation levels were significantly higher in the ATO+EXE group than in the ATO group. In the white gastrocnemius muscle, the SOD2, Akt, and AMPK phosphorylation levels were significantly higher in the ATO+EXE group than in the ATO group. Therefore, exercise training might regulate atorvastatin-induced muscle damage, muscle fatigue, and mitochondrial dysfunction in the skeletal muscles.
Project description:Background:Autophagy maintains metabolic homeostasis of muscles, and its impairment may cause muscle dysfunction. Exercise can improve muscle dysfunction induced by long-term high-fat diet. This study aimed to explore the association of autophagy with impaired muscle dysfunction in obese conditions and investigate its relationship with exercise-induced muscle function improvement. Methods:Male C57BL/6 mice (n=24) were randomly assigned to four groups: low-fat diet+plain water feeding sedentary (CON) group, low-fat diet+plain water feeding exercise (CON+EX) group, high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet-fed sedentary group, and HFHS diet-fed exercise (HFHS+EX) group, and subjected to a single bout of exhaustive exercise. Results:HFHS diet resulted in shorter hanging time, reduced grip force, and lower exhaustion time and distance, and decreased lean mass per body weight. Moreover, in the soleus, which is chosen as a representative red (oxidative) muscle, LC3II/LC3I ratio, P62, and Bnip3 levels were altered following the HFHS diet, and were negatively correlated with muscle performance parameters; exercise significantly decreased the LC3II/LC3 ratio while P62 increased with HFHS diet. Autophagy-related protein changes were not found in the white (glycolytic) gastrocnemius. Conclusion:The study revealed that 20-week HFHS diet causes a significant increase in body weight and fat mass, along with a decrease in muscle function. Autophagy-related LC3 and P62 protein expression was negatively correlated with muscle function, and they were reduced when a single bout of exercise stimulated the soleus of obese mice. However, no change of autophagy-related proteins was seen in the gastrocnemius.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mechanical loading is crucial for muscle and tendon tissue remodeling. Eccentric heel drop exercise has been proven to be effective in the management of Achilles tendinopathy, yet its induced change in the mechanical property (i.e., stiffness) of the Achilles tendon (AT), medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles (MG and LG) was unknown. Given that shear wave elastography has emerged as a powerful tool in assessing soft tissue stiffness with promising intra- and inter-operator reliability, the objective of this study was hence to characterize the stiffness of the AT, MG and LG in response to an acute bout of eccentric heel drop exercise. METHODS:Forty-five healthy young adults (36 males and nine females) performed 10 sets of 15-repetition heel drop exercise on their dominant leg with fully-extended knee, during which the AT and gastrocnemius muscles, but not soleus, were highly stretched. Before and immediately after the heel drop exercise, elastic moduli of the AT, MG and LG were measured by shear wave elastography. RESULTS:After the heel drop exercise, the stiffness of AT increased significantly by 41.8 + 33.5% (P < 0.001), whereas the increases in the MG and LG stiffness were found to be more drastic by 75 + 47.7% (P < 0.001) and 71.7 + 51.8% (P < 0.001), respectively. Regarding the AT, MG and LG stiffness measurements, the inter-operator reliability was 0.940, 0.987 and 0.986, and the intra-operator reliability was 0.916 to 0.978, 0.801 to 0.961 and 0.889 to 0.985, respectively. DISCUSSION:The gastrocnemius muscles were shown to bear larger mechanical loads than the AT during an acute bout of eccentric heel drop exercise. The findings from this pilot study shed some light on how and to what extent the AT and gastrocnemius muscles mechanically responds to an isolated set of heel drop exercise. Taken together, appropriate eccentric load might potentially benefit mechanical adaptations of the AT and gastrocnemius muscles in the rehabilitation of patients with Achilles tendinopathy.
Project description:AIMS:To investigate differential muscle atrophy during bed-rest, the impact of a high-intensity concentric-eccentric (flywheel) resistance exercise countermeasure and muscle recovery after bed-rest. METHODS:Twenty-five healthy male subjects underwent 90 dayshead-down tilt bed-rest. Volume of individual lower-limb muscles was measured via MRI before, twice during and four times up to 1 year after bed-rest. Subjects were either inactive (n=16) or performed flywheel exercise every third day of bed-rest (n=9). Functional performance was assessed via countermovement jump. RESULTS:On 'intent-to-treat' analysis, flywheel prevented atrophy in the vasti (p<0.001) and reduced atrophy in the hip adductor/extensor adductor magnus (p=0.001) and ankle dorsiflexors/toe flexors (soleus (p<0.001), gastrocnemius medialis (p<0.001), gastrocnemius lateralis (p=0.02), and tibialis posterior with flexor digitorum longus (p=0.04)). Flywheel exercise was not effective for the hamstrings, gracilis, sartorius, peroneals and anterior tibial muscles. Muscle atrophy in vasti, soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis and adductor magnus correlated with losses in countermovement jump performance. Muscle volume recovered within 90 days after bed-rest, however long-term after bed-rest, the inactive subjects only showed significantly increased muscle volume versus prebed-rest in a number of muscles including soleus (+4.3%), gastrocnemius medialis (+3.9%) and semimembranosus (+4.3%). This was not associated with greater countermovement jump performance. CONCLUSION:The exercise countermeasure was effective in preventing or reducing atrophy in the vasti, adductor magnus and ankle dorsiflexors/toe flexors but not the hamstrings, medial thigh muscles or peroneals and dorsiflexor muscles. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT00311571; results.
Project description:We compare comprehensive quantitative profiling of lipids at the molecular level from skeletal muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and soleus) of Zucker diabetic fatty rats and Zucker lean control rats during treadmill exercise by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Because type II diabetes is caused by decreased insulin sensitivity due to excess lipids accumulated in skeletal muscle tissue, lipidomic analysis of muscle tissues under treadmill exercise can help unveil the mechanism of lipid-associated insulin resistance. In total, 314 lipid species, including phospholipids, sphingolipids, ceramides, diacylglycerols (DAGs), and triacylglycerols (TAGs), were analyzed to examine diabetes-related lipid species and responses to treadmill exercise. Most lysophospholipid levels increased with diabetes. While DAG levels (10 from the gastrocnemius and 13 from the soleus) were >3-fold higher in diabetic rats, levels of most of these decreased after exercise in soleus but not in gastrocnemius. Levels of 5 highly abundant TAGs (52:1 and 54:3 in the gastrocnemius and 48:2, 50:2, and 52:4 in the soleus) displaying 2-fold increases in diabetic rats decreased after exercise in the soleus but not in the gastrocnemius in most cases. Thus, aerobic exercise has a stronger influence on lipid levels in the soleus than in the gastrocnemius in type 2 diabetic rats.
Project description:Mice overexpressing NAMPT in skeletal muscle (NamptTg mice) develop higher exercise endurance and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) following voluntary exercise training compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Here, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying by determining skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity in NamptTg and WT mice. Body weight and body composition, tissue weight (gastrocnemius, quadriceps, soleus, heart, liver, and epididymal white adipose tissue), skeletal muscle and liver glycogen content, VO2max, skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity (measured by high-resolution respirometry), skeletal muscle gene expression (measured by microarray and qPCR), and skeletal muscle protein content (measured by Western blot) were determined following 6 weeks of voluntary exercise training (access to running wheel) in 13-week-old male NamptTg (exercised NamptTg) mice and WT (exercised WT) mice. Daily running distance and running time during the voluntary exercise training protocol were recorded. Daily running distance (p = 0.51) and running time (p = 0.85) were not significantly different between exercised NamptTg mice and exercised WT mice. VO2max was higher in exercised NamptTg mice compared to exercised WT mice (p = 0.02). Body weight (p = 0.92), fat mass (p = 0.49), lean mass (p = 0.91), tissue weight (all p > 0.05), and skeletal muscle (p = 0.72) and liver (p = 0.94) glycogen content were not significantly different between exercised NamptTg mice and exercised WT mice. Complex I oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) respiratory capacity supported by fatty acid substrates (p < 0.01), maximal (complex I+II) OXPHOS respiratory capacity supported by glycolytic (p = 0.02) and fatty acid (p < 0.01) substrates, and maximal uncoupled respiratory capacity supported by fatty acid substrates (p < 0.01) was higher in exercised NamptTg mice compared to exercised WT mice. Transcriptomic analyses revealed differential expression for genes involved in oxidative metabolism in exercised NamptTg mice compared to exercised WT mice, specifically, enrichment for the gene set related to the SIRT3-mediated signaling pathway. SIRT3 protein content correlated with NAMPT protein content (r = 0.61, p = 0.04). In conclusion, NamptTg mice develop higher exercise capacity following voluntary exercise training compared to WT mice, which is paralleled by higher mitochondrial respiratory capacity in skeletal muscle. The changes in SIRT3 targets suggest that these effects are due to remodeling of mitochondrial function.
Project description:Regulated in DNA Damage and Development 1 (REDD1) is a stress induced protein whose expression is highly induced in skeletal muscle following a single bout of aerobic exercise. However, the role of this induction is unknown We used microarrays to detail the change in gene signature within skeletal muscle following a single bout of aerobic exercise in wild type and REDD1 null mice Overall design: Wild type and REDD1 knockout mice were randomized to remain sedentary or undergo a single bout of aerobic exercise. One hour following the completion of the exercise protocol, the plantaris from sedentary and exercised mice was extracted and frozen.
Project description:By means of pyrophosphate electrophoresis the myosin isoenzyme pattern of two fast-twitch skeletal muscles (extensor digitorum longus, gastrocnemius) and one slow-twitch muscle (soleus) was investigated in control rats and was compared with that of rats 4 weeks after induction of diabetes mellitus by streptozotocin injection. In the fast-twitch muscles the isomyosin pattern consisting of FM1 (fast isomyosin 1), FM2 and FM3 was strongly affected by diabetes, resulting in an extensive loss of FM1 and a substantial decrease of FM2. These changes were also apparent when the light chains of the fast isomyosins were analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis: LC3f (myosin light chain 3f) largely disappeared and LC2f was significantly diminished. In contrast, the isomyosin pattern in soleus muscle, consisting of SM1 (slow isomyosin 1) and SM2, was not affected by the diabetic state, and two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed a normal light-chain pattern of LC1sa, LC1sb and LC2s. These results indicate that the isomyosins of slow-twitch oxidative myofibres are more resistant to the hormonal and metabolic disorders during diabetes mellitus than are the isomyosins of fast-twitch fibres.