Effects of bazedoxifene acetate with and without conjugated equine estrogens on the breast of postmenopausal monkeys.
ABSTRACT: Concerns about increased breast cancer risk with estrogen and progestin therapy have led to an increased interest in progestin alternatives. The main objective of this study was to determine if bazedoxifene acetate (BZA), a new selective estrogen receptor modulator, will antagonize the proliferative and transcriptional effects of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) in the breast.As part of a 20-month preclinical trial, 95 ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were randomized to receive no treatment or treatment with BZA (20 mg/d), CEE (0.45 mg/d), or BZA and CEE in combination (women's daily equivalent doses). The data presented here include breast effects after 6 months of treatment. Endpoints included histomorphometry, histopathological evaluations, gene microarray assays, polymerase chain reaction quantification of specific estrogen receptor ? (ER-?) activity markers, and immunohistochemical detection of sex steroid receptors, and the proliferation marker Ki67.BZA + CEE and BZA resulted in significantly less total epithelial density, lobular enlargement, and Ki67 immunolabeling in the terminal ducts compared with CEE alone (P < 0.05 for all). The addition of BZA to CEE antagonized the expression of ER-?-regulated genes such as GREB1 and TFF1 (P < 0.01 for both), whereas BZA alone had minimal effects on ER-?-mediated transcriptional activity. BZA and BZA + CEE did not significantly up-regulate genes related to cell cycle progression and proliferation. BZA with and without CEE also resulted in less lobular and terminal duct ER-? immunolabeling compared with control and CEE (P < 0.0001 for all).These findings demonstrate that BZA given at a clinically relevant dose is an estrogen antagonist in the breast, supporting the idea that CEE + BZA may provide a lower breast cancer risk profile compared with traditional estrogen + progestin therapies.
Project description:Concerns of breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women taking combined estrogen + progestin therapy have generated interest in the use of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) as potential progestin alternatives. Endometrial proliferation and cancer risk are major concerns, however, for estrogens and certain types of SERMs when given alone. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the endometrial profile of bazedoxifene acetate (BZA), a third-generation SERM, alone and in combination with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) in a postmenopausal primate model.Ninety-eight ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were randomized to receive no hormone treatment (controls), BZA 20 mg, CEE 0.45 mg, or the combination of BZA 20 mg + CEE 0.45 mg once daily for 20 months in a parallel-arm study design. The primary outcome measure was endometrial epithelial proliferation.BZA + CEE and BZA treatment resulted in significantly less endometrial epithelial area and Ki67 expression compared with CEE (P < 0.001 for all). The prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and other estrogen-induced morphologic changes in the BZA + CEE and BZA groups was not significantly different from controls. The addition of BZA to CEE completely inhibited the expression of estrogen receptor-?-regulated genes (TFF1 and PGR), whereas BZA alone had no effect. BZA + CEE and BZA treatment also resulted in lower estrogen receptor-? protein expression in the endometrium compared with the control and CEE groups (P < 0.05 for all).BZA given at a clinically relevant dose inhibits estrogen effects on the endometrium and lacks uterotropic effects when given alone.
Project description:The Women's Health Initiative studies reported that the menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) regimen containing conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate increased, whereas CEE alone reduced breast cancer incidence. These observations suggest the possibility that CEE might exert unique actions on breast and also suggest the need to eliminate the progestogen from MHT regimens. A MHT regimen called a tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC), containing CEE plus bazedoxifene (BZA), to avoid the need for a progestogen, was developed and FDA approved. Our study addressed two questions regarding this TSEC: (i) whether CEE exert effects on breast cancer which differ from those of estradiol (E2 ) and (ii) whether BZA antagonize the effects of E2 and CEE on breast cancer? Two rodent models (NMU and ACI) were used to compare the effect of CEE with E2 on mammary tumor formation, proliferation and apoptosis. In both the NMU and ACI models, E2 significantly increased tumor incidence and multiplicity whereas in striking contrast CEE did not, even though the estrogenic effects of CEE and E2 on uterine weight were identical. Mechanistically E2 blocked whereas CEE stimulated apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) in ACI animals and only E2 stimulated proliferation (Ki67). BZA exerted highly potent anti-estrogenic effects on tumors by completely blocking palpable tumor formation. These data suggest that the CEE/BZA TSEC may be a safer, breast-antagonistic, MHT agent for women and might have potential to prevent breast cancer while relieving menopausal symptoms.
Project description:Menopausal symptoms (eg, hot flushes and vaginal symptoms) are common, often bothersome, and can adversely impact women's sexual functioning, relationships, and quality of life. Estrogen-progestin therapy was previously considered the standard care for hormone therapy (HT) for managing these symptoms in nonhysterectomized women, but has a number of safety and tolerability concerns (eg, breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, breast pain/tenderness, and vaginal bleeding) and its use has declined dramatically in the past decade since the release of the Women's Health Initiative trial results. Conjugated estrogens paired with bazedoxifene (CE/BZA) represent a newer progestin-free alternative to traditional HT for nonhysterectomized women. CE/BZA has demonstrated efficacy in reducing the frequency and severity of vasomotor symptoms and preventing loss of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. CE/BZA provides an acceptable level of protection against endometrial hyperplasia and does not increase mammographic breast density. Compared with traditional estrogen-progestin therapy, it is associated with lower rates of breast pain/tenderness and vaginal bleeding. Patient-reported outcomes indicate that CE/BZA improves menopause-specific quality of life, sleep, some measures of sexual function (especially ease of lubrication), and treatment satisfaction. This review looks at the rationale for selection and combination of CE with BZA at the dose ratio in the approved product and provides a detailed look at the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and patient-reported outcomes from the five Phase III trials. Patient considerations in the choice between CE/BZA and traditional HT (eg, tolerability, individual symptoms, and preferences for route of administration) are also considered.
Project description:This study was conducted to compare breast epithelial-cell proliferation and estrogen and progesterone receptor levels in women taking one of two oral contraceptives (OCs) containing the same dose of estrogen but different doses of the progestin norethindrone (NET).Thirty-three women were randomly assigned 1:1 to one of two OCs with 35-mcg ethinylestradiol (EE2) but different doses of NET - 1 or 0.4 mg. At the end of the active pill phase of the third OC cycle, a breast biopsy was performed and the percentages of epithelial cells of the terminal duct lobular units were measured for Ki67 (MIB1), progesterone receptors A and B (PRA and PRB, respectively), and estrogen receptor ? (ER?).The biopsies from 27 women had sufficient epithelium for analysis. The percentages of cells positive for PRA, PRB and ER? were approximately double with the lower progestin dose (PRA: p=.041; PRB: p=.030; ER?: p=.056). The Ki67 percentage was not reduced with the lower progestin dose (12.5% for 0.4-mg NET vs. 7.8% for 1.0-mg NET).The increase in PRA-, PRB- and ER?-positive cells with the 60% lower progestin dose OC appears likely to account for its failure to decrease breast-cell proliferation. This breast-cell proliferation result is contrary to that predicted from the results of lowering the medroxyprogesterone acetate dose in menopausal hormone therapy.
Project description:Menopausal hormone therapies vary widely in their effects on breast cancer risk, and the mechanisms underlying these differences are unclear. The primary goals of this study were to characterize the mammary gland transcriptional profile of estrogen?+?progestin therapy in comparison with estrogen-alone or tibolone and investigate pathways of cell proliferation in a postmenopausal primate model.Ovariectomized female cynomolgus macaque monkeys were randomized into the following groups: placebo (Con), oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), CEE with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (CEE?+?MPA), and tibolone given at a low or high dose (Lo or Hi Tib). All study treatment doses represented human clinical dose equivalents and were administered in the diet over a period of 2 years.Treatment with CEE?+?MPA had the greatest effect on global mRNA profiles and markers of mammary gland proliferation compared to CEE or tibolone treatment. Changes in the transcriptional patterns resulting from the addition of MPA to CEE were related to increased growth factors and decreased estrogen receptor (ER) signaling. Specific genes induced by CEE?+?MPA treatment included key members of prolactin receptor (PRLR)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) pathways that were highly associated with breast tissue proliferation. In contrast, tibolone did not affect breast tissue proliferation but did elicit a mixed pattern of ER agonist activity.Our findings indicate that estrogen?+?progestin therapy results in a distinct molecular profile compared to estrogen-alone or tibolone therapy, including upregulation of key growth factor targets associated with mammary carcinogenesis in mouse models. These changes may contribute to the promotional effects of estrogen?+?progestin therapy on breast cancer risk.
Project description:Acquired resistance to endocrine therapy remains a significant clinical burden for breast cancer patients. Somatic mutations in the ESR1 (estrogen receptor alpha (ER?)) gene ligand-binding domain (LBD) represent a recognized mechanism of acquired resistance. Antiestrogens with improved efficacy versus tamoxifen might overcome the resistant phenotype in ER +breast cancers. Bazedoxifene (BZA) is a potent antiestrogen that is clinically approved for use in hormone replacement therapies. We found that BZA possesses improved inhibitory potency against the Y537S and D538G ER? mutants compared to tamoxifen and has additional inhibitory activity in combination with the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib. In addition, comprehensive biophysical and structural biology studies show BZA's selective estrogen receptor degrading (SERD) properties that override the stabilizing effects of the Y537S and D538G ER? mutations.
Project description:Bazedoxifene (BZA) is a third-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that has been approved for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. It has antitumor activity; however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, we characterized the effects of BZA and several other SERMs on the proliferation of hormone-dependent MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells and hormone-independent MCF-7:5C and MCF-7:2A cells and examined its mechanism of action in these cells. We found that all of the SERMs inhibited the growth of MCF-7, T47D, and MCF-7:2A cells; however, only BZA and fulvestrant (FUL) inhibited the growth of hormone-independent MCF-7:5C cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed that BZA and FUL induced G(1) blockade in MCF-7:5C cells; however, BZA down-regulated cyclin D1, which was constitutively overexpressed in these cells, whereas FUL suppressed cyclin A. Further analysis revealed that small interfering RNA knockdown of cyclin D1 reduced the basal growth of MCF-7:5C cells, and it blocked the ability of BZA to induce G(1) arrest in these cells. BZA also down-regulated estrogen receptor-? (ER?) protein by increasing its degradation and suppressing cyclin D1 promoter activity in MCF-7:5C cells. Finally, molecular modeling studies demonstrated that BZA bound to ER? in an orientation similar to raloxifene; however, a number of residues adopted different conformations in the induced-fit docking poses compared with the experimental structure of ER?-raloxifene. Together, these findings indicate that BZA is distinct from other SERMs in its ability to inhibit hormone-independent breast cancer cell growth and to regulate ER? and cyclin D1 expression in resistant cells.
Project description:Pairing the selective estrogen receptor modulator bazedoxifene (BZA) with estrogen as a tissue-selective estrogen complex (TSEC) is a novel menopausal therapy. We investigated estrogen, BZA and TSEC effects in preventing diabetisity in ovariectomized mice during high-fat feeding. Estrogen, BZA or TSEC prevented fat accumulation in adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle, and improved insulin resistance and glucose intolerance without stimulating uterine growth. Estrogen, BZA and TSEC improved energy homeostasis by increasing lipid oxidation and energy expenditure, and promoted insulin action by enhancing insulin-stimulated glucose disposal and suppressing hepatic glucose production. While estrogen improved metabolic homeostasis, at least partially, by increasing hepatic production of FGF21, BZA increased hepatic expression of Sirtuin1, PPAR? and AMPK activity. The metabolic benefits of BZA were lost in estrogen receptor-? deficient mice. Thus, BZA alone or in TSEC produces metabolic signals of fasting and caloric restriction and improves energy and glucose homeostasis in female mice.
Project description:Conjugated estrogens (CE) and Bazedoxifene (BZA) combination is used to alleviate menopause-associated symptoms in women. CE+BZA undergo first-pass-metabolism in the liver and deconjugation by gut microbiome via ?-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme inside the distal gut. To date, the impact of long-term exposure to CE+BZA on the gut microbiome or GUS activity has not been examined. Our study using an ovariectomized mouse model showed that CE+BZA administration did not affect the overall cecal or fecal microbiome community except that it decreased the abundance of Akkermansia, which was identified as a fecal biomarker correlated with weight gain. The fecal GUS activity was reduced significantly and was positively correlated with the abundance of Lactobacillaceae in the fecal microbiome. We further confirmed in Escherichia coli K12 and Lactobacillus gasseri ADH that Tamoxifen-, 4-hydroxy-Tamoxifen- and Estradiol-Glucuronides competed for GUS activity. Our study for the first time demonstrated that long-term estrogen supplementation directly modulated gut microbial GUS activity. Our findings implicate that long-term estrogen supplementation impacts composition of gut microbiota and microbial activity, which affects estrogen metabolism in the gut. Thus, it is possible to manipulate such activity to improve the efficacy and safety of long-term administered estrogens for postmenopausal women or breast cancer patients.
Project description:The associations between breast tenderness during use of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) therapy with or without medroxyprogesterone (MPA) therapy and subsequent breast cancer risk are unknown. We analyzed data from the Women's Health Initiative Estrogen plus Progestin (N = 16,608, 5.6 years intervention) and estrogen-alone (N = 10,739, 6.8 years intervention) clinical trials until trial close-out (Spring 2005). At baseline and annually, participants underwent mammography and clinical breast exam. Self-reported breast tenderness was assessed at baseline and 12 months. Invasive breast cancer was confirmed by medical record review. The risk of new-onset breast tenderness after 12 months was significantly higher among women assigned to active therapy than placebo (CEE-alone vs. placebo risk ratio [RR] 2.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.97-2.35; CEE + MPA vs. placebo RR 3.07, 95% CI 2.85-3.30). CEE + MPA doubled the risk of invasive breast cancer among women with baseline breast tenderness (hazard ratio [HR] 2.16, 95% CI 1.29-3.74), but had a smaller effect among women without baseline breast tenderness (HR 1.17; 95% CI 0.97-1.41). New-onset breast tenderness was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among women assigned to CEE + MPA (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.72, P = 0.03), but not among women assigned to CEE-alone (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.62-1.53). New-onset breast tenderness during use of CEE + MPA was associated with increased subsequent breast cancer risk. The association of CEE + MPA therapy with increased breast cancer risk was especially pronounced among women with baseline breast tenderness.