Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum Isolated from Paprika in Korea.
ABSTRACT: In the present study we first report in Korea the identification and characterization of Fusarium oxysporum isolated from rotten stems and roots of paprika (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) at Masan, Kyungsangnamdo in 2006. The fungal species produced white aerial mycelia accompanying with dark violet pigment on PDA. The optimal temperature and pH for the growth of the species was 25? and pH 7, respectively. Microscopic observation of one of isolates of the species shows that its conidiophores are unbranched and monophialides, its microconidia have oval-ellipsoidal shape with no septate and are of 3.0~11 × 1.5~3.5 µm sizes, its macroconidia are of 15~20 × 2.0~3.5 µm sizes and have slightly curved or slender shape with 2~3 septate. The results of molecular analysis show that the ITS rDNA of F. oxysporum from paprika shares 100% sequence identity with that of known F. oxysporum isolates. The identified species proved it's pathogenicity by causing rotting symptom when it was inoculated on paprika fruits. The growth of F. oxysporum from paprika was suppressed on PDA by agrochemicals such as benomyl, tebuconazole and azoxystrobin. The identified species has the ability of producing extracelluar enzymes that degrade cellobiose and pectin.
Project description:In this study, we identified the causative agent of stem-end rot in potatoes that were grown in Gangwon alpine areas of Korea in 2013. The disease symptoms included appearance of slightly sunken circular lesion with corky rot on the potato surface at the stem-end portion. The fungal species isolated from the infected potatoes were grown on potato dextrose agar and produced white aerial mycelia with dark violet pigments. The conidiophores were branched and monophialidic. The microconidia had ellipsoidal to cylindrical shapes and ranged from 2.6~11.4 × 1.9~3.5 µm in size. The macroconidia ranged from 12.7~24.7 × 2.7~3.6 µm in size and had slightly curved or fusiform shape with 2 to 5 septate. Chlamydospores ranged from 6.1~8.1 × 5.7~8.3 µm in size and were present singly or in pairs. The causal agent of potato stem-end rot was identified as Fusarium oxysporum by morphological characterization and by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4) regions of rRNA. Artificial inoculation of the pathogen resulted in development of disease symptoms and the re-isolated pathogen showed characteristics of F. oxysporum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that potato stem-end rot is caused by F. oxysporum in Korea.
Project description:A fungal isolate collected from infected paprika (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) was characterized as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum based on its ability of sclerotium formation, physiological and molecular properties. When the isolate was grown on potato dextrose agar, oatmeal agar, and malt extract agar, it grew most well on PDA. Optimal temperature and pH for its growth were 25? and pH 7, respectively. The fungal isolate produced sclerotia on PDA within 10 days, and the color and shape of the sclerotia were similar to those of S. sclerotiorum . The ITS rDNA regions including ITS1 and ITS2 and 5.8S sequences were amplified using ITS1F and ITS4 primers from the genomic DNAs of the paprika isolate and other known pathogenic S. sclerotiorum isolated from different crops in Korea, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. Sequence comparison analysis showed the ITS rDNA of the paprika isolate shares 100% sequence identity with those of S. sclerotiorum isolated from red pepper, lettuce and a S. sclerotiorum isolate registered in GenBank DNA database. Neighbor joining analysis based on the ITS rDNA sequence revealed the paprika isolate has very close phylogenetic relationships with known Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates. This is the first report that S. sclerotiorum has been found associated with paprika rot in paprika growing countries.
Project description:The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilt of a wide variety of plant species. F. oxysporum produces three kinds of asexual spores, macroconidia, microconidia, and chlamydospores. Falcate macroconidia are formed generally from terminal phialides on conidiophores and rarely from intercalary phialides on hyphae. Ellipsoidal microconidia are formed from intercalary phialides on hyphae. Globose chlamydospores with thick walls are developed by the modification of hyphal and conidial cells. Here we describe FoSTUA of F. oxysporum, which differentially regulates the development of macroconidia, microconidia, and chlamydospores. FoSTUA encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein with similarity to Aspergillus nidulans StuA, which has been identified as a transcriptional regulator controlling conidiation. Nuclear localization of FoStuA was verified by using strains expressing FoStuA-green fluorescent protein fusions. The FoSTUA-targeted mutants exhibited normal microconidium formation in cultures. However, the mutants lacked conidiophores and produced macroconidia at low frequencies only from intercalary phialides. Thus, FoSTUA appears to be necessary to induce conidiophore differentiation. In contrast, chlamydospore formation was dramatically promoted in the mutants. These data demonstrate that FoStuA is a positive regulator and a negative regulator for the development of macroconidia and chlamydospores, respectively, and is dispensable for microconidium formation in cultures. The disease-causing ability of F. oxysporum was not affected by mutations in FoSTUA. However, the mutants produced markedly fewer macroconidia and microconidia in infected plants than the wild type. These results suggest that FoSTUA also has an important role for microconidium formation specifically in infected plants.
Project description:Galleria mellonella has emerged as a potential invertebrate model for scrutinizing innate immunity. Larvae are easy to handle in host-pathogen assays. We undertook proteomics research in order to understand immune response in a heterologous host when challenged with microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum. The aim of this study was to investigate hemolymph proteins that were differentially expressed between control and immunized larvae sets, tested with F. oxysporum at two temperatures. The iTRAQ approach allowed us to observe the effects of immune challenges in a lucid and robust manner, identifying more than 50 proteins, 17 of them probably involved in the immune response. Changes in protein expression were statistically significant, especially when temperature was increased because this was notoriously affected by F. oxysporum 104 or 106 microconidia/mL. Some proteins were up-regulated upon immune fungal microconidia challenge when temperature changed from 25 to 37°C. After analysis of identified proteins by bioinformatics and meta-analysis, results revealed that they were involved in transport, immune response, storage, oxide-reduction and catabolism: 20 from G. mellonella, 20 from the Lepidoptera species and 19 spread across bacteria, protista, fungi and animal species. Among these, 13 proteins and 2 peptides were examined for their immune expression, and the hypothetical 3D structures of 2 well-known proteins, unannotated for G. mellonella, i.e., actin and CREBP, were resolved using peptides matched with Bombyx mori and Danaus plexippus, respectively. The main conclusion in this study was that iTRAQ tool constitutes a consistent method to detect proteins associated with the innate immune system of G. mellonella in response to infection caused by F. oxysporum. In addition, iTRAQ was a reliable quantitative proteomic approach to detect and quantify the expression levels of immune system proteins and peptides, in particular, it was found that 104 microconidia/mL at 37°C over expressed many more proteins than other treatments.
Project description:The development of a simple HPLC-UV method towards the evaluation of Spanish paprika's phenolic profile and their discrimination based on the former is reported herein. The approach is based on C18 reversed-phase chromatography to generate characteristic fingerprints, in combination with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to achieve their classification. To this aim, chromatographic conditions were optimized so as to achieve the separation of major phenolic compounds already identified in paprika. Paprika samples were subjected to a sample extraction stage by sonication and centrifugation; extracting procedure and conditions were optimized to maximize the generation of enough discriminant fingerprints. Finally, chromatograms were baseline corrected, compressed employing fast Fourier transform (FFT), and then analyzed by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and LDA to carry out the classification of paprika samples. Under the developed procedure, a total of 96 paprika samples were analyzed, achieving a classification rate of 100% for the test subset (n = 25).
Project description:The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne facultative parasite that causes economically important losses in a wide variety of crops. F. oxysporum exhibits filamentous growth on agar media and undergoes asexual development producing three kinds of spores: microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. Ellipsoidal microconidia and falcate macroconidia are formed from phialides by basipetal division; globose chlamydospores with thick walls are formed acrogenously from hyphae or by the modification of hyphal cells. Here we describe rensa, a conidiation mutant of F. oxysporum, obtained by restriction-enzyme-mediated integration mutagenesis. Molecular analysis of rensa identified the affected gene, REN1, which encodes a protein with similarity to MedA of Aspergillus nidulans and Acr1 of Magnaporthe grisea. MedA and Acr1 are presumed transcription regulators involved in conidiogenesis in these fungi. The rensa mutant and REN1-targeted strains lack normal conidiophores and phialides and form rod-shaped, conidium-like cells directly from hyphae by acropetal division. These mutants, however, exhibit normal vegetative growth and chlamydospore formation. Nuclear localization of Ren1 was verified using strains expressing the Ren1-green fluorescent protein fusions. These data strongly suggest that REN1 encodes a transcription regulator required for the correct differentiation of conidiogenesis cells for development of microconidia and macroconidia in F. oxysporum.
Project description:Society's interest in the quality of food products with certain attributes has increased, the attribute of a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) being an effective tool to guarantee the quality and geographical origin of a given food product. In Spain, two paprika production areas with PDO (La Vera and Murcia) are recognized. In the present work, targeted UHPLC-HRMS polyphenolic and capsaicinoid profiling through the TraceFinderTM screening software, using homemade accurate mass databases, was proposed as a source of chemical descriptors, to address the characterization, classification, and authentication of paprika. A total of 126 paprika samples from different production regions-Spain (La Vera PDO and Murcia PDO) and the Czech Republic, each including different flavor varieties, were analyzed. UHPLC-HRMS polyphenolic profiles showed to be good chemical descriptors to achieve paprika classification and authentication, based on the production region, through principal component analysis and partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis, with classification rates of 82%, 86%, and 100% for La Vera PDO, Murcia PDO, and the Czech Republic, respectively. In addition, a perfect classification was also accomplished among the flavor varieties for the Murcia PDO and Czech Republic samples. By employing the UHPLC-HRMS polyphenolic and capsaicinoid profiles as chemical descriptors, acceptable discrimination among La Vera PDO flavor varieties was also achieved.
Project description:In this study, the phylogeny and morphology of Mycosphaerella nawae (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) were examined using Korean and Japanese isolates, to establish the phylogenetic relationship between M. nawae and its allied species. Korean and Japanese isolates of M. nawae were collected from circular leaf spot-diseased leaves and were confirmed based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using multiple genes, including the ITS region, 28S rDNA, ?-tubulin, translation elongation factor-1?, and actin genes. Our results revealed that M. nawae is closely related to members of the genus Phaeophleospora but are distant from the Ramularia spp. In addition, microscopic analysis revealed pseudothecia on the adaxial and abaxial surface of overwintered diseased leaves (ODL) and only on the abaxial surface of diseased leaves. Ascospores are oval to fusiform, one-septate, tapered at both ends, 1.7~3.1 × 8.1~14.1 µm, and were observed in ODL. Conidia are oval, guttulate, one-septate, 3.5~4.9 × 12.8~19.8 µm, and barely discernable on 30-day cultures. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the phylogeny of M. nawae, which is closely related to the genus Phaeophleospora, especially P. scytalidii.
Project description:Blossom blight in strawberry was first observed in a green house in Nonsan, Damyang, and Geochang areas of Korea, between early January to April of 2012. Disease symptoms started as a grey fungus formed on the stigma, which led to the blossom blight and eventually to black rot and necrosis of the entire flower. We isolated the fungi purely from the infected pistils and maintained them on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slants. To test Koch's postulates, we inoculated the fungi and found that all of the isolates caused disease symptoms in the flower of strawberry cultivars (Seolhyang, Maehyang, and Kumhyang). The isolates on PDA had a velvet-like appearance, and their color ranged between olivaceous-brown and smoky-grey to olive and almost black. The intercalary conidia of the isolates were elliptical to limoniform, with sizes ranging from 5.0~10.5 × 2.5~3.0 µm to 4.0~7.5 × 2.0~3.0 µm, respectively. The secondary ramoconidia of these isolates were 0- or 1-septate, with sizes ranging betweem 10.0~15.0 × 2.5~3.7 µm and 8.7~11.2 × 2.5~3.2 µm, respectively. A combined sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions, partial actin (ACT), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) genes revealed that the strawberry isolates belonged to two groups of authentic strains, Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum. Based on these results, we identified the pathogens causing blossom blight in strawberries in Korea as being C. cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum.
Project description:Conidia are primary means of asexual reproduction and dispersal in a variety of pathogenic fungi, and it is widely recognized that they play a critical role in animal and plant disease epidemics. However, genetic mechanisms associated with conidiogenesis are complex and remain largely undefined in numerous pathogenic fungi. We previously showed that Htf1, a homeobox transcription factor, is required for conidiogenesis in the rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, our aim was to characterize how Htf1 homolog regulates common and also distinctive conidiogenesis in three key Fusarium pathogens: F. graminearm, F. verticillioides, and F. oxysporum. When compared to wild-type progenitors, the gene-deletion mutants in Fusarium species failed to form conventional phialides. Rather, they formed clusters of aberrant phialides that resembled elongated hyphae segments, and it is conceivable that this led to the obstruction of conidiation in phialides. We also observed that mutants, as well as wild-type Fusaria, can initiate alternative macroconidia production directly from hyphae through budding-like mechanism albeit at low frequencies. Microscopic observations led us to conclude that proper basal cell division and subsequent foot cell development of macroconidia were negatively impacted in the mutants. In F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum, mutants exhibited a 2- to 5- microconidia complex at the apex of monophialides resulting in a floral petal-like shape. Also, prototypical microconidia chains were absent in F. verticillioides mutants. F. graminearum and F. verticillioides mutants were complemented by introducing its native HTF1 gene or homologs from other Fusarium species. These results suggest that Fusarium Htf1 is functionally conserved homeobox transcription factor that regulates phialide development and conidiogenesis via distinct signaling pathways yet to be characterized in fungi.